Sunday, November IT, 1968
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Sunday, November 17, 1968 THE MICHIGAN DAILY Page Three
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New birth control methods seen
Today's advanced new science
of birth control is giving birth to
its own large new family of scien-
The Pill and the IUD -intrauter-
ine devices) are top results from
this modern contraceptive science.
But already on the way is a
second generation of new ap-
proaches that may bring safe and
sure newer methods of birth con-
-Small dose pills that may
cause fewer unwanted reactions
than the present pills.
-Single-shot injections or im-
planted hormone capsules that
might prevent pregnancy for
months to a year or many years.
"Morning after" pills for
women who don't take or who
forget regular pills.
-Contraceptive pills for men.
-Vaccinations for women, or
even men, against conception.
These promising developments
are based upon deepening under-
standing of the intricate and deli-
cate processes through which
within a woman's body, an ovum
or egg is prepared and released
each month for possible fertiliza-
tion, and numerous other condi-
tions that cont\ibute to a suc-
cessful marriage of the ovum and
"Considering the myriad steps
and interdependent actions which
must take place for conception, it
is almost unbelievable that the
human species has been able to
reproduce itself at a rate which
threatens world safety," says Dr.
Harry W. Rudel, of the Population
Council in New York City.
The better insights being won
into these complicated actionsl
now offer new and different ways
of interrupting the process.
The IUD-for reasons not yet
clearly know-prevents pregnancy,
perhaps by preventing a fertilizedI
eg from becoming implanted in
the lining of the uterus or womb.
IUD's are plastic or stainless steel'
coils that are inserted into the
The present pills are either a
combination or a sequence of
synthetic forms or two key female
hormones, estrogen and pro-
gesterone. These pills prevent
ovulation, the monthly release of
. Investigation of still other ways
of assuring birth control is being
,spurred on in many laboratories,
,with grants from the National In-
stitutes of Health, the Ford Foun-
dation, and numerous other sour-
An account of five major lines
of research follows.
" Micro-dose pills:
These contain only a proges-
tin, one of the synthetic forms of
progesterone. The woman taking
them still releases an egg at the
usual time in her monthly cycle,
but she does not become pregnant.
Taken every day, such pills do
not interfere with her normal
balance of natural hormones, Dr.
Rudel explains. But her fertility
is affected in a desired way.
"It is like using a little grain
of sand to interfere with an in-
tricate mechanism, rather than
using sledgehammer," he says.
Among 1,123 women in Mexico
taking this kind of pill during
13,202 menstrual cycles, only six
became pregnant, Dr. Jorge Mar-
tinez-Manatou and Dr. Rudel
A drawback to the mini-dose
pills is that they frequently cause
iregutlar bleeding and irregularities
in the monthly cycle. Advantages
are that hopefully they .do not
produce changes in the bloodclot-
ting mechanism that might bring
on dangerous blood clots, nor do
they cause as many other side ef-
fects as present pills.
With micro-dose pills, a woman
doesn't have to keep the calendar
in mind. She takes them every
day, not for 20 or 21 days and,
then a week's halt.
* "Shots" and Hormone im-
Since small doses work, another
approach is to put the doses all
together into a long-lasting single
infection. or implant.
At the Population Council, Drs.
Rudel, Sheldon J. Segal and How-
ard J. Tatum are developing a
Silastic capsule filled with a pro-
gestin. This kind of porous cap-
sule permits steady, daily release
of the hormone.
Sealed at both ends, the Silastic
capsule is about an inch long and
about twice the diameter of the
lead in a pencil. It can be placed
under the skin with a needle under
The capsule could. contain
enough hormone to prevent preg-
nancy for a year or even many
years. It could easily be removed
when a woman decided she wanted
to have a baby.
" Morning-After Pills:
On the horizon, from testing in
animals and with some women,
are morning-after pills in case of
oversight or forgetfulness. Dr.
John M. Morris of Yale University
and Lr. Gertrude van Wagenen
have been among leaders in this
They are studying pills contain-
ing large doses of estrogen, or
synthetic estrogens, or drugs that
have similar effects. If taken
within three or four days after
the time when conception might
have occurred during a women's
fertile period, these pills appar-
ently prevent the fertillzed egg
from becoming implanted in the
0 Male Pills:
Safe drugs that men could take
that would prevent production of
spermatazoa, or that would make
sperms less vital, are being sought,
and some potential candidates are
looming from newer animal ex-
A few years, ago, prison volun-
teers took drugs-diamme com-
pounds-which were found to stop
sperm . production within six to
10 weeks time. Normal fertility
was restored five to 12 weeks after
they stopped the pill-taking.
One curious finding of newer
research is that some women be-
come immune to pregnancy be-
cause they produce antibodies to
their husbands' sperms. This re-
action is similar to that of vac-
cination, with living or killed
viruses or bacteria, against dis-
This line of investigation holds
two potentials. One is to help some
few baby-less women achieve their
dreams of becoming mothers. The
other is to use this phenomenon
as a means of vaccinating women,
or men, against having more chil-
dren than they want and already
bear the poets
REALI THEIR, THING
you've read it in
gnle ra tio n
NOW hear them read it
Professor Radcliffe Squires
and Student Poets
voted for President,
by The Associated Press and College Press Service
THE 15 ALLIES of the North Atlantic Treaty Organ-
ization yesterday set up a new-zone of security interest in
Europe and posted a warning to Moscow.
