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January 20, 1918 - Image 5

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1918-01-20

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,. 1

Early Years Of 17th Century In
Russia Mark "Troublesome Time


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(Editor's note-This is the third of
a series of articles on Russi writ-
ten by Samuel Barmak,,'19, a Russian
student.) N
The early years of the seventeenth
century are marked inRussia as the
"troublesome times." Different indi-
viduals were claiming the right to the
throne, which was ascended now by
one, now by another. The country
had no permanent ruler. In the year
1613 a member of the house of the
Romanoffs, who was favored by the
majority of the people, secured the
crown. That year was the beginning
of the Romanoff dynasty which re-
mained in power until the recent revo-
Theterritory that Russia ppssessed
in 1613 is now known as Russia prop-
er. The western boundary was the
Dnieper, which separated the country
from Poland. The eastern boundary
extended beyond the Ural mountains.
Peter the Great Makes Changes
For a variety of reasons Russia re-
mained Asiatic in her intellectual de-
velopment until the latter part of the
seventeenth century. Peter the Great
(1689-1725) was the first of the Rus-
sian rulers to reflect on the back-
wardness of the country. He resolv-
ed to make Russia European. Num-
erous reforms, beginning with com-
pulsory shaving and smoking, and
ending with important changes in the
form of government, were introduced
and enforced, regardless of the dis-
content and opposition of the nation.
In spite of the many obstacles, the
seeds of, the country's civilization
were planted.
Desires Sea Outlets
The desire of Russia for free sea
outlets dates from the time of Peter's
reign. Peter endeavored to extend
the country to the sea, and acquire
seaports, not so much for her econom-
ical well-being, as for the sake of her
intellectual progress. As a result of
the Great Northern war, Russia gain-
td territory on the Baltic sea, and
Peter's policy regarding seaports was
partly realized.
Peter did not leave a direct heir.
His only son, Alexius, was destitute
of enthusiasm and showed no ability.
Peter saw in him a menace to the
welfare of the country, and Alexius
finally died in prison, having suc-
cumbed to the tortures inflicted on
him by his father. Peter was follow-
ed by his consort, Catherine I, who
in turn was succeeded by Peter II,,
Ann Ivanovna, and Elizabeth Pe-

eral. From his early youth he had en-
tertained liberal tendencies, and
dreamed of granting Russia a consti-
tution. The reactionary forces{, in
which the Russian court abounds, pre-
vented him from realizing his dreams.
The successful and justifiable war of
1812 brought him fame and glory. His
death is covered with mystery. Some
say he died in a monastery.
The period from 1825 to 1855 are
the years of the reign of Nicholas I.
He was a firm believer in a monarchi-
cal form of government, and devoted
his energies to the suppression of
numerous insurrections and revolu-
tions. The most conspicuous revolu-
tionary event during his reign was
that of the "Decembrists." It was
instigated and supported by the cream
of society, with the puropse of extort-
ing from the czar a constitution. It
ended in total defeat, and the chief
leaders were severely punished.
Nicholas Succeeds Alexander
Nicholas I was .succeeded by Alex-
ander 11(1855-1881), who is known as
the czar-liberator. During his reign
one of the most important events in
Russian history took place. That
event was the abolition of serfdom
which had been so strengthened dur-
iig Catherine's rule. The peasants
who constitute in Russia nine-tenths
of the population became free.
The revolutionary spirit, which ap-
peared to have been suppressed by
Nicholas I, was growing. Terror was
the feature this time. Several at-
tempts were made to assasinate the
czar and struggle with a czar-less
government. Though Alexander II
narrowly escaped death more than
once, he was not destined to die a na-
tural death. He was torn to pieces
by- the bomb of ' the revolutionist,
Rissakof, who died with- his victim.
Period of Terror
Alexander III ascended the throne
at a time when revolution had practic-
ally begun. Filled with desire to av-
enge himself on his father's murder-
ers, and resolved not to give up an
atom of the unlimited power bequeath-
ed to him, he kept to a policy of ruth-
less annihilation of all considered
dangerous to the established form of
government. The number of trained
executioners grew radily. The work
at the gallows became heavier than
ever, and the revolutionary movement
was finally quelled, at least outward-
The persecution of the fJews was in-
tense under the rule of this czar.
Most of the restrictions put upon that
nation (until the present revolution).


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Fountain of Youth
Victor Records
First Aid French:-A complete first aid course of six lessons or
three Victor Records expressly issued to meet the n6eds of Americaz
Soldiers. Price $2.50. Come in and hear them.
Schaeberle & Son's Music Hous
Now on Sale in sheet music-"For America and Liberty?'

