RDAY, APRIL 11, 1959
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
~DAY, APRIL 11, 1959 THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Creal Takes Oath
NEW MAYOR-Cecil 0. Creal, victor in last Monday's election, is
sworn in by City Clerk Fred Looker in a ceremony yesterday in
the City Hall. More than 100 Ann Arborites attended.
RACKHAM SCHOOL :
Studies Balance Service
In Adjustment Institute
By SUSAN HOLTZER
Grouping students on the basis
of ability, an idea "we hear
frequently," was called an "anti-
quated concept" yesterday by Dean
Willard C. Olson of the education
"This is a proposal based on an
outmoded conception of what goes
on in a classroom," Olson said.
"The condition of work is not an
influential factor in determining
the rate of growth of a student,
so this sort of thing would be use-
Expanding on a speech delivered
before a Conference for School
Board Members and School Offi-
cials, Olson also recommended dis-
carding the practice of forcing
students to repeat a grade, or
skipping them over a grade. And
he declared that fixed subject
matter in a specific grade is also
"Regardless of administrative
provisions for organization," Ol-
son said, "each child should have
a nonrepetitive sequence of ex-
periences of increasing difficulty."
Olson cited several studies of
students with similar ability, half
of whom were promoted, half left
behind. "These studies show equal
or superior growth for the group
that was put ahead," he declared.
A standardized pace for all stu-
dents, Olson maintained, is not
only undesirable, but "absolutely
impossible." Within one grade
level, he explained, students may
vary by as much as p ten-year
ability span. Therefore, he de-
clared, "teachers learn to teach
children of varying abilities .to-
gether, as they have always done."
Olson also warned against pro-
posals that all students study the
same thing, or such suggestions as
teaching reading from kindergar-
ten on. "These people do not un-
derstand how the process works,"
he said. "They decide something
is good, so they want more of it.
They don't realize the end result,
in terms of intellectual growth,
will be the same anyway."
Turning to another area, Olson
emphasized the importance of ade-
quate counseling and guidance in
today's society. "Counseling, as-
sisted by evaluation and measure-
ment, is our substitute for the
autocratic assignment of indi-
viduals in terms of the needs of
In particular, he noted that the.
Russian system "prepares persons
for certain things in the world,
setting up a program in terms of
quotas." Here, on the other hand,
"counseling helps him make his
By pointing out that a field is
crowded, by steering students into
areas where people are needed,
and by helping them find their
best aptitudes, Olson declared, "I
think we can even improve on the
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the sec-
ond of two articles on Cecil Rhodes
and the Oxford scholarships.)
By NORMA SUE WOLFE
"After two or three years of
study, there is a long final, often
lasting two weeks, on which your
whole standing depends," Prof.
Horace Davenport, a Rhodes
Scholar in 1935, said in describ-
ing the educational setup at Ox-
Scholars from the United States
who have attained at least junior
standing at a recognized univer-
sity or college note great differ-
ences between the educational sys-
At Oxford, there are no "courses"
in the American sense of the term.
The scholar has no record cards
in the registrar's office, does not
sign up for the lectures he plans
to attend and is not required to
take a certain number of hours
Also, he has no daily assign-
ments, no mid-terms and no hour
In fact, the only assignment an
Oxford student has is to call on
his tutor once a week at a speci-
fied hour. The tutor advises what
subjects to study and assigns,
listens to and comments on es-
says, Prof. Davenport explained.
The program sounds difficult but
it is adapted to by scholars who
are selected on the basis of past
performance and future potential.
.Prof. Davenport, who first heard
about the Rhodes Scholarships
while in high school, applied
through the Scholarship Trust in
California. Then he went through
fan "elaborate screening proce-
dure," which included interviews
before state and district commit-
Rhodes established requirements
for the selection of Scholars with
one basic philosophy: they "shall
not be merely bookworms," he
stipulated. Instead, selection is
many University professors who,
as Rhodes Scholars, were guided
"to esteem the performance of
public duties as (their) highest
This undying hope, expressed in
Rhodes' final will, has found reali-
zation in the recipients' occupa-
tions. At last count, 389 of 1,112.
American Rhodes . Scholars were
working in the field of education,
236 in law, and 141 in business.
Others are in government serv-
ice, medicine, journalism, research
and the ministry, while still others
are continuing their studies.
But the goal of Rhodes' many
wills had not always been the
"education of young colonists at
one of the universities of the
United Kingdom." Between the
ages of 24 and 46, Rhodes made
Set Up Society
In the first one, he bequeathed
his estate to the establishment of
a secret society for the purpose of
extending British rule throughout
the world. He thus planned to
render war impossible by forming
such a great power.
