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RDAY, JULY 11, 1959 NIGHT EDITOR: KATHLEEN MOORE
O'er the Land of the Free
And the Home of the Resident Colonial Subjects
AYOR LOUIS MIRIANI of Detroit has
been both censured and praised for his
fusal to extend an official welcome from the
y of Detroit to the visiting Russian officials,
A. Menshikov, Soviet ambassador to the
dted States, Frol, R. Kozlov, Soviet first
puty premier, and their entourage when
ey visited, the Motor City a- few days ago.
One of his censors, President Dwight D.
senhower-though his rebuke was sort of
t-handed-stressed the fact that Ameri-
ns are used to extending "common courtesy"
visitors to this' country.
Miriani's excuse was long and complicated,
ing back to the Detroit visit last January of
viet Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan. The
ayor said that at that- time, the State De-
rtment made no official request for the
ayor to welcome Mikoyan.
Therefore, Miriani said, he felt no need to
flcome the Deputy Premier, since the visit
s unofficial. However, just before- Mikoyan's
rival in Detroit, Walker Cisler, host to 'both
ikoyan and Kozlov, called the Mayor apd
id he was worried about possible violence
ring the Russian's visit.
IRIANI THEN CALLED the police depart-
ment and it was decided to assign 100
licemen to protect Mikoyan from anti-Com-
unist demonstrators. He also got in touch
th many clergymen and leaders of nation-
ty groups to urge that they attempt to mini-
ze any demonstrations.
Nevertheless, despite the precautions, hun-
eds of jeering, egg throwing demonstrators
leashed their wrath at Mikoyan ' outside
e Detroit Club, although the Deputy was'
t hit. Then, Miriani said, he got a telegram
om William Lacy, special assistant to Secre-
ry of State Christian Herter, saying that
ozlov would' be coming to Detroit as an
ninvited" guest, that private citizens had
'epared his agenda, and that Lacy hoped
iriani would be able to greet Kozlov.
Miriani was thereupon thrown into a quan-
ry: " ... I couldn't help but think of the
ikoyan visit. What explanation could the
ayor of Detroit give if something happened
IIRIANI ADDED that Kozlov's visit was not
"in the best interest of the city." He
red Lacy that he didn't plan to receive Koz-
r because of the 1*nofficial" nature of the
sit, and this time Herter wired back, urging
triani to reconsider his decision. In the
re,' Herter said that he realized that the
sit was unofficial, bu.t that the Russians.
ould be extended courtesies customarily
own to persons of their rank.-
Once again, the Mayor wired back, saying
at Kozlov's visit had the same unofficial
atus as Mikoyan's and that his course would
mai unchanged. He mentioned the Inter-
,tional Freedom Festival, taking place in
troit at that time, saying, "If you had seen
e parade by nationality groups you would
have noticed placards telling of their hatred
of the Soviet Union.
"Because of the Festival, it was easier to
contact leaders of the nationality groups and
ask their cooperation so that Mr. Kozlov's
Detroit visit would be peaceful. I was assured
of that cooperation and that's why we never
anticipated any trouble during Mr. Kozlov's
visit. The people of Detroit are proving to be
reasonable, tolerant and patient. They are
treating this gentleman in the customary way
he should be treated."
MIRIANI was right in one respect-there
were no incidents outside of the 25 Hun-
garian Detroiters who quietly picketed -the
Hotel Fort-Shelby, and this can hardly be
called an "incident." One picketer explained
the lack of violence: "There are representa-
tives of TASS here and we don't want any-
thing to- happen to Nixon when he goes to
Russia. So we are quiet."
Miriani agreed with this eminently sensible
point of view, saying that it wouldn't surprise
him if Russia welcomed "incidents" during
American tours of their dignitaries. Added to
the fact that the incidents of the Mikoyan
visit were well-publicized in Russia is Nixon's
visit to Moscow next month, where similar
incidents might occur to "retaliate."
IT IS PERHAPS not too obvious to, the
Mayor that the State Department does have
a policy in cases such as these-"when in
. Moscow .. ." And If Mikoyan and Khrushchev
will welcome visiting groups of governors, edu-
cators, businessmen, and so forth, to the Sov-
iet Union, it is perhaps not asking too much
for the mayor of one of the larger cities in the
United States to extend a greeting to an
"unofficial" visitor. Incidents such as Miriani's
refusal can make this country lose as much
face with the visitors - and their people back
home - as can "incidents" of the sort that
occurred during Mikoyan's visit and of which
Miriani seems to be so afraid.
