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October 26, 1967 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-10-26

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See editorial page

C, r

g il 43an

A - atty

Slightly warmer.
possible showers

Seventy-Seven Years of Editorial Freedom
Classified Research Stirs Debate at Univet


EDITORS NOTE: The following
article is reprinted from the front
page of yesterday's Wall Street
Joun al.
Staff Reporter of
The Wall Street Journal
Universities in growing num-
bers are spurning Government
contracts that call for secret re-
Mounting opposition, by both
professors and students, to the
Vietnam war and to war-related
research is spurring the trend.
But just as significant is increas-
ing faculty concern that classi-
fied contracts may curtail a
scholar's traditional obligation to
disseminate his research findings.
The upshot: Some universities
are scaling down or canceling
such research projects. And at a
number of other schools around
the country heated debate is un-
The University of Pennsylvania
this spring canceled two classi-

fied Defense Department con-
tracts for assessing the effective-
ness of chemical-biological war-
fare. Administrators abandoned
the $1 million projects - known
as Spicerack and Summit - after
a two-year campus dispute that
reached its climax when some
professors threatened to wear gas
masks at commencement exer-
Stanford University, New York
University and the University of
Minnesota are tightening restric-
tions governing acceptance of
classified research contracts from
Federal agencies. Some secret
projects at these schools have al-
ready been phased out. Faculty
committees at Johns Hopkins
University, the University of
Pittsburgh and the University of
California's Berkeley campus are
currently taking a new look at
secret research.
,"Schools are starting to cut
back on classified research, and
they will continue to do so," says

Jay Orear, chairman of the exec-
utive committee of the Federation
of American Scientists, a profes-
sional group of 2,000 researchers
on and off campus. After polling
some 300 colleges and universities
this summer, the federation
found that "a good many" schools
that previously had no policy cov-
ering secret contracts were begin-
ning to restrict such research, Mr.
Orear says.
In August, the federation urged
universities not to "accept funds
that impose restrictions on the
publication of research findings."
Worried that such contracts may
be getting out of hand, other aca-
demic groups have taken similar
positions. Early this year the
American Anthropological Asso-
ciation, a professional group,
came out against classified re-
search. And earlier this fall, the
American Association of Univer-
sity Professors set up a commit-
tee to study the matter.

classified research contracts is
relatively small. During the 1967
Federal fiscal year, universities
received Defense Department re-
search and development contracts
totaling $290 million, of which
only about $34 million involved
classified projects, according to
an official of the department's of-
fice of Defense Research and En-
gineering. (The Defense Depart-
ment provides the bulk of classi-
fied contracts, although some
come from other agencies like the
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration and the Atomic
Energy Commission.)
Nonetheless, the Pentagon offi-
cial asserts "it would be adverse
to the national interest" should
more schools cancel classified
grants. "At the University of
Pennsylvania we lost a very ex-
perienced research source," he ex-
plains. "It might be a year before
we start getting the same quality
work from another contractor."
The work at Penn was trans-

ferred to the research subsidiary
of Booz, Allen & Hamilton Inc.. a
Chicago-based management con-
sultant firm.
Some university defense con-
tracts have been so secret that
even the school's president has
known little about their nature.
Last month, for example, a Uni-
versity of Minnesota vice presi-
dent urged the regents and newly
selected President Malcolm Moos,
a political scientist who served as
a speech-writer for President Eis-
enhower, to approve a classified
contract with the Pentagon even
though details of the contract
couldn't be revealed. The regents
and Mr. Moos knew next to noth-
ing about the project, though a
newspaper story subsequently dis-
closed it was concerned with
methods of prisoner-of-war inter-
"We were asked to approve it
'on faith'," recalls Mr. Moos, who
strongly objected to the project.
"Unless we were on the verge of

World War III. I don't think I'd
favor secret research at a univer-
sity." While the regents approved
the project over Mr. Moos' objec-
tion, the Air Force soon withdrew
it, purportedly because of lack of
funds. Mr. Moos says that later
this month he will propose to re-
gents a new research policy that
would "make highly unlikely a re-
currence" of the September epi-
Those opposed to secret re-
search agree that anti-Vietnam
feeling has brought the contro-
versy to a head. But there are
more basic causes. "A university
should be an open community of
scholars devoted to advancing
knowledge," says Gabriel Kolko,
associate professor of history at
Penn, who fought projects Spice-
rack and Summit. "The Defense
Department likes universities be-
cause they do high class work
very inexpensively. So, in effect,
the very nature of the schools is
being compromised to save the

