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June 23, 1959 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1959-06-23

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"Think He'll Thaw Out And Come To Life Again ?"

zh nthgalt BaAi IIy
Sixty-Ninth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
When Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
ESDAY, JUNE 23, 1959 NIGHT EDITOR: THOMAS HAYDEN

- a

I

NOVEL SITUATION:
Maldives Want Closer
British Cooperation
By PHILIP SHERMAN
Daily Staff Writer
A NOVEL SITUATION has arisen in world politics: a small Asian
nation has been the scene of a rebellion because its government is
not cooperating with Great Britain.
In the Maldive Islands, south of Ceylon, a rebel group has set
up a government with a program of cooperation with Great Britain.
Because the established government is dragging its feet in negotia-
tions with Britain for the construction of a big air base, the rebels'
desire ot replace it and speed along the talks. The base, which is to be
built on Addu Atoll, would bring new prosperity to the population of
80,000.
Addu Atoll is by nomeansunfamiliar to British armed forces. In
the early days of World War II, Britain's Vice-Admiral Somerville used
it as a fueling base, and his slow battleships used it as a haven from
the Japanese aircraft, but he always considered it as a secondary ex-
pedient.
The change from an emergency wartime base to a front line in-
stallation illustrates the fortunes of British armed forces in the area,
and poses a serious strategic question. In the old days of the Empire
"on which the sun never set," there was a chain of island bases stretch-

Strauss Rejection
A Da ngerous Precedent

t
f
a
I
E
1

[HERE IS something almost frightening in
the Congressional rejection of President
isenhower's nomination of Lewis Strauss as
ecretary of Commerce.
The worst part of the affair lies not in the
ation's loss of Strauss himself, although this
an be argued strenuously. Nor is the worst
f it even in the messy political work by which
he appointment was defeated. Politics, some-
ow, have a way of carving their own tortuous
alleys, even through the tough, resistant rock
ff "clean-government" adepts and political
lealists. It has become rather clear that the
tanners and methods of politicians will never
eally change.
O, THE GREAT LOSS to the nation in the
rejection of Lewis Strauss is the privilege of
he President to have in his Cabinet any person
e chooses, so long as that person is, in the
ld phrase, "of sound mind," and not blatant-
7 incapable of performing his duties. It is a
ss that is neither the first nor the last in a
eries of steps that is more and more swinging
he United States toward full legislative su-
r.wm.v _ s

This is not a new idea, nor is the fear of
complete Congressional supremacy a new fear.
Yet it continues to get worse.
It seems foolish, somehow, for anyone but a
Supreme Court Justice to refer back to the
original purposes of the framers of the Amer-
ican Constitution. Yet ultimately, this con-
cept - purpose - has come to be, accepted as'
one of the bases of constitutional interpreta-
tion. And the avowed purpose of the Constitu-
tion was, of course, to provide for as much
separation as possible.
THIS MEANS that the President must be
able to maintain his executive department
almost entirely as he wishes, so long as he ad-
heres to democratic and Constitutional pro-
cesses.
This he will not be able to do, unless he is
empowered to surround himself with the men
he wants. And the Strauss case, if it becomes
a precedent, will have deprived him of this
right.
-SUSAN HOLTZER
Co-Editor

r*
- :- >.
~HO of.
4. T
CAPITAL COMMENTARY:
Senate Mistake
.y WILLIAM S. WHITE

Reappraisal?

ON THE SURFACE, the three per cent drop
in freshman engineering 'enrollment is a
pity, for it seems to reflect a decline in interest
in an important technical area. However, in-
ferences discovered below that surface make
the picture look a little brighter.
It is possible that the reasons for this de-
cline, as listed by deans and presidents in a
national survey of 151 engineering colleges, are
valid. They claim that a "false appraisal" of
an engineer's long-range career opportunities,
the rumored difficulty of the curriculum and
a marked increase in student interest in other
scientific fields are responsible for the change.
But, rather than having somewhat limiting
implications, the trend may indicate a broaden-,
ing of horizons.
THE FIRST INFERENCE is the realization
of the role of a university. Students may

suddenly have decided that college is more than
a factory for mass-producing people in the pro-
fessions. The trend towards increased total
freshman enrollment, with a corresponding de-
crease in freshman engineering school matricu-
lation, may indicate that students are using
college for a well-rounded education.
Second, as opposed to the survey's conclu-
sion of a "false appraisal" of engineering op-
portunities by counselors and students, the
decline; may indicate, this assumption's very
anti-thesis. Students, with the aid of high
school advisers, may be abandoning the ma-
terialistic, "that's the career to make- a pile of
money in" approach.
And, utilizing the advice of counselors and
the results of aptitude tests, they may be
choosing to follow careers for which they are
better suited.
-NORMA SUE WOLFE

