1959 THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Special to The Daily
'HARLOTTESVILLE, Va. - In
4, the United States Supreme
rt ruled that segregation in
lic schools is not constitu-
al; this September, two public
Dols here will be desegregated.
he story of the years between
ne of an intricate series of
ation. It is the story of how
knots in the rope of "massive
stance" were gradually untied.
a action taken at the first meet-
of the Charlottesville School
rd after the Supreme Court
ng, members voted unani-
isly to operate segregeated
>ols in Charlottesville the fol-
ke Action .
heir action was in line with
mmendations made by the
e Department of Education
Attorney General J. Lindsay
fond that Virginia's law barring
-segregated schools were effec-
until struck down by the high
ut on October 6, 1955, the
>ol board received a petition
n the parents of 43 Negro stu-
s. Signed by Oliver W. Hill,
f legal counsellor of the state
ich of the National Association
the Advancement of Colored
ple, it requested the board to
:e immediate steps to reor-
JUDGE JOHN PAUL
. . . orders integration
THOMAS B. STANLEY
... follows orders
J. LINDSAY ALMOND,
. .. leads 'New Virginia'
See Related Editorial,
ganize the public schools . . . on
The resolution adopted by the
school board in answer to the peti-
tion-read: the board believes "that
it was not the intent of the Su-
preme Court's , . decree of May
31, 1955, to disrupt a system of
public education. Therefore, the
problem confronting the board is
to find a solution.
Try Again ...
Almost a year later, a second
suit seeking an 'end to segregate-
classes in the public schools was
} lai4iched, The school board was
given 20 days to answer the in-,
juznctionl petition calling for inate-.
gration in September, 1956.
Three days passed and t en
several members of the Ch r-
lottesville School Board and Su-
perintendent of Schools Fendall,
R. Ellis visited Gov. Stanley to
discuss the lawsuit filed against
them in the federal court.
At the meeting, the Governor
made what school officials inter-
(preted as a commitment on the
subject of financial aid. Therefore,
soon after in a joint meeting with
city council, the board determined
"to employ the best available coun-
sel for defense."
That man was lawyer and ex-
Governor John S. Battle, who
sought formal dismissal of the
suit on July 12, 1956.
Petitions Upheld .. .
But Federal Judge John Paul
upheld the Negro petitioners in
his decision: they "have proven
their case." His action marked the
first time a Virginia school board
had been told that it would have
to begin taking positive steps
toward compliance with the Su-
preme Court decision by a specific
The judge said his court would
not be party to any program of
willful delay. Less thantwo months
later, however, execution of the
federal order requiring desegrega-
tion in Charlottesville public
schools was stayed by Judge Paul,
pending an appeal.'
Attorneys for the city and state,
Battle and Almond, had realized
that an appeal to the United States
Court of Appeals for the Fourth
Circuit would delay the effective
date of the decree past September,
Oppose Moves . .
On the day that schools opened
for the fall semester, still segre-
gated, the Charlottesville City
Council unanimously adopted a
resolution opposing Gov. Stanley's
legislative proposal, approved dur-
ing a special session of the Gen-
eral Assembly, to withhold state
funds from localities which inte-
grated their public schools.
gThe legislature also passed laws
1) permitting the Governor to
seize, close, and reorganize "on
an efficient basis" anyintegrated
school and 2) allowing him to keep
it closed indefinitely while he paid
out public funds as tuition grants
f or the private education of the
On December 31 of that year, it
was announced that the federal
district court desegregation order
was upheld by the Circuit Court
of Appeals and later the Supreme
Court refused to review the case.
Appeal Case .
But the schools board had an-
other tactic up their sleeve: they
appealed the ,case, maintaining
they were still unable to comply
with the previous year's federal
court order because the Pupil
Placement Act took away their
power to assign any student to
The placement act took the right
of assigning individual children to
particular schools out of the hands
of local school authorities all over
the state and invested the power in
the state's three-man board. Local
boards were thus rendered power-
less to comply with desegregation
Judge Paul was forced to stall
his desegregation order once again,
although he decreed that no per-
son in the city would have to make
application to the Pupil Place-
That fall city officials heard the
resignation of counsel Battle, who
had seen them'through more than
a year of legal struggle. His suc-
cessor was John Battle, Jr.