The rule of "common courtesy" has gener-
ally been assumed to hold true, especially
with foreign dignitaries. Paraphrasing Presi-
dent Eisenhower's words, "behaving civilly and
c'ourteously toward visitors does not mean that,
you approve of their philosophy or their poli-
tics." Therefore, welcoming dignitaries from
the Soviet Union-which is actually merely
recognizing their presence-does not mean
that the City of Detroit approves of Russian
politics or actions, any more than welcoming
the Queen of England connotes sympathy or'
desire for a monarchial form of government.
Governor G. Mennen Williams, although
he became involved in quite a heated discus-
sion with Kozlov, was actually behaving much
more politely than was Mayor Miriani who
refused to see Kozlov at all. Now that the
visitors have gone, the damage is done; but it
is hoped that the next time "controversial"
visitors come through the Motor City Detroit
will put out the welcome mat, if only for the
few minutes it takes to say a word of greeting.
Trained Arab Leaders
CAIRO, OP)-An American educator returned home this month after
nearly 50 years in the Middle East. Some of his students have be-
come history makers in this area.
Bayard Dodge was for 25 years President of the American Univer-
sity of Beirut. Since he retired in 1943, he has been active in educational
and research work, mostly in Cairo. He is going back to Princeton, N.J.,
with the completed manuscript of a history of Al Azhar University.
At least five of Dodge's former students became Prime Ministers.
The President of the United Nations, Charles Malik, studied under
Dodge. When'the UN was formed at San Francisco, 30 of Dodge's old
students were delegates. Countless cabinet ministers, parliament speak-
4Q1" Tft W~res444Acta'-o yc'T-Co.
PRICES CONTINUE UPWARD:
Expensive Food Not Farmer's Fault
By OVID A. MARTIN
Associated Press Farm Reporter
W ASHINGTON-If rising prices
and inflation become a major
issue in next year's elections-and
political leaders predict they will-
there can be no finger pointing at
The history of prices since
World War II, a period marked by
rising consumer prices, and the
cost of living, shows that farmers
have been more often victims than
villains in the drama of the
Yet the farmer's role is largely
played offstage. Certainly, the
housewife does not see his situa-
tion when she buys groceries. Did
not food prices at retail rise to
a new record high in 1958? Is not
food the largest items in most city
RISING FOOD prices have re-
ceived much public attention as
a part of the overall advance in
the cost of living and in the
decline in the purchasing power
This being the situation,, is not
difficulthto understand why f arm-
yard cries about agricultural
prices have made little impression
on budget-minded consumers. Per-
haps this helps explain why the
present.rCongress is reluctant to
take broad action demanded by
some farm leaders to bolster the,
But it should be pointed out in
behalf of farmers that contrary
to the prevailing belief, food prices
are not as high in relation to the
average of all consumer prices as
they were in 1952 and several
earlier postwar years. The fact of
the matter-is lower prices received
by farmers in recent years have
kept food prices from rising as
much since 1952 as other con-
* * *
RECORDS SHOW that since
World War II, consumer prices
on the average have stabilized or
declined only when farm prices of
food raw materials declined.
The agricultural marketing
service says the relative stability
of the consumer price index, as
determined by the Bureau of La-.
bor Statistics, during the last few
months has been associated with
lower farm prices.
An idea of what has happened
to food and farm prices since 1952
is shown by these facts: A given
Quality of food termed the "mar-
ket basket" by the agriculture
department-used for measuring
price changes -- cost consumers
$1,034 in 1952. The same quantity
was costing at the annual rate of
$1,065 in 1958. This was an in-
crease of $31 or 3 per cent over
THERE IS nothing in these fig-
ures to evoke the housewife's sym-
pathy for the farmer.
But, the government calculated
that in 1952, the farmer got $482
as his share of the market basket
supply and only $427 in 1958. In
other words, his share declined
$55 or nearly 12 per cent.
By April this year, the farm
share had declined to the annual
average of $405. But some of this
decline reflects the fact that the
cost of the market basket had
eased off to the annual average of
$1,033 that month, giving con-
sumers a little relief.