TODAY AND TOMORROW:

THE REPORT of the Pr
visory Committee, of w
the chairman, was publis'
a general blessing from th
that he hoped it wouldl
that it would stimulate a
of the importance of exce
tional system.
Among the crucial idea
understanding is the co
port that "doubling our
vestment in education isl
rather than an extravagan
This does not mean, of
spent twice as much on ou
automatically become twic
sors of the report are an
tinguished men in America
make it clear that to imp
cation very important ref
the recruiting of teachersf
which they teach.
What they do say is tha
have to be paid for and
one is really serious aboi
of education who does not
raising more money.
][HE BEST discussion
money and education i
Rockefeller Brothers Repo
"The Pursuit of Excellence
lem clearly, says the rep
that since 1870 "we have h
cators one of the most h
society could have invent
The assignment has be
whole mass of the Ameri
1870 and 1955 our populat
plied by four. But the nu
our public high schools has
mately eighty times.
In a period of three-qu
"we have taken into the sc
er proportion of our youn
kept more of them in the
any other nation." Sheer si

Funds for-Education
By WALTER LIPPMANN
esident's Science Ad- the only, but surely they are the main reasons,
hich Dr. Killian was why our educational system is so far short
shed recently. It had of being excellent.
e President who said Education on such a scale, if it is to be
be widely read and good for the great mass and excellent for the
wider understanding very gifted few, is bound to be expensive. As
llence in our educa- of 1955, the most recent year for which the
figures are available, the total spent in this
s that need a wider country on education was 14 billion dollars a
rclusion of the re- year. This breaks down into 9.4 billions for
current annual in- public elementary and secondary schools, 1.2
probably a minimal billions for private elementary and secondary
ptro y mal."schools, 1.5 billions for ;public higher educa-
course, that if we tion, and 1.9 billions for private higher edu-
it schools, they could cation.
re aschoodTheyspound- aThe President's Science Advisory Committee
e as good. The spo-and the Rockefeller Brothers Report agree that
nong the most dis- the total of 14 billions will have to be doubled
rove American edu- if education is tohbe good enough for the times
Form areneedd in we live in. As the two groups which concur in
orms are needed in this conclusion are composed of eminent, very
highly qualified, and widely experienced men,
we may assume that they know what they are
at these reforms will talking about. Indeed, so far as I know, no one
they imply that no has seriously disputed their conclusion.
ut the improvement
want to think about fJ7HE REAL QUESTION is how to raise the
money. Here, we may begin by insisting that
this country can indubitably afford to raise
of the problem of the money. From. 1930 to 1957 the expenditure
s to be found in the onheduton was more or lesshstationr a
rt under the title of about three and one-half per cent of the Gross
"rT esee the reaob- National Product. It has now risen to about
rt,w must realize four per cent. As the Gross National Product
eaped upon our edu- has risen since 1930, the amount spent on edu-
eroic assignments a cation has risen too. But it has not risen fast
ed" enough to keep pace with the rise in enroll-
een to educate the ments.
can people. Between Thus, in fact, less money Is available for
ion has been multi- each pupil. There is more money. But the
ember of students In -
meruo tdentsroin school population is much bigger. There is,
multiplied approxi- therefore, a growing shortage in our educa-
tional facilities, in classrooms, and in teachers
arters of a century and the like, to deal with our expanding popu-
hool system a great- lation.
gsters and we have If we adopt the conclusion of the President's
system longer than Committee, we should be prepared to spend, by
ze and mass are not say 1967, something like 30 billions. It Is gen-
erally estimated that by 1967 the Gross Nation-
al Product will be around 600 billions. Thus,
tn 1t the expenditure for education would rise from
about four per cent, as at present, to about
five pet cent of the Gross National Product.
taf This percentage looks small, but the real
ROBERT JUNKER figures are big, and the most difficult question
Co-editor- arises as to how these extra 15 billion dollars a
........ Sports Editor
.........Night Editor year are to be raised. Most of us would prefer

IFE DEMOCRATS have won a
costly victory in an unneces-
sary war in the Senate's rejection
of Lewis L. Strauss to be Secretary
of Commerce.
They have refused President Ei-
senhower the privilege of any
President to have a man of his
own choice in the Cabinet so long
as that man is not morally or men-
tally unfit. And they have made
this great demonstration over
what usually is politically the least
significant post in all the Cabinet,
that of commerce.
A Strauss confirmed would have
created for them a far more use-
ful issue for 1960 than a Strauss
repudiated-and repudiated, more-
over, on grounds so thin as to
have no example in our history.
For the very qualities the Demo-
crats attributed to the nominee
would have been endless bad news
for the Republicans had the Demo-
crats allowed him to be confirmed
in office. They found him "ar-
rogant" toward Congress. They
found him "deceitful" (though to
an onlooker his "deceit" seemed
to lie most of all in his refusal to'
cooperate with his Senate prose-
cutors).
THEY DISLIKED him as an
Old Guard Republican, a Herbert
Hoover Republican, an anti-public
man, as indeed he was and is.
Every shortcoming they attributed
to him would inevitably have
weakened the Administration po-

