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On War Leaders Out
By LEWIS GULICK
W ASHINGTON WP)-Benito Mussolini looked like a man under tre-
mendous physical strain early in World War II. "for he has
procured a new and young Italian mistress only 10 days ago."
Adolph Hitler, by contrast, seemed in top physical shape and not
at all like a mustached funnyman. '
Hitler's economic wizard, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, whispered, of
plans to overthrow Der Fuehrer.
Winston S. Churchill orated brilliantly and at length-except it
was all a rehash of one of his books,
These intimate glimpses of Europe's wartime leaders came to
light Sunday with the State Department's publication of "Undersecre.
, JULY 1, 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: SELMA SAWAYA
SEVEN-YEAR-OLD Minnesota farm boy
hias been getting one of the best primary-
le educations available in the United States
y. He has been receiving instruction in
'ses which are advanced far beyond the
nd-grade level, where the average seven-
'-old would be.
is curriculum consists of German, geogra--
grammar, mythology, fractions, poetry,
even studying chess. He reads books that
ordinarily offered to 13-year-olds. His IQ
igh, but not unusually so. He studies *a
i six hours each day, all of his study time
g devoted to serious pursuit of his curricu-
, none of it being wasted on "life adjust-
t" and "social adaptability," the elenkentary
1 equivalent of high school "basket-weav-.
nd young Tommy Kral's teacher is a de-
d, well-frained tutor, who can afford to
d all the :time necessary to help her pupil
s mother, Mrs. Kral, who had been a=
olteacher earlier, and who now utilizes her'
ner training to her son's obvious benefit.
Kral, a mathematician, also helps with
imy's educational program, as witnessed by
erstwhile second-grader's tussle with frac-'
s, a subject normally reserved for students
least two years further advanced than
)WEVER, Tommy's education, since it
takes place inthe comfort and security of
home, is illegal in Minnesota, where the
is live. A Municipal Court judge in Still--
er last week sentenced Mr. and Mrs. Kral
) days in jail (pending appeal) for keeping;
r son out of "school"-"school" in its sense
public or established private" school. And
ourse, no matter how good the teacher or
bright and advanced the student, the
1 home cannot qualify under either defini-
of the term "school."
he parents had removed Tommy from the
eland-Afton public school -.after watching
spend a large part of his day (wastefully,v
ar as they were concerned) on such activi-.
common to elementary schools as "life-
ing"-in which each child stands up in
and tells the others some little incident'
h has happened to him at home or on the
to school, theoretically teaching the little
lies the joys of sharing one's own joys with
rs-"evaluation," and other attempts by
school system to take the pain out of
-ing-although they take most of the edu-
on out of the learning process at the same
he Krals believed, with justification, that
were well-enough qualified to teach Tom-
at home anything he' might be learning in
01, at the same time giving him a great,
more than he was getting in school. There
no private school within 25 miles in which
to enroll him, so a home education was the
most attractive, if the only, alternative,
AT THE KRAL'S trial, four professors from
the :University' of Minnesota praised Tom-.
my's home curriculum, and not a single witness
criticized it. The prosecution was content
merely to quote the state's compulsory school-
attendance law, and on that basis received a
The parent-educators will appeal the case;
they "know what they are doing and would
mortgage their farm (near Hastings) sooner
than give up their legal fight." The case is not
merely the State of Minnesota vs. Krals; it
involves the right of any parents to educate
their children, particularly a set of parents
like -the ones in question who "have set up
standards of education which are superior to
those set by the state, not in defiance of them.
"Most of the advances and reforms that
haVe been made in education ,.. . have been
made not by 'togetherness' but by rebels," Mrs.
Kral made this remark. just recently; it is an
indication of the mental climate which causes
the, Krals to pursue their fight for education.
The fact that they have a distinct aversion for
"progressive" education of the kind served in
Tommy's school and in many other schools
'across the country lends strength to their
motive, but is subsidiary to their cause.
WHAT THEY ARE fighting for, precisely, is
the right of parents to educate their chil-
dren in the manner the parents choose-if
parents have, the choice now (and there was
a 'time when they didn't) of sending their
children to either a public or a parochial
school (or a private school), why should they
not also have the choice of educating their
If they can do it competently-and the
Krals have amply demonstrated that they
can-then there is no reason for extending
the monopoly, which once belonged to the
public schools but which now seems like a
public-parochial-private school monopoly, to
exclude parents who are. qualified and willing
to educate their children.