Then, why did food prices set a
record last year? The explanation
is found in the cost of processing,
transporting and distributing the
food to consumers.
In 1952, the marketing cost of
the market basket was $552 or $70
more than the amount paid f arm-
ers. By 1958, the marketing mar-
gin had increased to $638. In
other words, the farm take for the.
market basket declined $31 be-
tween 1952 and 1958 but the mar-
keting cost increased $86.
-THE Agricultural Marketing
Service sees no letup in the rising
cost of putting farm raw ma-
terials into market. baskets of
consumers. A recent report said
the upward pressure on marketing
costs seems likely to continue. ,
"More rigidities - on the down-
ward side -- seem to be built into
the marketing system than ever
before. The upward climb of
wages has been only slightly re-
tarded during recent recessionary
periods. The continued growth of
fringe benefits adds to the inflex-
ibility of labor costs . , . taxes,
real estate and capital costs, and
transportation and utility charges
are other items adding to the up-
ward pressure on costs over which
marketing firms have little direct
control," the report said.
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
DESPITE ONE phrase revealing
his inner feelings, the Secre-'
tary of State was a milder man
at his news conference Thursday
than when he returned from Gen-
eva two weeks ago.
He was mild enough to suggest
that the signals are on for a sum-
Pressed . for a word as to his
feelings on the eve of his return
to Geneva, Secretary Herter at
first tried to get away with say-
ing he was not optimistic, but
wouldn't say he was pessimistic.
Then he finally admitted that, a
description of his feelings about
trying to do business with the So-
viet Union would be unprintable.
* * *
MORE significant, however, was
his reversal of a line ini his post-
Geneva report to the nation. Then
he expressed doubt that the So-
viets really wanted an agreement
over Germany and Berlin. Thurs-
day he said he thought they were
This statement tied in with re-
ports from Geneva that the West-
ern allies would come up with a
slight variation of their previous
proposals in order to get every-
body out of Geneva and on the
road to the summit without loss.
W. Averell Harriman, after
talking with Khrushchev, and de-
spite the very tough line then
displayed by the Soviet premier,
has suggested that a summit con-
ference should be held regardless.
All the British leaders are for
it, and the wind has been blowing
toward a reduction by President
Eisenhower of the. amount of
progress at lower levels which he
will ultimately demand before
packing his bags. There are re-
ports in London of Soviet willing-
ness to freeze the Berlin situation
for a while.
HARRIMAN'S suggestion of a
summit meeting in New York
seems likely to get some atten-
tion. There has been considerable
pressure for putting the negotia-,
tions under the wing of the
United Nations if not under its di-
This would relieve the United
States of some of the formal re-
sponsibilities connectedwith a
Khrushchev visit and still open
the opportunity which Harirman
mentions of correcting some of
the premier's ignorance about
Herter will confer with Harri-
man today before leaving for qpe-
neva, and the estimates made by
the former ambassador to Mos-
cow will have their influence.
ers, senators, and diplomats are
numbered among his graduates.
"BUT IT ISN'T the prime min-
isters and other big names who
give me greatest pride," Dodge
says. "I consider our greatest con--
tribution the army of teachers, civ-
il servants, and professional people
who have gone to the remotest sec-.
tors of the Middle East to improve
Young Arabs who studied at Bei.
rut during the Dodge administra-
tion did not necessarily come out
pro-American. Often the reverse
was true. Dodge tried to teach his
students to think for themselves.
The many times Dodge has had
to engage in relief work for various
kinds of refugees is a barometer of
the sufferings and upheavals the
20th century brought to the Middle
East. But he has seen the city, of
Beirut grow from a provincial town.
to an ultra-modern seaport.
He also has seen the emergence
of some tolerance- and liberal
thinking in an area where bigotry
and prejudice once reigned.
WHEN THE UNIVERSITY Med-
ical School was founded, the old
Ottoman Turkish law then pre-
vailing forbade dissection of hu-
man cadavers. University profes
sors had to rob graves under cover
of darkness and smuggle corpses
into the university on donkeys'
The university today can con-
duct any kind of research unham-
pered by the law.
By 1924, Dodge opened up the
university to coeducation. The first
Moslem woman to enroll wore two
veils to class. Her husband enrolled
as a special student so that he
could watch her.