A communique issued from a conference in Brussels con-
demned the Soviet Union ,for its invasion of Czechoslovakia
and warned against further "intervention in the affairs of
Simultaneously western statesmen led by Secretary of
State Dean Rusk ordered a power buildup in the newly-con-
ceived security zone, which" includes both Communist and
NATO strategic experts in a parallel action laid emer-
gency plans for the defense of such countries as Yugoslavia,
Austria, and Albania in the event of "new Czechosovakias."
STUDENTS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA began a series
of sit-in strikes yesterday to support demands that in-
dividuals' freedoms be guaranteed by new government
The Prague garrison of the Czech army was on emergency
alert as police patrolled the capital's streets with submachine
The first strikes began in Prague suburbs and in Olo-
mouc, central Moravia, as the Communist party Central Com-
mittee met in its third day of conference. The committee is
deciding the future course of Communist leadership in Czech-
Some 3,500 students in the Agricultural University at
suburban Suchdol occupied their campus' buildings late Fri-
day. Specifically, the strikers are demanding freedom of in-
formation, assembly, and foreign travel from the Communist
PARTY LEADERS IN THE SENATE have plelged
prompt action on the nuclear proliferation treaty when
the new Congress convenes.
Senate Republican leader Everett Dirksen and Demo-
cratic leader Mike Mansfield have agreed to bring up the
matter as quickly as possible in exchange for President John-
son's pledge to not call a special session of the Senate.
Sen. George Aiken (R-Vt.), ranking Foreign Relations
Committee member, said he believes President Johnson wants
approval of the measure before the inauguration of Richard
Nixon Jan. 20. In his campaign, Nixon favored a delay in
ratification of the treaty as part of Washington's response
to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
THOUSANDS OF PROTEST MARCHERS defied a
government ban on demonstrations yesterday as they
stormed inside the walls of Londonderry, Northern Ire-
The marchers, mostly Catholis, accused the city govern-
ment of religious discrimination, won their way into the city
after a tense rock-throwing clash with hundreds of police and
As the demonstrators massed inside the city's main
square,' they cheered speakers condemning the city govern-
ment for discriminating against Catholics, who make up two
thirds of Londonderry's population.
A 17-TON SPUTNIK was hurled into orbit yesterday,
an official announcement from Moscow said.
The craft is s a i d to be the world's largest unmanned
scientific spaceship, and will study high-energy cosmic rays
and electrons in the earth's atmosphere.
The announcement came amid a series of spaceshots that
western scientists say could be a prelude to a Soviet attempt
to send men around the moon before Christmastime.
* 0 0
PLEDGING ALLEGIANCE TO THE SOVIET UNION
"for better or"for worse," Wladyslaw Gomulka was re-
elected Polish Communist party leader in secret elections
The elections, which swept hard-line Gomulka support-
ers into the policy-making politburo and central committee,
signaled the demise of Foreign Minister Adam Rapacki.
NORTH CAMPUS COMMITTEE with
the endorsement of BURSLEY COUNCIL and IHA
FA DING FALL,
a quarterformal Dinner Dance
"The John Higgins Quintet"
WASHINGTON (P) - T h e
smallest percentage of voting-age
Americans in-12 years cast ballots
in the 1968 presidential election.
An analysis of national totals
shows t h e estimated 72 million
people who voted Nov. 5 represent
only 60 percent of the 120 million
Americans of voting age.
Not since 1956, when 60.5 per-
cent of the voting-age population
turned out, has t h e precentage
been so small. That was the year
Dwight D. Eisenhower was return-
ed to the White House for a sec-
Even if as many as one million
ballots remain to be counted this
year-a figure that is by no means
certain-the turnout would be only
60.8 per cent.
By comparison, the 70.6 mil-
lion ballots cast in ,1964 repre-
sented 62 per cent, and the 68.8
million votes in 1960 - the year
President-elect Richard M. Nixon'
lost to John F. Kennedy - was a
record 63.8 per cent.
The percentages are based on
THURSDAY, NOV. 21
Bureau of the Census figures on
the number of people in e a c h
state eligible to register to vote.
The age requirement is 21 in all
states except Georgia and Ken-
tucky, where it is 18; Alaska, 19,
and Hawaii, 20.
No over-all comparison between
votes cast and actual registration
is practical because some states
keep no registration totals. A sur-
vey conducted by The Associated
Press last month indicated 90,141,-
438 persons were registered in all
50 states and the District of Co-
Using this unofficial figure, with
about 99 per cent of the 1968 vote
now' tabulated, t h e totals show
slightly -less than 80 l er cent of
the registered voters turned out
on Election Day.
Because no registration figures
were estimated for past presiden-
tial election years, there is no way
to determine the percentage of
registered voters to cast ballots
in past years.
The low turnout in 1968 pre-
sumably indicated much public in-
difference to the three major
candidates - Republican Nixon,
Democrat Hubert H. Humphrey
and independent George C. Wal-
lace. The over-all total might even
have been less than in 1964 ex-
cept for wide increases in four
UGLI Multipurpose room
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NORTH CAMPUS Commons[
Nov. 22, 1968 6-11 p.m.
ON OLD AND NEW MERCHANDISE
Tuesday and Wednesday Only
Saturday and Sunday
Directed 1967, by
Starring Ann Arbor's own
7:00 & 9:05
Rapacki had earlier this year
and ministerial functions.
retreated from his party
NEW GRAIEFUL DEAD
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