Government some money, " he
Adds David Landy, chairman of
Pittsburgh's anthropology depart-
ment: "I object to classified re-
search because it often gives the
sponsoring agency a censorship
function. Findings often can't be
shared with colleagues who are
unable or unwilling to get secur-
ity clearance of their own."
Pentagon officials reply that
the research can't be published.
Projects are classified when re-
searchers are given access to se-
cret information, and findings
may be published provided none
of the secret information is dis-
closed. However, the sponsoring
agency usually reserves the right
of review prior to publication, the
officials concede.
Harvard and some other uni-
versities bank all classified re-
search, although even Harvard
allows individual scholars to work
on secret projects outside the uni-
See MORE SCHOOLS, page 6

In dollar terms,

the total of



Conscientious Objectors March On

Counseled by Clergymen

By The Wire Services
Continuing protests and FBI
investigation of draft protestors
are two repercussions of the peacej
march on Washington last week-1
Across the country, CIA recruit-
"ers are being picketed, clergymen
are offering counsel to conscien-
tious objectors, and the FBI is
questioning students who partici-
pated in the draft protest in
The FBI is also questioning'
students who turned in their draft
*cards in demonstrations which
took place across the country last
week. Government officials con-
firmed that investigations are be-
ing carried out at Yale, Harvard
and the Universities of Connecti-
cut and Massachusetts.
Students reported being asked1
whether or not they had their

Society, currently being held in
"The churchmen are putting
themselves on the side of civil dis-
obedience as they advise men who
cannot participate conscientiously
in the war to resist the draft in
whatever way appropriate and
pledge their support of them," said
Fernandez, executive secretary of
Clergy and Laymen Concerned
About Vietnam.
The conference also heard his-
torian Henry Steele Commanger
of Amherst College call for an end
to the Vietnam war, which, he,

said is not only bleeding Vietnam
to death, but is also bleeding
America to death morally.
Meanwhile, it was reported yes-
terday that the two days of anti-'
war protests in Washington forced
government spending of more
than $1 million, the Pentagon
Largest share of the cost was
borne by the Defense Department
.which, according to its figures,j
spent $641,000 for airlifting troopsI
to protect the Pentagon, National:
Guard expenditures, and operation
of trucks and busses.

SGC Candidates Sought
A's Elections Approach

Violence erupted again yester-
day as demonstrators continued
to protest a meeting of defense!
contractors andlgovernment pro- j
curement officials at the Univer-
sity's Rackham extension build-
ing in Detroit.
The meeting, "How to Get and;
Keep Your Share of Defense
Business" proceeded b e h i n d'
locked doors yesterday, after
demonstrators from the Waynel
State University chapter of Stu-
dents for a Democratic Society
interrupted the conference, and
were arrested on Tuesday.
In yesterday's demonstration,
50 protestors, most of them
Wayne State SDS members,
marched one and a half blocks
from Wayne's MacKenzie Hall to
the Rackham extension building.
The demonstrators, including the;
13 arrested Tuesday and released
on bond, chanted anti-war slogans
and distributed "anti-profiteer"
flyers to onlookers.
When the protestors reached
the site of the conference, they
found the front doors locked. No-
one, demonstrators or reporters
from Wayne State's student news-
paper. was allowed inside.
Violence developed when a
group of demonstrators followed
a businessman attending the con-
ference around to a back door
guarded by other conference par-
ticipants. When denied admit-
tance, the students surrounded
the businessmen and shouted
"Big firms get rich. GIs die".
Police attempted to apprehend
a man who attacked one of the
protestors, but the conference
sponsors refused to allow the stu-
dent inside the building to iden-G
tify his assailant.
Further scuffles broke out be-
tween demonstrators and business
men in front of the building, re-1