Even if United States schools were model
educational institutions, the state should not
be allowed to gain this monopoly. If the Krals
can carry this case to the Supreme Court,
perhaps it will be decided there whether the
Minnesota compulsory attendance law is too
strict or just too st'ictly intrepreted. What-
ever the decision, it is hoped that the Krals'
method of home education will get the "go-
ahead" signal from the Court, and that the
right of parents to determine their children's
educational future will be unhampered by state
laws based on the "education through con-
r sN. .-_.
. k 9 ' ,Dptr- , 5 'f N -~ s#v te.
tary Sumner Welles' secret report
to President Franklin D. Roose-
velt on Welles' peace mission to
the continent in February-March
ROOSEVELT sent Welles over
to sound out prospects for a ne-
gotiated settlement. The envoy,
after confidential talks with gov-
ernment heads, came home with
word that statesmanship of the
highest order would be required-
and "I saw no signs of statesman-
ship of that kind in any of the
countries I visited."
Welles published most of his
findings in his 1944 book, "The
Time for Decision." But he left
out some of the personal details
which spiced his private report to
Roosevelt, such as the note about'
Mussolini's mistress. Welles' com-
"I was profoundly shocked by,
the Duce's appearance . . . the
man I saw before me seemed 15
years older than his actual age of
58. He was ponderous and static,
rather than vital. He moved with
an elephantine motion . . . his
close-clipped hair is snow white.
"Mussolini impressed me as a
man laboring under some tremen-
dous strain; physical unquestion-
ably, for he has procured a new
and young Italian mistress (not
named) only 10 days ago; but. in
my definite judgment, mental as
well - One could almost sense a
"As, soon as the preliminary
courtesies had been concluded,.
Mr..Churchill commenced an ad-
dress which lasted exactly one
hour and 50 minutes, and during
which I was never given the op-
portunity to say a word.
"It constituted a cascade of ora-
tory, brilliant and always effec-
tive, interlarded with considerab
wit.. It would have impressed m
more had I not alreadyreahd
book, 'Step by Step,' (of whit
incidentally, he gave me an auto
graphed copy before I left) an
of which his address to me con
stituted a rehash."
"The new chancery ., remind
me of a factory building. My ca
drove into atrectangular cou
with very 'high blank walls,
one end was a flight of broa
steps leading into the chancer
Monumental black nudes flanke
the portico to which the stet
led. The whole impression of ti
court was reminiscent of nothin
other than a prison courtyard .
"Hitler .is taller than I ha
judged from his photographs. H
has, in real life, none of th
of which he has been accused. I
looks in excellent physical cond
tion and good training .. .
* * *
''HE WAS dignified both .
speech and movement, and the
was not the slightest impressio
of the comic effect fr'om mustach
and hair which one sees in h
Schacht, whose anti-Hitle
schemings became known aft
"Dr. Schacht said: 'I cann
write a letter, I cannot have
conversation, I cannot telephor
I cannot move, without its beli
"Then, leaning over and talkii
in a whisper, he -said, 'If wh
I am going to tell you now
known, I will be dead with
"He gave me to understand th
a movement was under' wa
headed by leading generals,
supplants the Hitler regime. . .
Carb bean Can' u4el
By THOMAS TURNER
SAN JUAN, P.R. - The biggest
news in Puerto Rico these days
concerns the apparently sputtering
For months, a groups of exiles
from the neighboring Dominican
Republic have beenholding per-
iodic anti-Trujillo demonstrations.
My first encounter with them was
last week, after they had some-
thing to be excited about.
Down the main street of the
Condado, residential area in which
I live, came a parade of 12 to 15.
late-model cars, led by a sound-
truck. People were leaning put of
car windows, waving red, white
and blue Dominican flags $ and
holding up signs blasting Trujillo.
"Trujillo's bombing a defenseless
populace," one read. "Trujillo,
Shame of the Dominican Re-
public," said another.
THE FRONT PAGES of the San
Juan papers have been coveied
with articles on the fighting. First,
Dominican exiles here and in Ha-
vana claimed an expeditionary
force of 300 had landed. Trujillo's
government denied all.,
Wednesdaythe headlines read:
Dominican Government Says
Rebels Say Government
Bombing the Populace
It was an orderly.demonstration,
accompanied by a' police escort.
Exiles here told reporters the
government claims that specific
rebels had been slain were ruses,
that the so-called dead men had
been heard on the radio since.
