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May 27, 1923 - Image 1

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SUNDAY MAGAZINE
ANN ARBOR, MICHIG AN, StUNDAY MAY 27, 1923
L
Ue undre er ent Education
A Comparison of Methods
When a foreigner comes to our uni- CLEMENT SERVICE Professors, that is 'a matter only of
versity directly from a high school of the students' concern. The professor
the Old World, he usually finds him-;is wholly free to express himself, and
self several years ahead of his Amer- o ae training to offer incentive to the Compare such a preparation with that furthermore he need not follow any
ican classmates. More than this, he chid at school. I may say, then, that of our high schools that thrust such definitely outlined courses (with the
finds that his classmates are but poor- European institutions gain time, be- naive students into our midst-stu- exception of the rituation in some
ly prepared for university work. The cause they are able to separate their dents ignorant of their own native prfessieonal school such as engineer-
foreigner usually gets twelve years of students; and those preparing for language, wholly unacquainted with ing or medicine, where much labora-
training before entering a university college are usually from families that English literature, and having no con- tory work is necessary);in fact, he
and en does the American, but the offer the invaluable background of ception of modern scientific ideas. And may never quite repeat himself dur-
latter finds it ncessary to turn his fathers and mothers who themselves yet fite American boys are no less ing a lifetime of lecturing. He offers
university into a sort of advanced are trained in the arts and sciences. ibrilliant than the foreigner; they what he thinks worthy of offering,
high school. Further than this, we find that the simply have never been offered a sin- and, as he is continually investigating
The first question that comes to instructors in these European higis gle thing to think about. No wonder problems and arriving at different
mind is this: How do the secondary schools are all men of rich background that we lose time when we must spend conclusions, he naturally has some-
schools of 'the Old Word manage to in scholarly training. In the United almost the whole four years of college thing different to offer each semester.
gain two or more years on its in the States our high school teachers are in imbuing the student with a think- Compare this situation with that of
work antecedent to that of college? paid almost as toorly as university ing urge. some of our American colleges where
On examination we find that a stu- instructors, and the result is that we The foreign university is also quite the professor may be forced to offer
dent in the foreign school may elect iave inefficient, unskilled, and for the different frm that of our country. the sane subject in the same way for
either to attend a "Peoples' " school most part, teachers with no kind of here a professor is a "hired" individ- several decades. In this latter condi-
and pay no tuition, or may elect the vision at all-not to be qualified either nalsho may be dismissed without tion, either the subject must suffer
college preparatory school and pay a as narrow-minded or broad-minded warning; but there a professor is one or the professor lose his keenness in
certain tuition. This, of course, im-- but simply as no-minded. With such who has proved his ability and his browsing continually in new material
mediately separates the people into a condition we can readily understandd worth, and is expected to teach things for greater truths; in any event the
two classes according to their ability how the European high school, altyays as he sees them; and he is appointed process is deadly both to material of-
to pay for an education. Evidently, furnishing the best of teachers (who practically for life. fie is expected to fered and to the professor. Only in
those of the poorer classes would not by the way are better paid, compara teach truths as they appear to be truths change can there be progress, and only
acquire higher education. On the tively, than American teachers of like to him, and not as they please or dis- through continual evaluation of the
other hand, those pupils entering the rank) can gain much time ct us. please the administrative authorities meanings of changes can there be de-
schools demanding tuition would be Again, the European high school is cnected with the business side of tected the direction of human events
from the families having wealth, so- a true preparatory school, for a grad- the institution. An example may be and the actual proof of progress.
cial "breeding", and enough training uate may leave an institution for the given of a certain foreign professor- Education then is the primary aim
to hffer the children a proper incent- pursuit of a particular profession and a stofessor of economics-who wrote of European schools; whereas, diplo-
ive f'r ,taking the most advantage of not be encumbered hy the left-over an article in which ie denied the di- ma-ism characterizes our institutions.
the eucational facilities. This, of preparatory subjects that our college vinity sf Jesus. This was an infringe- We have a rigid system of supervis-
ctir-A work very well in an undei-- teople must face. A European stu mento f the blasphemy laws of the ion whereby throughout college we
ccOtlt tcuntry--Sweden, for instance, dent who enters an Engineering ec'untry; so the professor was jailed must oversee everything of the stu-
wit44s- socialistlo governing body-- school is already prepared by studies for several months. His return to dent-his subjects for study, his books
but coild not 1yt' in the united in several foreign languages (sme- his chair at the university was not for reading, his ideas, his thoughts, his
Stat sithere 'e SP91 tet permit such bles as any as nine years study of ' 'otined-in fact, no one thought scraelos, sanitation, habits of living;
dii-Rentiation tacroett, to a person's 'o s of them); he knows his nav'sI -f ting us a movement to ost the indeed, we have Deans of Students,
a'atsi, Even i« co were the case, ela ''gua'e qite as well as hisssteaah ""C isoir fsr tiso n tin t the minds of and Dcais of 1r'omen whom we pay
thi d 'isns 'cut .ts seracticable frt 'it e, e si it of rhtorie :«stcthetyt h. Studentst is utvers-ties salaries to leck after these unmoral
tice :,at az s- s.rsrowealth s ''ac.ite ' a f srin;, .ri he Is h..an : stperi"= s se a I - tdeveloped as to or sadly ignorantstudents f ours.
end ii -r 'eedig i hand n i tei .:. a 1 1t the emure of i l ' n is of their eccn, and if thr A foreigner onvssel its laughter
and,. ,ret there a nI spe' 1 ti ' :'.-.' seescin IJ; lea . t a w a y aseso ' equeer id, as of (Continue on Pa-ge Five)
Dostoevesky Prophet and Futurist
Just what place is Russia to ou CARL GEHRING 5 fenders, with the idea of intimidating
cupy in the new scheme of things against further transgressions. The
inte> onl t~he we onsierIpersonal clement was never consid
internraiionah: Whoa we csnsider vile. He is certain to be a future for example, Dostoevsky's "Crime and -red. Once convicted, the offender
the times, the present insecurity of ruler in European politics. Let the Punitsment." There we have a novel was practically lost. The idea that
the powers that be, due to the rat- rest look to their laurels and guard distinctly futuristic. It is a most ap- crime might be committed under con-
ages of the war, and more particular- sthem." Burton Holmes after his now propriate successor to the work of the ditions justifiable in the eyes of the
ly the social and economic revoution 'historic tour through Russia in 1901, same title, by the eminent Italian, Ciin stfas n t eyes ot
so recently accomplished in that great makes nsimilar observations, colored Becaria. The difference lies in the curred to the early authorities.
land of the Muscovite, the question partictlarly by a personal meeting attitude toward crime, Beccaria wrotece
assumes a more than trifling impor- tilth Tolstol. in a period when the punishment 07 In the Dostoevsky work, then, we
tance. We have all become so accus. Yet this eminent lecturer might the criminal was a matter of strict observe one Raskalnikov, who is just
tomed to consider London as the cen- Dpo be lined op on the side of some redress of society against the offender. this type of person Having committ-
ter of our little universe, that to cciolaists,s Oostoevsky, writing at a much later1ed a most reprehensible crime justi-
some of our more or less staid con- taily unprepared to assume the role: time and as the possible exponent iable m his own eyes, he exhibits
temporaries, a substitution for the of leader in world affairs. The ab- of a new era to come, representing a fine bit of psychologca easoning,
English capital as the r scal pintt.i t misery Holmes found in the lit- a nation just coming into its own na- such as takes place in the mind of a
of modern civilization seems almost ti, Rusian villages hardly suggested tional consciousness, just realizing its criminal. The man is a most unsaal
unthinkable. Yet, to these same ean. the hsmes of " world leaders, in the might in world affairs, takes a cor- type, a student well versed in he
ual observers, did the recent Russian rcar future at any rate. The people responding different attitude in hip arts. could 'the h s law lay hl
revolution seem at all imminent in are so backward they have not even ideas of dealing with offenders , it wou d deal with him just aseit
daysprecdin andjustfolowin ould with the most common offend-
the days preceding and Jusf followig come to the point of using interest. I find ;this Russian novel not so er. He would probably come out of
the start of the war? That was why the Jews, who con- much a story of a certain criminal and
1 ,,_ . ^ . -~ , .prison just as hard and brazen as.