On May 12, 1958, Judge Paul
ordered the desegregation of Char-
lottesville public schools the fol-
lowing September. Later that
month, the first two Negro chil-
dren submitted applications to the
city school board for entrance in
a previously all-white school, Ven-
The next day, a petition bearing
the names of 26 more Negro ap-
plicants was received by the board.
Eleven of these applications were
for Lane High School, nine more
to Venable, and six to McGuffey
Parents were suddenly faced'
with tihe possibility of public school
integration and subsequent closure
of the schools under state laws.
Two groups of patrons therefore
obtained charters as private cor-
porations to maintain a means of
education for their children.
One was incorporated as the
Charlottesville Educational Foun-
dation (CEF), which went on rec-
ord for supporting private, segre-
gated classes in the event that
public schools were integrated. The
other, the Parents Committee for
Emergency Schooling, declared it
would disband whenever public
schools were reopened, whether
integrated or segregated.
City Works .
The city, however, was working
hard to keep as many as possible
of the city's integration-threatened
schools open in September. On
July 9, 1958, they approved young
Battle's four -mpart pupil assign-
First, the city's five white and
one Negro elementary school (Jef-
ferson Elementary) were zoned
into six geographical districts
without racial designation. But
the area for Jefferson was com-
posed of a large Negro residential,
area, thus providing for 15 of the
20 Negro elementary school ap-
Next, the board decided that any
elementary school child living in
a school district which predomi-
nantly served members of thej
other race should be enrolled in
a school composed of his own
race. And any child wishing to
enroll in a school attended pri-
marily by members of the oppositej
race must request a transfer at
least 60 days before schools open
in the fall (only 55 days remained
when this ruling was accepted,
thus eliminating ' any further ap-
plications from Negroes).
Asks Testing .. .
The board's plan also called for
scholastic testing of each student
to show the grade level at which
he should be placed. Finally came
the establishment of a five-man
committee to interview "each stu-
dent and his or her parents . . . to
determine the probable educational
effects of admittance... .
The days for testing and inter-
viewing the Negro elementary and'
secondary school applicants ar-
rived, but both admittance re-
quirements were boycotted. Why?
NAACP lawyer Hill called the
tests "discriminatory and merely
an effort to evade the court's or-
der," thus challenging the legality
of the city school board's new
Early in August, 1958, Judge
Paul ruled that the transfers to
Charlottesville white schools must
submit to "reasonable tests" to
determine their proper grade
levels. Tests and interviews were
rescheduled and taken.
Up to this point, Judge Paul
still had not approved the school
district plan of the Charlottesville
School Board. Therefore in an
August meeting, the board decided
to postpone the scheduled Sep-
tember 2 opening of schools until
On September 9, 1958, Judge
Paul directed the school board to
admit 12 Negroes into two pre-
viously all - white schools, Lane
High and Venable Elementary.
Nine days later, the former at-
torney general and newly-elected
Governor, J. Lindsay Almond as-
sumed control of both schools.
Set Up Classes ".. "
The Charlottesville City Council
and School Board advised parents
to make their own arrangements
for their children's education "dur-
ing this period of uncertainty."
Both the CEF and the Parents
Committee began classes soon
afterwards in private homes. And
they united to form a single com-
mittee for the emergency school-
ing of displaced Lane High School
The private schools operated for
one full semester. Meanwhile the
12 Negro students remained out
of school and received private
In order to guarantee time to
work out a new local pupil as-
signment plan, the school board
sought and was granted another
stay of the federal district court
segregation order. When public
schools were opened again in Feb-
ruary, 1959, they remained segre-
Get New Plan .. .
The new plan, approved by
Judge Paul on March 31, 1959,
was, admittedly, in the words of
City Attorney Battle "almost ex-
actly the same as the old plan."
School district lines were altered
Also, it was agreed that the 12
students ordered into Lane and
Venable schools would be admitted
when the school boardfelt they
had reached the academic level of
the classes into which they were
ordered by Judge Paul. The ap-
plicants were tutored in Superin-
tendent Ellis' office during the
spring semester to enable them t
reach this level.