Coeds at the university today are
as free and relaxed as in most
THE SCHOOL TODAY has more
than 3,000 students. Students and
teachers of many different reli-
gions mingle without distinction.
The school still is largely financel
by private American donations, but
many teachers, including its Dean
of Arts and Sciences, are Arabs.
The Daily Official Bulletin is'an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michiga~n Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices sloul,
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1959
VOL. LXIX, NO. 14-
Classical Studies Coffee Hour: Tues,
aJuly 14, E. Conf. Rm.,'Rackam. 4 p.m.
Prof. Ernst Pulgram. ,"inoa Linear
Forum Lecture, auspices of Linguis-
institute. "The Physiological vs.
the Acoustical Basis for Phonemic
Theory.",Prof. Gordon E. Peterson,
Tues., July 14. 7:30 p.m., Rackham Am-
Brandenburg Concertos: The Six
Brandenburg Concertos by Johann e-
Bastian Bach, Rackham Lecture Hall,-
Sun., July 12, at 3:00 and 8:30 p.m.
Music Education Lecture: Donald
Shetler. July 3, 4:15 p.m. "Audio
Visual Materials for School music
Teaching. Aud. D, Angell Hall.
Student- Recital: George McWhorter,
baritone, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master
of Music, Aud A, Angell Hall, Tues.,
July 14. 8 :30 p~m.
Student Recital: Jerrold Lawless,
clarinetist, July 11, 8:30 p.m., Aud. A,
Angell Hall, in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree Mas-
ter of Music.
Doctoral Examination for Joan Vir-
ginia Williams, Psych.; thesis: "The
influence of Therapist Commitment on
Progress in Psychotherapy," Tues.,
' July 14, 7611 HavenrHall, at 12:30 p.m.
Chairman,, E. S. Bordin.
The, following schools have listed
teaching vacancies with the Bureau of
Appointments for the 1959-60 school
Albion, Mich. -- Elementary.
Arlington Heights, Il. -- Early Ele-
Battle Creek, Mich. (Pennfield Sch.)
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
:.. Johnson and His Critics
E HAVE BEEN seeing once again that.this
country cannot be governed from the other
end of Pennsylvania Ave., that is to say from
Congress. The Democrats have big majorities
in both houses but they cannot mobilize them
to impose a positive program on the President.
They can deny him what he asks, and he can
deny them what they want. But the center of
authority cannot be moved from the White
House to the Capitol.
This being a presidential system of govern-
ment, only the President can govern. The Con-
gress can oppose him, it can obstruct him, and
it can stop him from governing, that is why
Congressional government, as Woodrow Wilson
said in his book seventy-five years ago, is bad
government. The Congressrcannot take the
place of the President in order' to govern- in-
stead of him.
AT BOTTOM this is, as I understand it, the
reason why Sen. Lyndon Johnson defers to
the President so much on bills dealing with
expenditures. The Democrats with all their
majority cannot compel the President to spend
more than he is willing to spend. They could
compel .him to spend less. But they cannot
compel him to. spend more. For spending is a
positive act of governing and Congress cannot
If, theref ore Congress votes money bills that
the President vetoes, and if neither then yields
to the other, there is a deadlock of mutual
obstruction which in the field covered by the
bill brings the government to a standstill.
A responsible party leadership will not, in
Sen. Johnson's philosophy, bring the govern-
the final showdown they will have to choose be-
tween letting the President have the smaller
bill which he wants and getting no housing bill
What then would the critics have Sen. John-
son do? They say they would have him use the
Democratic majority to pass bills that they be-
lieve in, and then to let the President veto
them, and having made this demonstration for
the record, to accept the President's half-loaf
rather than no bread at all.
In discussing this proposed tactic in another
article I pointed out that it is insincere and un-
convincing in a time of boom like the present
to enact a bill to spend more money unless it
is accompanied by a bill to raise more taxes. If
the tactic is insincere and also unconvincing it
is surely not good politics, and Sen. Johnson
has been right to avoid it.
But is that all? I think not. The political
tactic proposed by Sen. Johnson's critics would
be a mistake. But surely they are not wholly
wrong in their feeling that somehow a Demo-
cratic Congress should be doing something of
its own besides choosing between obstructing
the President or giving in to him. What could
that something be? It would be to prepare
public opinion for the future, which is not yet
here but is near at hand. It would be to pre-
pare public opinion for the decade of the six-
ties which, assuming that there is no war, is
bound to be an era of great innovation and de-
velopment of our public activities.