However, his interpretation of
promoting the interests' of hu-
manity changed as his fortune
grew and his acquaintance en-
larged. His fifth will maintained
the idea of a secret society but
added a bequest of land and money
for the establishment of a resi-
dential college in South Africa,
modeled after Oxford or Cam-
In his sixth will, Rhodes de-
cided to extend the scope of his
scheme to education beyond South
Africa to the whole British Em-
pire. He dropped his secret society
and instead suggested a plan for
scholarships which clearly fore-
shadowed the terms of his final
"On thinking over my will I
discover that I have made a mis-
take . .. ," he admitted. "I refer
to the foundation of a residential
college at the Cape, which if suc-
cessful might lead to check South
African students from coming
home for three years to our Uni-
versity and therefore lead rather
to promote the feeling, of separa-
tion through want of intercourse."
Rhodes therefore proposed
scholarships to be awarded to
three Africans yearly for study at
Oxford University. He further
realized that other dominions of
the Empire should be represented
and directed establishment of
scholarships for them.
Next Rhodes decided to "encour-
age in . . . students from the
United States an attachment to
the country from which they have
sprung" and included provisions
for American Rhodes Scholars. By
a codicil two years later, he added
scholarships for German students,
but they were' discontinued in
The scholarships, tenable for
three years (six months of each
year is devoted to study), may be
used at any college at Oxford.
Candidates must be male, un-
married citizens of the U.S., with
at least five years domicile. By
October 1 of the year for which
PROF. HORACE DAVENPORT
... Rhodes scholar
based on scholastic achievement
plus athletic ability, character and
Prof. Davenport had already
completed his undergraduate work
at California Institute of Tech-
nology and had a bachelor's de-
gree in biology when he was
selected as a scholar. He repeated
his undergraduate work at Oxford,
this time in physiology.
Prof. Davenport is only one of
Former Rhodes Scholar Notes Difference
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first
in a series of articles dealing with
the Institute for Human Adjust-
By CHARLES KOZOLL
On-the-job training balances
community service in the Insti-
tute for Human Adjustment op-
erated largely under a grant by
the. late Mary A. Rackham
Part of the Rackham school for
graduate studies, the institute,
founded in 1938, provides services
in five major areas.
Controlling policies and budget
of the Institute is the executive
committee headed by the director,
Dean Ralph A. Sawyer of the
Since 1947 the division of ger-
ontology has dealt with the prob-
lems of old age and has done
research to find ways of educat-
ing both the individuals involved
and the general public to the' as-
pects of the situation.
Under the direction' of Mrs.
Wilma T. Donahue the division
also works in areas of individual
and group training while carry-
ing out specific projects.
When Mr. Rackham set up the
original grant a general specifica-
tion was made to use the money
for "human services." The one
specific stiuplation which she set
aside was work in gerontology -
at the time a history-making in-
novation, as work with the aged
at that time was practically non-
Use Graduate Students
Working primarily in the Flint,
Mich. area, graduate students in
sociology, public administration
and other related fields deal with
the problems of metropolitan
growth and development in the
social science research project.
Therapeutic camp activity is an
important part of the third divi-
sion of the institute, which is the
University's Fresh Air Camp. Be-
sides serving as a camp for emo-
tionally disturbed boys, this phase
provides field training in group
work for summer students.
Providing a variety of services
Opening to the public today,
the Spitz Planetarium is the lat-
est addition to the facilities of
the University Exhibit Museum.
Museum Director Irving G. Rei-
man announced free demonstra-
tions every half-hour from 2:30
to 4:30 p.m. Saturdays and Sun-
days, starting today. Interested
groups of 25 or more may contact
him for special showings, he
Frank C., Jettner, Jr., Grad., a
teaching fellow in astronomy, will
narrate this weekend's showing,
, "The Stars Tonight."
Named after its designer and
builder, the planetarium projects
the stars and planets onto a dome'
ceiling in the positions in which
they pass overhead.
The Exhibit Museum, which,
also includes halls of evolution,
life, and a wildlife balcony, is
housed in the Museum of Natural
Histry. Research museums in the
building that contribute to the
Exhibit Museum's displays in-
clude divisions in zoology, paleon-
to the general community in the
fields of speech and hearing, the
speech clinic also is a practice lab-
oratory for training speech spe-
A fifth service is provided by
the Bureau of Psychological Serv-
ices, which aids students through
the counseling and reading im-
provement divisions while main-
taining an evaluation and exam-
ination division and a psychologi-
Units of the institute do not
rely solely on the original grant
for financial support but are sup-
plemented by clients' fees and
grants from the University con-
current with operating teaching
programs in their respective divi-
In addition to these funds, the
government or another large or-
ganization provides grants for
groups to do certain specific re-
While divisions are autonomous,
they often work together on com-
mon research and training proj-
ects. For example, the division of
gerontology works with the speech
clinic in solving oral difficulties
of old age.