Meanwhile, the CEF continued
making plans to operate private
segregated high school and ele-
mentary classes in September,
1959, for parents unwilling to ac-
cept integrated schools for their
children. They claim a registration
of 647 students. The Parents Com-
mittee urged patrons to keep their
children in the two public schools
when they open this ~fall.
Set Precedent .. .
On June 12, 1959, the Char-
lottesville City School Board set
a state precedent by announcing
assignment of 11 Negro children
to the public school system. Nine
of the' students had previously
been ordered admitted to white
schools by the federal court; two
were assigned by the school board
in the first such voluntary action
in the state's history.
Twenty - nine additional trans-
fers have been received by the
school board and have yet to be
Although the state Pupil Place-
ment Board is clamoring that they
expect to make final assignment of
students in Charlottesville, it ap-
pears that the state has run dry
of "massive resistance" tactics, ac-
cording to one resident of Vir-
The future of the state and its
Today's youth must work for
world peace, and are privileged to
defy public opinion for the sake
of truth, India's ambassador to
the United States said this week-
Mohammed Ali Currim Chalga,
speaking at Rackham Lecture
Hall Saturday, called exchange
programs involving students and
professors an effective way of de-
v e 1 o p i n g international under-
In an "exciting but very diffi-
cult age," he, said the advance of
science has brought about three
First, although science has
made tremendous advances, the
moral stature of man has receded,
leading to frustration.
Second, science is a double-
edged weapon and can be used for
good and evil.
Third, there is unprecedented
prosperity in some parts of the
world and a painful struggle for
survival in others. As an example
he cited the per capita annual in-
comes in the United States and
India - $2,000 and $60 respec-
If these problems aren't solved,
he warned, serious difficulties will
Warns of Conformity
Modern communications have a
built-in danger, he warned. They
may lead to conformity, and to
"hypnotism" where people will be-
lieve anything if repeated enough.
- The history of civilization de-
pends on the non-conformists, he
said, adding that it was the privi-
lege of youth to defy public opin-
The ambassador spoke prior to
the screening of an Indian movie
under the auspices of the Inter-
national Students' Association
and the Indian Students' Associa-
tion. Proceeds will be turned over
to the library fund of the Univer-
sity Asian Studies Committee.
Sanford Security Service is now
patrolling all University buildings
and grounds, the University an-
Extension of the service, for-
merly employed at the Dearborn
Center, Willow Run, and other
areas, replaces the Ann Arbor
campus' own security force.
University employees who were
members of the now disbanded
University security 'police, have
been placed in other positions.
DAL NO 2-2513
Nuns Take Over Monasteries
As Monks Gradually Dwindle
ATHENS W) - Male monas-
teries in Greece are gradually be-
ing taken over by nuns because
there are- not enough monks to
keep them going..
If the trend continues, it won't
be long before Orthodox monas-
teries throughout Greece are ex-
elusively populated by nuns.
Monks will probably be confined
to the womanless theocracy of
Mount Athos - last male strong-
hold of the monastic way of life-
which itself has seen its popula-
tion dwindle alarmingly during
the first half of this century.
"Mysticism is fast dying out
amon gmen," an archimandrite
said. "It can't resist the lures of
the 20th century."
But even among women, the ap-
peal of the contemplative life is
limited. A nuns' community sel-
dom exceeds 20 in monasteries
that formerly housed hundreds
Most of the monasteries date
back to Byzantine. times and some
are veritable gems of the archi-
tecture of that period.