draft cards, and if not, for wiat By MARTIN HIRSCHMAN ' Council members proposed hav-
reason. One Yale student said: 'ing elections over a two day per-
"They didn't browbeat me or Petitioning for candidacy in the iod elcins ora twday per-
anything, but God - it sort of Ielection of six at-large Student liod hoping more students could
shakes you up." d Government Council members has vote. Last spring about 5800 stu-
kdents voted-only about one-sev-
Several members of the Yale law been open for a week but no peti- enth of the total University en-
school faculty advised the students tions have yet been received even et ftettlUiest n
of their right to silence, and of - Ithough next Tuesday is the last
ei day for filing petitions to run in On Nov. 14-15 the polls will be
it. next month's two day election. open a total of 16 hours, almost
Rv. Robr CSGC President Bruce Kahn, '68, twice as long as in March.
ofthe Yale Divinity School called said that most students are prob- Three of the seats open for
the interrogations "disruptive." ably still so concerned about issues election are presently held through
andh ue d ntoalo ivsrtiats such as women's hours and mili- appointments made early this
andd refuseto allow investigators tary research on campus that they month. Two of the appointees.
on divinity school property. have not thought about running William Meeske, '69, and Thomas
In Detroit, some 70 churchmen for election. Westerdale. Grad, have indicated
have signed a statement support- He indicated that if the initial , that they will run for election.
ing conscientious objectors who response was too small petitioning The third, Thomas Copi, '69Ed..
refuse to register for the draft or might have to be re-opened. has not yet decided if he will run.
to serve in the armed forces. Last spring so few petitions were Two of the other three incum-
"In the past, protests of na- filed for vacant positions that pe- bents, E. O. Knowles, '70. and
' tional churchmen as a group have titioning had to be extended two Michael Koeneke, '69Bus.Ad., have.
been directed primarly toward the days. At the close of the scheduled also said that they will run for
Vietnam war itself," explained the period only one candidate had re-election. Knowles said that he*
Rev. Richard Fernandez of New filed for president, seven candi- and Koeneke are running as a
York. dates had filed for six SGC seats. team because "we agree on just
Fernandez is one of approxi- and two students had filed for j about everything."
mately 600 delegates to a United three seats on the Board in Con- Leslie Mahler, '68, will not run
States Conference on Church and I trol of Student Publications. for ,-election.
_? :EI as: :;.Vyr:;:.,:_.i;

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA President Malc olm Moos leavesa
of about 40 students who were protesting campus r ecruitment by the
with the group's right to protest but left before they presented the
napalm which is used in the Vietnam war. The protestors, who we
Board of Regents room on the main campus in M inneapolis, remai
Moos left.
Israeli Expansion JL
Journalism Lecturer

Spreading At
a 7 Universities
FBI Investigations,
War Rsearch Come
LiUn er Student Attack
Collegiate Press Service
Campus protests against re-
cruiting and research connected
with the U.S. military and the CIA
continued to spread yesterday
with demonstrations in Colorado,
Minnesota, Michigan, Illinois and
At the University of Illinois
campus, recruitment by the Dow
Chemical Co. was canceled by the
university after more than 200
protestors staged a sit-in at the
chemistry building yesterday.
Interviews were halted at about
10:30 a.m. after demonstrators
-Associated Press jammed themselves into doorways
a meeting yesterday with a group and corridors outside the room
e Dow Chemical Co. Moos agreed where Dow was recruiting. At
sir emands to im. Dowsakresd 3:30 p.m., the university an-
ir demands to him. Dow makes nounced that the interviews had
ere gathered in the university been canceled "in order to avoid
ined seated in the room after possible bodily injury and destruc-
tion of property."
During the early stages of the
demonstration, an Illinois student
burned his draft card in front of
a Dow recruiter.
" s Twenty protestors planned to
istified iheaditrtonbiligac
spend the night in a regents' room
companied by four campus police-
men. No effort was made to re-
move the students.
C l i IBut Chancellor J. W. Peltason
said the university would take
dan made arrangements with Nas- "appropriate disciplinary action
ser to accept Egyptian troops on against all those persons who have
his soil, the Israelis set their mil- participated in this interference
itary machine into a state of with the educational processes of
preparedness. the university."
However, fighting did not break A Dow recruiter has been on
out until about a week later. This the campus since last week and
was due, Weller revealed, to a is scheduled to leave today. Fif-
split in the leadership of Israel. teen of the students are staging
The military was ready for bat- a 46 hour hunger strike which be-
tie; however, General Moshe gan Tuesday and will end when
Dayan was still outside the gov- the recruiter leaves.
ernment because of an old dis- At the University of Colorado a
agreement with Prime Minister dem.nstration protesting the pres-
Levi Eshkol. Israel needed three ence of a recruiting agent for the
days to convince Dayan to take CIA nearly erupted into a riot
over the troops and go to war. I