Visitor Cites University Size
By THOMAS TURNER
The University gives an impres-
sion of "vastness" according to
a visiting Polish educator, which
"may be in a way detrimental to
Maksymiliam Zielinski of Po-
land's Lodz University explained
that by standard, both Lodz and
of Indiana University; where he
has spent five months studying
American linguistics, the Univer-
sity seems very large and very
Lodz is rather small, he con-
tinued, and cannot compare finan-
cially with the University. The
number of students studying Eng-
lish there has a ceiling of about
90, he said, because of the size
of the facilities.
The University offers "all possi-
bilities" for study, he noted in
contrast; "only the desire of the
students to learn is necessary for
them to do great things."
But the attitude of American
students is "less rigorous" than
that of Europeans, he said.
Zielinski also noted that the
relationship of student to faculty
in this country is less formal than
that in Europe. But this makes
"no fundamental difference" be-
tween American faculty members
and their European counterparts,
he said, indicating student attitude
is the main block to further pro-
gress on the part of students.
He is visiting the United States
on a Ford Foundation grant, Zie-
linski noted. He expressed his
"great gratitude" to the Founda-
tion for aid extended him.
The Lodz English program which
he directs is currently far under
even its maximum of 90 students,
he said, because the chair of Eng-
lish was suspended for a number
of years and reinstated only two
Currently study of English is
hampered only- by economics, he
indicated, and contact with the
America half of the language is
Some of the lack can be taken
up by trips such as this, he said,
since he is both observing Ameri-
can linguistic methods, and expos-
ing himself to American culture.
The benefit of the latter is some-
what indefinable, Zielinski ex-
plained, but considerable. Hedil-
lustrated this point with the dif-
ference seeing the expanse of the
United States has made in his
appreciation of the works of Mark
get top jobs
Special Course for College Women.
Residences. Write College Dean
for GIBas Gnits AT WoRK.
BOSTON 16, MASSACHUSETTS, 21 Marlborough St.
NEW YORK 17, NEW YORK. . 230 Park Ave.
MONTCLAIR, NEW JERSEY.33 Plymouth St.
PROVIDENCE 6, RHODE ISLAND. 155 Angell St.j
PROVIDENCE 6, RHODE ISLAND. 155 AngeIl St.
OLD AGE, ART GROUPS:
City Commissions Enlist Aid
Of Eight Faculty Members
NOW OPEN ALL AFTERNOON
PRIVATE GARDEN QUIET MUSIC
Opening onto a private garden, and
lightly atmospheric, the garden room is
a secluded retreat on busy State Street.
SANDWICHES FROSTED DELIGHTS
(next to STATE THEATRE)
fjococ eo oooescsce g ce ccnoo
Eight members of the Universityl
faculty are among persons named
o two City Committees by out-
going Mayor, Prof. Samuel J.
Eldersveld of the political science
Prof. Walter I. Chambers of the
landscape architecture department
will be chairman of the newly-
established Committee on Art and
Other faculty members on the
group include Richard Jennings
of the art department, a sculptor;
Prof. David H. Reider of the art'
department; Prof. Joseph F. Al-
bano of the architecture depart-
ment; and Prof. Robert C. Metcalf
of the architecture department.
Other committee appointees
are Mrs. Frederick A. Coller of
Ann Arbor, an interior designer;
Ron Fidler, partner in a design
firm; Mrs. Robert J. M. Horton,
president of the Ann Arbor Art
Association; and Mrs. Donald D.
MacMullan, co-owner of a pub-
The committee will act in ad-
visory capacity on the appearance
of the city.
The seven members of the in-
terim committee on the aged also
named this week include Dr.
Edwin M. Smith, instructor in
physical medicine and rehabilita-
tion; Professor-Emeritus George
E. Carrothers of education school;
and Ralph M. Gibson, instructor
in pediatrics :
Others include chairman Thom-
as H. Spitler, Argus Cameras in-
Chivalry lives, doubting coeds.
Yesterday in the West Phy-
dustrial relations director; Mrs.
Daniel S. Ling, founder and exec-
utive director of the Senior Citi-
zens Guild; Mrs. William D. Crim,
head'of a local home for the aged;
and Anthony Lenzer, executive
secretary of the Legislative Ad-
visory Council on the Problems
of the Aged.
The group will study the prob-
lems' of the aged in the community
and what need, if any, there is for
a more permanent group on them.
Both the committee on the aged
and the art committee will be
supplemented by the Council mem-
bers to be appointed by new mayor
Cecil O. Creal.
The faculty of the Law School
recently announced the election
of 28 men into the Order of the
The new members were selected
from the 10 per cent of their class
who rank highest in scholarship.
The August =1958 and February
1959 initiates were selected on
the basis of their final averages.
The members of this June's grad-
uating class were chosen on basis
of their grade averages at the end
of their fifth semesters.
Those selected from the August
graduating class were Harry
Krause and Nick Yocca; from the
February graduates were Frederic
Brace, Jr., Jim Feibel, Albert Hal-
ler ,and Charles' Moore; from the
June graduating class, Stanton
Berlin, George Buchanan, Dud
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