Typical is the Monastery of
Saint Meletios, the latest male
monastery to be turned over to
Located some 35 miles from
Athens, it dates back to the 10th
Century and is a fine example of
B y z a n t i n e architecture. Some thrives a busy community of 1
fairly well-preserved fresco paint- nuns.
ings adorn the walls of its central Aside from the prayers tha
church. take up a good deal of their timi
It was named after its most the nuns are each assigned dutie
celebrated abbot, Meletios, friend suited to their abilities.
and counsellor of Byzantine Em- Handloom weaving, stitchin
peror Alexis Comninos. ecclesiastical v e s t m e n t s a n
Throughout its history, Saint painting holy ikons in the Byzar
Meletios monastery was run by tine style are some of the money
monks. But a few years ago, the making occupations they engag
last of its male occupants died of in. The income, derived goes t
old age. Faced with the danger of cover part of the running ex
seeing it fall into decay, the Holy penses of the monastery. But
Synod decided to put it in charge sizable portion of the funds re
of a nuns' community. quired for the nuns' upkeep come
In the monastery which in the from proceeds of, tapers sold in
days of Meletios sheltered as dependent church the monaster
many as 700 monks, there now has in Athens.
University Pdress Prints
Scholarly, Rare Materiai
By SUSAN KARP' I
Assistant University carillon-
neur Sidney F. Giles will give a
program of compositions on the
University Baird Carillon at 8:30
From compositions for the car-
illon by Staf Nees, he will play,
"Prelude," Menuet and Trio,"
"Fantasia," "Study in D Minor,"
"Introduction, Song and Fugue,"
The first'anniversary of the
birth of the Republic of Iraq will
be celebrated from 7 to 9 pm. to-
night at Madelon Pound House,
1024 Hill, by the Iraq Student So-
The public is invited to the
* t *
The University Music School
announces a concert by baritone
George McWhorter, Grad., at 8:30
tonight in Aud. A.
McWhorter will sing selections
from Schubert's "Die Winter-
reise."The concert is presented in
partial fullfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of master of
The University Stanley Quartet
will present a public concert at
8:30 p.m. tomorrow in the Rack-
ham Lecture Hall.
The program will include
"Quartet in C Major, Op. 50, No.
2" by Haydn; "Quartet in A Minor
(for Jean on her Birthday)" by R.
Vaughan-Williams; and "Quartet
in F Major, Op. 59, No. 1 by
;I 1 101N 1
Imagination and courage have
made theUniversity of Michigan
Press, publisher of scholarly
works, into one of the best-known
and most successful of university
The Press, under the leadership
of director Fred D. Wieck, has in
recent years greatly increased its
volume of publication.In 1958 the
output was 57 books. Of these
publications, 41 were written by
persons affiliated with the Uni-
Among the most notable of re-
cent publications, is the Russian1
edition of the "escaped novel,"
This book, published early in
1959, has already sold between
11,000 and 12,000 copies and has'
gained a great deal of publicity;
for the Press because of its con-
Another undertaking of the
Press is the University's "History
of the Modern World," edited by
Allan Nevins and Professor How-
ard M. Ehrmann.
When complete in 1961, the
history will contain 15 volumes
which will provide a detailed his-
tory of the nations of the world.
"The series seems to be well on
its way toward becoming an inst
tution," the Press's assistant d:
rector Edwin Watkins, says.
Another University Press feo
ture, has been the Ann Arbor Pz
perback series. These books a:
inexpensive editions of estal
lished books no longer in prir
Thus far they have been extreme
ly successful and plans have bee
made for the publication of
number of additional titles.
Future plans include the publ
cation of a series of Russian title
in the original language. Direct(
Wieck feels that "publication <
these books will make it possib
for Westerners with a knowledi
of the Russian language to fill :
the gaps in their picture of tI
Soviet Union, a picture at preser
entirely at the mercy of the cer
sors of the Soviet Writer's Union
To Please You!!
* Outstanding Personnel
* Good Service
THE DASCOLA BARBERS
near Michigan Theatre
The flk that jobs the heart...
Shodis the Emions...
And slashes with its stark realism!
Winner of the Edinburgh
Film Festival Award -
STARTING WEDNESDAY *
"LUST FOR LIFE and "TEA AND SYMPATHY"
THE DEPARTMENTMENT OF SPEECH PRESENTS
RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN'S CLASSIC COMEDY
8:00 P.M. -- LYDIA MENDELSSOHN THEATRE
$1.50, $1,10, 75c
SARAH! PATTON BOYLE
*calls residents 'ready'
330 ,Maynard Street
SHOWS DAILY AT
12:30 -3:10 - 6:03 -8:56
DIAL NO 2-3136