They compared Trujillo's claims
of complete success to tactics im-
ployed by former Cuban dictator
Batista and ex-Argentine boss
Juan Peron are, incidentally, now
in exile on the Dominican Re-
public. They have apparently
grown uneasy about their security
and begun looking for a new hide-
away. Switzerland has reportedly
turned thumbs down on the pair
* * *
A NOTE of melodrama, at times
almost humorous, has been added
to the revolution by what the pa-
pers here call El Caso Simo (the
Simo Case). Juan de Dias Ven-
tura Simo, a captain in the Do-
minican Air Force, recently landed
his jet plane on a tiny airstrip at
the town of Arecibo (40 miles west
of San Juan and closer to the
He appeared on local radio-TV
stations and before the press, tell-
ing of his flight from Trujillo's
Then he announced he was leav-
ing Puerto Rico, where he had "too
many enemies." He presumably
left for Venezuela, like Puerto
Rico and Cuba strongly anti-Tru-
Soon afterward, a man pur,
portedly Simo turned up on Voz
Dominicana, the Trujillo radio,
He has been praised by his gov-
ernment for leading anti-Trujillo
forces into ambush, and been pro-
moted to Lieutenant-Colonel.
Trujillo's staff then added in-
sult to injury by' maneuvering
United StatesAmbassador Joseph
Farland into a hand - shaking
photograph with Col. Simo.
But the Dominican exiles say
the colonel is an imposter.
Friday, it was reported the
colonel had been executed.
Meanwhile, fighting apparently
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Russia Remains Loser
. n By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
WENTY YEARS AGO this week there began one of the most fW
ful pieces of doublecrossing in world history.
Britain and France were trying to arrange with the Soviet Un
an- entente whichwould contain Adolph Hitler.
Hitler was so disturbed he was willing to back away from a cc
bination of policiest toward Eastern Europe which Russia conside
r On June 29 the German ambassador, after some prelimin
feelers, went to see Foreign Minister Molotov at the Kremlin.
* * * *
'THE UNITED STATES State Department, which published
years ago the captured German documents covering the negotiatic
has now published American papers throwing additional light.
In retrospect, it's a wonder that Molotov didn't lose his job
the "result of these negotiations, instead of hanging on until Stali
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
RALLY 'ROUND, BOYS:
Flag Makers Fret over Old Glory
By WALTER LIPPMANN
THE LATEST returns in the Gallup poll con-
tinue to show a big majority for President
Eisenhower in the White House and almost as
big a majority for the Democrats in Congress.
Eisenhower's popularity, which is 62 per cent,
would mean in an election 'a huge landslide.
The Democratic party's majority for Congress,
which is 59 per cent, would be sufficient on
election day to give it an even bigger majority
in both Houses than the big majority it al-
ready has today.
The Gallup poll is not infallible. But in fore-
casting elections its range of error is never
nearly so big that it would change the general
conclusions. The country would vote now, as
it did in 1956, for Eisenhower and a Democratic
OR 1960, the =irst question then is whether
Eisenhower's popularity is personal .and
special to him, or whether it is; so to speak,
"Republican" and can be inherited by Nixon or
Rockefeller. There is no sure answer. One can
only guess. My guess is that for the Presidency
there may well be a Republican majority
brought together by two main popular beliefs
and one political tradition. A majority of the
people may think that the Republicans are more
likely to avoid war than are the Democrats. The
second popular belief is that with business
booming, the Republicans are more likely to
resist the inflation of prices and to keep taxes
The third is the circumstance that because
the Democratic party consists of several dif-
ferent factions, it has a sure majority only in
Congressional elections. For in them each fac-
tion can vote separately-for example for
segregation in Mississippi and against segrega-
tion in New York. These separate votes for fac-
tional representatives, when combined in Con-
gress, are a large majority. But when all the
factions have to unite on one candidate for
President, it is not at all certain that there
is a sure Democratic majority.
Democrats-something on the order of 10 per
cent; This is not easy for the Republican candi-
date to 'do if the Democrats are able to com-
promise their worst differences on civil rights,
are able to present a candidate who creates
confidence in his ability to conduct foreign
affairs and who does not frighten the taxpay-
ers and those living on fixed incomes-including
fixed salaries and wages.
For while there may be a Republican ma-
jority for the Presidency, it can exist only when
the Republican candidate can, like Gen. Eisen-
hower, attract Democrats.
Nixon's greatest weakness is that, having been
a bitter fighter against the Democrats, he has
acquired so many bitter enemies among the
Democrats. Unless by a turn of fate he becomes
President. long enough before the election to
establish a new image of himself, he is the Re-
publican who most surely unites the Democrats.
That is why the Democratic politicians so gen-
erally are hoping that Nixon will be nominated
and are so deeply afraid that Rockefeller will be.
IN ESTIMATING Rockefeller's chances of be-
ing, nominated, we must, however, bear in
mind that Nixon has one enormous advantage.