litically had he remained in it.
For his basic political philosophy
has been a handicap'at the na-
tional polls for at least 20 years.
In plain words, the Democrats
have rescued President Eisenhower
from the consequences of what
was, politically, a poor appoint-'
ment in the first place. For the
first personal defeat of President
Eisenhower they have attempted
in his six years in .office they have
chosen the worst possible vehicle.
For wherever elser it may lie,
the true vulnerability of the Ad-
ministration surely cannot be said
to lie in the less-than-burning
question as to who is to run the
Department of Commerce. Mr.
Strauss is incomparably mote 'im-
portant politically as a symbol of
harsh Senate veto than he ever
would have been as a recipient of
Senate approval.
.E * *
IN FACT, in looking back the
whole affair really was a series of
blunders -- by the President, by
Strauss himself in his human but
unwisely belligerent conduct be-
fore the Senate, and by the Demo-
crats. The Republicans would have
been the losers had the Demo-
crats allowed him to be confirmed.
But the Democrats are the net
losers now.
Why, then, did it all happen? It
happened most of all because of
the long frustrations of many
Democrats, mostly liberal Demo-
crats. For years they have been
clamoring that the party must

"fight Eisenhower." Now, at last,
they have prevailed on calmer
colleagues to "fight." Their motive
was understandable, for politics
cannot and should not be simply,
an unending, polite minuet.
*But the trouble was that the
Democrats oversimplified. To
"fight" is one thing. But to fight at
the wrong time in the wrong place
and for the wrong reason is quite
another thing.
THEY GOT the whole question
confused. The point never was
whether Strauss would be a "good"
Secretary of Commerce. The point
never was whether he had the
truly "sound" political ideas of the
present. There were only two sim-
ple and related issues: Did the
President have a right to Strauss
if he wanted him? And was there
against Strauss' fitness to serve
(not his ideas or his personality)
a case so overpowering as to just-
ify turning him down?
The answer to the first question
was plainly yes. The answer to the
second question was plainly no.
And when the passions have died,
some of the men who voted against
Strauss will regret it, for simple
human reasons if not also for po-
litical reasons.
For, politics aside, the Senate,
simple did not live up to its best
traditions; the Senate simply was
not fair.
(Copyright 1959, by United
Features Syndicate, Inc.)

ing from Gibraltar to China and
Australia which served to protect
British commerce. Ceylon was the
center of the complex where
routes split, north to India, east
to China and south to Australia.
THERE IS no longer a base on
Ceylon (Addu Atoll is to serve as
its replacement), there are no In-
dian bases, Singapore is to be
turned free, Suez is gone forever,
and Aden threatened. On the
ends, only Gibraltar, Malta, Hong
Kong and Freemantle, Australia
remain of this once indivisible
chain. The chain was once so
strong that the Royal Navy con-
trolled the Indian Ocean with a
few cruisers tied up in Trinco-
malee and Colombo, its former
Ceylon bases. Now it would need
all of Britain's resources to be
maintained.
Though the Maldive installa-
tion will again serve to tie to-
gether the "imperial lifeline," it
is very small in comparison to the
huge facilities onCeylon and can
be expected to be less useful. Brit-
ain, as can be seen, is rapidly
becoming weaker in the Indian
Ocean because of the loss of
bases, so essential in any sea war-
fare and in modern "limited war."
The question is, who will fill
this power vacuum, left by the
exit of British military and naval
strength? The standard answer is
either India or China, and cer-
tainly this seems correct. Who-
ever win the powre struggle going
on right now will control the In-
dian Ocean, as the British once
did, and reap the full benefits of
the possession of one of the
world's potentially most valuable
areas. The consequences, if China
were to win, could be frightening.
NASSER:
Influence
Declining
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press Foreign News Analyst
AMMAN, Jordan - Here in the
heart of the Arab East, a con-
viction is growing among quali-
fied observers that P r e s i d e n t
Abdul Gamal Nasser's leadership
is going downhill.
Propaganda of his United Arab
Republic is losing its punch - so
much so that Jordan's govern-
ment, long one of its chief tar-
gets, claims it can consider Cairo
broadcasts more or less a minor
problem.
If this is borne out, it promises
to be one of the most important
developments in the Arab world
since the drift in Iraq toward
Communism.
Indeed that is considered one
of the reasons behind Nasser's
gradual decline as a spokesman
for Arab unity.
Jordan's new prime minister,
youngish Hazza al Majali, specu-
lated in an interview today that
the spotlight more and more is
turning on youthful King Hussein
of Jordan as a spokesman for
logical progress toward Arab uni-
ty.
"IN OUR estimation the only
sure way to Arab unity is through
mutual understanding, not
through domination by one side
or the other," Majali said. "His-
torically King Hussein is the logi-
cal choice since, as a member of
the Hashemite family and a des-
cendant of the Prophet Moham-
med, he claims support of the
whole Arab nation (sphere)."
The King's position is strength-
ened by the shock throughout the
whole Arab area at what hap-