Joe Gin, Prop.


314 S. State St.

Phone 1244-MI


Basis is 6,000
of service

Muskegon, Mic


For Sale and Rent
Fraternity and Social Stationery
322 South State Street
Michiganensian and
kppointment Commit-
:ee Photographs f
'13 East University Ave-
Choice Bits From
College Exchanges
A gigantic card party arranged to

T U T T L E !S
For Lunches and Sodas
abroad and 27 having received decor-
ations of honor.
Any form of athletics that leads to'
stimulating and productive physical
development ampng students of Ameri-
can colleges shuld be encouraged and
maintained was the unanimous opinion
of the 200 delegates of the national
collegiate athletic association who met
in New York on Dec. 28 to discuss
college athletic conditions in view of
the present war. ,
Berran County Shows an Increase of
550 Per 'ent Over Previous
Reports of the sale of Red Cross
Christmas seals from half the counties
of the state show that the 1917 sale
exceeded that of the previous year
by over $10,000, according to W. G.
Cosmer, sales manager in Michigan.
Thie agencies heard from are the
largest in the state including Detroit

mnmodate 150 people or more As and Grand Rapids, while those which

.g planned by the Women's war
of committee of the tJniversity of,
ois as a means of raising money
their work.

have not yet reported are Jackson,
Ingram, Washtenaw and Bay counties.
Other counties have not sent in com-
plete reports.
BeArra.n cunty; sa hw h am nin-


inee September 382 students have4
tdrawn from the University of Ill- crease of 550 per cent, the largest in the
shdoerwromtheUnverityfwofalstate and probably in the country,"
is, over two-thirds of whom are said Mr. Cosmer. "The total receipts
>wn to be in military service, in Ypsilanti were twice those of the
latinum rings are "slacker" rings previous year. The school children
ording to Dr. C. A. Mann of the took an active part throughout the
ss and publicity committee of the state and helped greatly in selling the
.erican chemical society, because seals." Those who sold above 25 are
available platinum is needed in the being given cards and buttons to show
nufacture of explosives. the number each sold.
'rinceton reports over 2.000 of her
n in service, 666 of whom are Use the Daily classified columns.
atLsar's and nde ts
The Dolta Supply Store

Seaport Secured dated from the years of reign of Alex-
Catherine the Great (1762-1796) was ander III.
the first ruler after Peter whose reign Alexander devoted much energy and
is of significance in Russian history. attention to the betterment of the con-
Her policy and reforms were a con- dition of the peasants. He also did
tinuation of those of her predecessor. much for the improvement of the
Her aspiration for a port in the south country's military system.
was too intense not to be realized. Nicholas II Dethroned
After a period of fighting, the north- Nicholas II succeeded Alexander III
ern waters of the Black sea were in in 1894, and ruled until he was de-
contact with territory in the hands of throned in 1917. Besides the present
Russia. It was at that time that revolution, the most conspicuous ev-
Odessa, one of the most important ents of his reign were the Japanese
ports of Europe and the most import- war and the revolution of 1905.
ant one of Russia, was established. This uprising, though quickly sup-
The western boundary, too, was ex- pressed was not quite fruitless. Its re-
tended at the expense of Poland. sult was the Duma, an elective legis-
Contributions were at the same time lative body which made Russia a lim-
being made to education, and the most ited monarchy.
important Russian schools date from
that period.
Catherine Reactionary d tart' N elps.
Catherine was looked upon by many
as an enlightened despot. She was N
one outwardly. In her heart, how- No drills for the cadets In the R. 0.
ever, she was reactionary. In a letter T. C. will be held during the two
to a Russian noble she wrote that Rus- week examination period, according to
sia must maintain a liberal policy to- a counter-order issued by Lieut.
ward education, in order to have the George C. Mullen last night. The rea-
sympathy of western Europe. But it son for the withdrawal of the order
should be borne in mind, she adds, given out Friday was due to the fact
that at the moment the peasants can that many of the examinations were
read and write, she and he will have scheduled from 2 to 5 o'clock every
to part with their positions, afternoon, and that a. number of stu-
Dring the years from 796 to 1801 dents usually leave for home after
the throne was occupied by Paul, who the last examination. Advance and
was noted for his eccentricity and gymnasium classes will also be dis-
cruelty. He met a horrible death, be- continued for two weeks. The first
ing strangled with a belt. His son drill after Saturday, Jan. 26, will be
Alexander I succeeded him. held at 4:15 o'clock Monday after-
Alexander a Liberal noon, Feb. 11.
Alexander I was beauty and virtue
personified. He was beloved by the Due to some misunderstanding con-
court, the people, and Europe in gen- cerning the excuse of absences, the
following information was issued from
TYPEWRITERS FOR RENT - Wood the R. 0. T. C. office last night:
ward & Washington, 8-9 A. A. Sav. All students unable to be present at
Bank Bldg.. Phone 866.-Adv. the regular drills and gymnasium
Michigan's Greatest Music House
Finest line of Music Instruments
in the world
If interested in any kind of instrument whatever see us
GRINNELL BROS. 116 S. Main St.
4 -