The question of a Slavic power as 'trolled most of the country's finances, his ultimate punishment, as, a ster- the worst type of criminal.
the future leading light in world af- and charged interest rates, were st ling presentation of a social evil whicl. T
fairs might seem a bit fantastic, and hated. Agricultural conditions are has steadily run its course unimpeded,( This sort of thing Dostoevsky cries
yet upon examination of a few funda- still on a par with those prevalent in in spite of all preventative measures out against. He seeks to establish
t
mental facts is not altogether unlike- England centuries ago. Such igno- of a harrassed society In the face of the fact that what is applicable in the
fly. Only consider the recent revolU- rance existed that the people still this the treatise of Beccaria can hard- case of one offender will not follow
I-ion. Its sponsors claim for it a dis.. gathered in groups to hear the vil- Jy. be considered for more than its with another. The idividuality of
tinet advance in governmesit. 'Ws lage reader do their favorite authors. historic worth The ideas expounded each person must be analyzed and
should we not be ruled from the bot- Future world leaders, these! But, have failed-obviously new ones must justice adnsinistergd accordingly,
tom up, after having the reverse con- then, are they not thinkers? There I be attempted. Along comes Dostoev- T'is, ofcoure, is a muich more ,n
ion ill these years, with such ter- is an element of leadership, after all. sky, representative of a different age,
tble results? Was it not considered In the realm of philosophy and naton and race, and offers entirely of cmte, and has for its object not
a great advance, whim in I789 tle thought the Slavs hold out in ever ,w cures for an old problem as yet so tuch the dire punisent of the
5'rsnch revolution crystallized-the dis- increasing strength. Tolstoi, Tur- unsolved. It is simply the battle of criminal as his reform, and a gradual
ptacoment of the feudal lords ,sy 1tl genieff, Dostoevsky, Artsybasheff and the new against the old, and past uplifting of society thereby.
bourgeoisie? Then why not cosi Is Andreyev have offered to the world history seems to point to an inevitable Another point well brought out, ns
oe newest .development as anti'e things of astounding worth, toe birth result. The new will displace the therefore worth noting, is the idea
Sestone along the tath of iroress ? and self-acclamation of a new race. old, as before. that the first offender, .perhaps a
.l. ihenderson renartss -, sct isro They attack every field of thought, Early criminologists directed stern crimsnal ty possien, silt 'ery tikehy
ticolly, 'ook out for the ituec. and with convincing argument. Take, repressive measures against all of-: (Continued pn Pago Three)

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