It is very dangerous for the Republican pro-
fessionals to oppose Nixon, dangerous for them
even to wait too long to come out in favor of
him. That is because of the possibility that
Nixon may be President with all the patronage
and the power of the White House at his
The main problem of the Democrats is an
old one in American politics. It is that the
leadership of the party is in Congress, and
when that is the case, the capture of the
Presidency is secondary to the holding on to
the control of Congress. As a matter of fact,
without being cynical about it, the Congres-
sional leaders - not only Sen. Johnson and
Speaker Rayburn, but the old gentlemen who
are chairmen of most of.the committees - are
much more impor'tant and powerful with a
Repuhlican in the Whitp uma +1,s,.. +.av
By ARTHUR EDSON
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
G MAKERS are in a red,
white and blue funk, and Sen.
Clifford P. 'Case YR-N.J.) regrpts
nothing much can be done about
As you possibly'don't know, New
Jersey is one of our leading flag
producers. Theoretically, these
should be the days of their glory.
Old glory, of course.
Here is the Fourth of July, only
a few firecrackers away. Here is
the first new United States flag
in 47 years ready for unfurling.
Each of us should be marching
briskly to our nearest flag store.
But we aren't.
*1 * *
THE BIG flag boom has busted.
From the flag makers' viewpoint,
the trouble can be summed up like
July 7, 1958-President Eisen-
hower.signs bill that will permit
Alaska to come into the union.
Hooray! Hooray for the 49th state!
'Flag makers wigwag the great
news to America's Betsy Rosses to
have thesir needles on the ready.
Only a -few formalities, like rede-
signing the flag, remain.
March 18, 1959 >-- Eisenhower
signs bill to permit Hawaii to come
into the Union.
* * *
HAWAII? NOW just a minute!
Just one flag-waving little minute!
Hawaiians are great, but, to a
maker of flags, this complicates
things no end.
Or, to borrow the words of Jo-
seph Krause, Vice-President of the
United Textile Workers, from his
letter to Sen. Case:
"There is so much confusion
about flags that people, private
and governmental agencies are not
buying new flags.-
"First people were reluctant to
buy 48-star flags. When Alaska was
voted statehood, the government
delayed decision on the design for
the 49-star flag for almost six
months. Now that Hawaii was
granted statehood and a 50-star
flag is imminent, the purchase of
new flags has virtually ceased."
Krause's conclusion: "Everyone
is waiting for the 50-star flag."
* * *
AND HIS PLEA: let's get going
on the new design so that workers
who sew on flags can get back to
Well, Case checked with the
White House and reported yes-.
terday that there's. not much to
report. We'll have the new 49-star
model July 4th, and the newer 50-
star model July 4, 1950. But when,
the 50-star design will be ready
is still a guess.
Now let's turn to flag maker
Theodore Christensen for his views
of the flag situation.
"The boom is gone," he said.
Christensen is with Washing-
ton's oldest flag makers, the Cope-
land Company. It is a small out-
fit, but it has been in business 97
"Nearly everybody got carried
away," Christensen said. "Every-
body was geared up, and then,
boom! The personal market fell
off. The government quit ordering.
Everyone said, 'we'll just wait,' and
that's the short and sweet of it."
death to be scuttled eventuaUy by]
became one 'of the world's slickest
diplomats after the war, it was
Ribbentrop and his cohorts before
the war who taught him many of
Molotov was suspicious of the
Germans from the start. Germany
and Russia both claimed conflict-
ing spheres of interest in the
Baltic states, Poland and the Bal-
* * *
BUT HITLER and Mussolini,
were at that very moment plan-
ning the acts of aggression which
produced World War II.
The German told the Russians
flatly that their main policy was.
directed not at Eastern Europe,
but against. England.
That should suit the Russians
fine, the Germans said, since the
Soviet Union like the Axis was
directed against England.
If Russia would go along, ac-
cepting coexistence with Japan in
the' Far East and with Germany
in Eastern Europe and the Middle
East, then the USSR could have
its sphere of influence in those
areas while Italy and Germany
pursued their, fortunes elsewhere
* * *
HITLER WAS prepared, or at
least he so convinced Molotov and
Stalin, to leave Russia a free
hand after the war at the Dar-
danelles, in the Baltic States, and
in the Bessarabian area of Ru-
mania. Russia was to have a large
part of Poland unless the two big
nations finally agreed it would be
better, .after the war, to re-etb
lish a Polish state.
Britain and France were un-
willing to make the kind of all-
out deal that Stalin wanted.
Molotov, Ribbentrop and Stalin
got together over what must have
been, judging by the number of
Khrushchev. If it was Molotov w
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WEDNESDAY, JULY 1, 1959 .
VOL. LXIX, NO. 7-S
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