Without doubt, this will require more taxes
out of a more rapidly growing economy.
It is here that Sen. Johnson and the Con-
TRIBUNAL ENDS NINE-MONTH TERM:
supreme.Court Conservative Trend Debated
By PAUL M. YOST
WASHINGTON (-) - The Su-
preme Court completed a
nine-month term last week amid
much debate whether it has taken
a slight turn to the right.
Some conservatives saw in sev-
eral decisions a strategic retreat.
They say the Court was trying
to (1) placate outspoken critics
among jurists, lawyers and lay-
men, and (2) take some of the
steam out of Congressional
threats to cut the scope of the
Court's work and override some
of its rulings.
On the other side of the debate,
this is the argument:
* * *
NO TWO CASES are exactly
alike and the Court carefully sifts
facts -and law as found in each in-
dividual appeal. Different out-
comes on issues that seem alike
thus may be misinterpreted as
sweeping new trends in judicial
Before the Court opened its
1958-59 term last October 5 it was
under the heaviest barrage of
criticism it had experienced in
A burst of liberal decisions, in-
cluding, 5-4 rulings favoring fed-
eral powers over those of states,
and Congressional committee in-
observers, weakened) the Court's
earlier rulings in the widely-dis-
cussed Watkins and Nelson cases.
The new decisions in broad terms
upheld the power of Congress and
state legislatures to investigate
Justice Harlan said in one of
the majority opinions:
"So long as Congress acts in
pursuance of its constitutional
power (to investigate), the judi-
ciary lacks authority to intervene
on the basis of the motives which
s p u r r esd the exercise of that
* * *
THE DECISION upheld the
contempt conviction of Lloyd Bar-
enblatt, former Vassar College
professor, for refusing to answer
questions asked by the House
Committee on Un-American Acti-
vities about Communist associa-
Harlan's opinion settled ques-
tions raised two years earlier aft-
er the Court ruled in the case of
John T. Watkins, a labor union
The Watkins ruling was that a
Congressional committee could
not compel answers from a wit-
ness unless it made clear to him
the subject of the inquiry and the
pertinence of the questions to
themselves when it threw out in
1956 the conviction of Steve Nel-
son, a Communist, under Pennsyl-
vania's Sedition Act. The Nelson
ruling had been widely interpret-
ed as strikingdown sedition laws
of many states.
Said Justice Clark in the Up-
"All the Nelson opinion pro-
scribed was a race between federal
and state prosecutors to the
courthouse door . . . the - investi-
gation (by New Hampshire) was
undertaken in the interest of self
preservation. This governmental
interest outweighs i n d i v i d u a 1
A quartet referred to as the
Court's liberal bloc, comprising
Chief Justice Warren and Jus-
tices Black, Douglas and Brennan,
dissented in both the Barenblatt
and Uphaus cases.
THIS SIDE LOST three'other
important cases on the day of the
Barenblatt and Uphaus decisions.
These were: a decision that
health inspectors may enter a
private home without a warrant;
a ruling that a defendant may be
prosecuted by federal and state,
courts for the same offense, de-
spite the double jeopardy provi-
sions of the United States Consti-
- , Pffhm nA- n-ti *
its 1957 decision on the same pro-
cedure, governed the actions of
trial" courts hereafter. The liberal
bloc went along with the latest
Jercks decision, butsaidrJustice
Frankfurter went further, than
necessary in his interpretation of
* * *
IN APPROVING the Jencks
Law, the Court recognized the
right of Congress to legislate in a
way which alters or modifies an
earlier decision by. the high tri-
bunal. Some observers took this as
the Court's reply to arguments
that- there is something, improper
about any act of Congress which
overrides a decision by the tri-
But while conservatives were.
welcoming the "new trend", War-
ren was writing an opinion to up-
set the; government's industrial
security program covering about
three million workers in private
Warren delivered his opinion on
the final day of court. It said
neither the President nor Con-
gress- had specifically authorized
the program. Justice Clark, the.
lone dissenter, insisted there had
been ample ratification of the
program by Congress and by
Presidents Roosevelt. Truman and