W F are as near to our telephone as. y
Ware to yours, and that puts our laundry
right next door to your home. Take
advantage of our courteous, speedy service-
our work will -please your inborn sense, o£
Phone 2355 204 No. a ft
classes must obtain permission from
Lieut. George C,. Mullen before the date
of the absences. only a certificate
from a physician in the employ of the
University or in the city will be ac-
cepted as an excuse if presented after
the absence. Each unexcused absence
requires two hours of make-up work.
"A man who has no absences is rank-
ed higher than one "who has succeeded
in making up the entire number of
absences," stated Lieutenant Mullen
last night.

When you go into the
service you will want a
uniform that will- fit
you. We are expgts
in tailoring and guar..
antee that you will be
pleased. If you let us
make it.
Our service includes
ladies taioring and
dry cleaning.
A. F. Marquardt
514 E. William
Hot Rolls 2 for 6c
Pthon. 948.R 601 E. Lfbe
Arrangements have been mad
have the headquarters company
the gymnasium work one day a v
in a body, instead of several men
going separately each day. The g
nasium work will probably-be al
same time, but the day will be
termined later.
Edward Mack, '17, second lieute
in the artillery,.has arrived in Fra
according to information received
yesterday. Mack is a member of
Sigma Phi fraternity.
Lieut L. J. Williams will lectui
the cadets of the Second regimen
4:15 o'clock tomorrow afternoo:
University hall. The speaker for V
nesday's lecture will be annou
Five Fresh Girls Make Glee Ch
Five more tryouts have made
Freshman Girls' glee club. They
Ruth Curtis, Helen Deck, Alice Ha
Dorothy Hollis, and Katherine Si
The membership of the club is nom

ST- Will person who took my
heepskin coat from the basement
f the Economics building Wednes-
ay, by mistake, please return it
nd receive reward. G. A. Cadwell,
r., 806 Hil St. Phone 374.
ST-Small fountain pen on campus
r in Nichols Arcade, Friday morn-
ig about eight. Call Sec'y Office,
[edical Bldg.

LOST - Navy pin. Crossed anchors
with superscription U. S. Finder
please call 954-J.
LOST-A Conklin fountain pen with-
out cap. Phone 627.
WANTED-4 rooms, heated and furn-
ished for light housekeeping. Phone
WANTED - A Corona Typewriter.
Phone 906.
FOUND- Lady's small watch. Call

A varied physical and gymnastic
program, under the direction of Dr.
George A. May, will be given to the
first battalion of the First regiment"
at 4:15 o'clock tomorrow afternoon in
Waterman gymnasium.
First regiment: Company A, parallel
bar, vaulting horse, jumping, sprint-
ing, wrestling, basketball; company B,
rings, high jump, relay racing, tumbl-
ing; company C, wrestling, basketball,
parallel bar, vaulting horse, jumping,
sprinting; company D, relay racing,
rings, high jump, tumbling.
The program next week will be con-
cluded by setting-up exercises and
will consist of class boxing. The ca-
dets will be paired and given funda-
mental instructions in boxing, which
can be applied in future bayonet prac-
Members of the R. O. T. C. band1
will start rehearsing at 7 o'clock Wed-
nesday night in University hall. There
are some vacancies in the ranks, which
will be filled by the tryouts who ap-
pear in the rehearsal.
Lists of the re-organized companies
will be posted on the R. O. T. C.
bulletin boards before the examina-
tions start. The lists will take into
consideration the requests for trans-
fers which have been approved.

-Leather watch fob
ity seal, at Indiana
e Friday. Reward.

with Uni-
Box 0,

o'clocI Thursda
Hunt's studio,r
sity School ofl
hearsal Helen
All members
clock today at
Liberty St., to]k
en for the Mich

npton gold watch with fob
e debating medal. Finder
turn to 210 S. Thayer St.

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