"Israel has a justification to
expand. It is cramped on all sides
and thus a potential victim for an
air strike," George Weller, foreign
correspondent for the Chicago
Daily News told faculty and stu-
dents of the journalism depart-
ment in an informational lecture
sponsored by the department.
The Pulitzer prize winning
journalist presented a plan fori
Israel to install an air defenset

divided about $1.8 billion between
Egypt and Israel, he said, Egypt's
larger population has tended to'
nullify any U.S. aid. 'For every
one dollar that a citizen of Egypt
would receive in aid, a citizen in
Israel would receive fifteen."
Weller also outlined his theory
regarding the cause of the war.
The immediate cause, he felt, was
the stationing of Egyptian troops
in Jordan.
Egyptian troops have never been
stationed on Jordian soil and if
they were, Israel would have con-
'sidered this a situation leading to
war. When King Hussein of Jor-


sulting in the arrest of one Wayne system under U.N. supervision at
State student. yesterday's lecture.
Weller was in the Middle East
at the time of the war and re-
ported from the area during other
Keep Territory

Pilot Study Made for SGC
Course Evaluation Booklet

"Israel has a right to set up
defenses," Weller contended, "and
should be allowed to keep all the
territory, up to the Syrian border.
that it has captured."
Weller also proposed giving
Jerusalem to Israel. "It is reason-
able to have it under Israeli rule
for about 20 years as long as the
Israelis leave the city accessible
to people of other faiths."
He pointed out that countries
dominated by other religions have
controlled the city and that Is-
rael should have the right to do
the same.
Arab Refugees
However, not all of Weller's
proposals are favorable to the Is-
raelis. Both sides of the Jordan
River should be under Arab con-
trol and that aid, especially from
the Israelis, is needed by the Arab
refugees in Israel, he felt. "The
only hope for the refugee problem
lies in a generous policy by the
Tsraelis to the disnlaced Arabs."

The Student Government Coun-
cil committee on course and
teacher evaluation issued pilot;
questionaires to two classes yes-
"The pilot questionaire," com-
mittee chairman Stephen Spitz,
'68, explained, "is designed to
teach us what we're going to do
on a larger scale later."
Testing experts at the Univer-
sity's Institute for Social Research
and the Psychological Testing
Center were consulted in the de-
velopment of the pilot form.
Questionaires from other schools
were checked in addition to ques-
tionaires used at the University in
other yeas.
The booklet planned by the
committee checks quality, effec-
tiveness of teachers and the dif-

working membership of over 100
students, is currently working on
criteria for courses to be eval-
The course evaluation commit-
tee expects to issue general ques-
tionaires late this semester.
Results of the pilot question-
aires given to students will be
evaluated by cross correlation on
University computers. The course
evaluation committee hopes that
this will give a much more thor-
ough and objective evaluation than'
was possible with the hand tabu-
lated results of former booklets.
At present, SGC has alloted
$2,000 to the course evaluation
committee and is hoping for con-
tributions from other studentj
groups. Another source of funds!
might be a Board in Control of
Student Publications loan.

Universityiadministrators did
not call in civil -auhorities to han-
dle the tense situation, but prom-
ised disciplinary action "up to and
including expulsion" for the 30
demonstrators who stood shoulder
to shoulder in front of the place-
ment office.
The demonstrators, mostly stu-
dents and members of SDS had
asked CIA agent Jack Hanson to
leave the campus Monday. Han-
son refused as did university offi-
cials who were asked to remove
the CIA from the campus.
Demonstrators claimed they had
no alternative but civil disobed-
ience: "The CIA has had a past
record of dishonest meddling in
student organizations," they said.
The near riot occurred yester-
day when 50 students wanting to
enter the placement office stepped
forward to physically challange
the demonstrators blocking the
At Antioch College in Ohio there
was a brief demonstration yes-
terday in reaction to a college
committee's decision to allow a
defense' department project to re-




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