pened in Iraq, Majali said.
Referring to Nasser, Majali.said
Arabs will not forget who gave
the Communists their first big
opportunity to gain a foothold in
the Arab East.
In short, he said, Arabs are be-
ginning to ask "will it happen
here?"
* * *
IN A DISCUSSION on this
change of attitude even in the
Palestine area nf Jordan where

DIFFICULT:
Best Shot
At Ventus',
By ALTON BLAKESLEE
Associated Press Science Writer
SOMETIME this month Ventis
invites a come-see-me rocket
visit from the Earth.
There are strong hints the Rus-
sians will try this first flirtation
w i t h a n o t he r pl'a n e t, when
chances are most favorable for
reaching Venus.
But there will be no United
States rival. Despite earlier hopes,
United States scientists won't be
ready for this difficult space shot.
And difficult it wil be, for three
main reasons:
1. The awful truth is no one
knows exactly where:VenuIs,
within about 50,000 miles.
2. The space probe has to b
launched with fantastically pre-
cise speed. An error of one foot
per second in final speed means
missing Venus by 25,000 miles.
Lastly, the probe must carry a
powerful enough, radio voice to
report back millions of miles what
it learns.
YET THE RUSSIANS- might
succeed, scoring another first in
space.
Some problems in shooting for
Venus are outlined by Homer J.
Stewart of NASA, the National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration.
Distance to other planets are
measured by angles from 'Earth.
But it's a short base, and ,the
exact size of the. Earth Isn't
known accurately and the angle
measurements have small errors,
Stewart explains.
This means measurements to
Ven'us' can be off by 50,000 miles,
to Mars by 20,000 miles, or Saturn
by 200,000 miles.
Space probes, carefully tracked,
can measure the actual distances
accurately. Tthat's one reason for
shooting them.
Radar waves, bounced from
Earth to Venus to Earth -- as
scientists of Lincoln Laboratory of
Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology did - can pinpoint Venus'
within 200 miles or so. That re-
cent experiment can help future
United States space probes.
Whether the Russians have used
radar this way is not known.
* * *
A ROCKET PROBE for Venus
has to be shot fast enough notta
be pulled back to Earth. Then it
must fall into an orbit so' it in-
tercepts Venus. Final speed and
direction are highly critical.
The problem is simpler if yoid
can put some brains or controls
over speed and direction into the
probe itself. Then you can "steer"
its course better.
But the United States doesn't
have big enough probes ready yet.
The Russians may. Stewart thinks
they had some guidance in the
last stage of their Mechta rocket,
whose probe missed the moon by
only 4,000 miles before going on
to become an artificial planet of
the sun.
Without guidance in the last
rocket stage, our -Pioneer IV
missed the moon by 37,000 miles
before going on to circle the sun.
But Pioneer IV did keep broad-
casting signals for 406,000 miles,
well beyond the last voice heard
from Mechta.
* * *
THE RUSSIANS are silent on
whether they have big enough
solar batteries to broadcast radio

signals all the way from Venus,
or, even if they're ready to' try.
Somevrumors arerthat they have
tried already, missed, and kept
quiet.
June is a most favorable time
to shoot, for the probe can fall
into a wide orbit until it inter-
cepts Venus when Venus is on the
opposite side of the sun from
Earth. That trip would take about
150 days, but offer the biggest
navlnnr for the least ncot in snr1

'4

i

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Soviets, Still Aim at Summit Talks,

'N

By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
A PLUGGED NICKEL will easily
get'you a plugged dime's worth
of opinion today about the future
course of East-West diplomatic
negotiations.
Some say Nikita Khrushchev's
recent statements indicate an in-
tention to try to frighten the
West's leaders into a summit con-
ference despite the breakdown at
.Geneva.

Among those holding this opin-
ion are some who think the So-
viets are less eager on this point
now, being willing to wait for de-
velopments in the political divi-
sion which has recently developed
in West Germany.and in the dis-
pute between the United States
and France.
*, * *
OTHERS EXPECT the Soviets
to make some gesture indicating
that, since Kh rushchev has
proved himself right about the in-

Quotes from the Bug

0 # !

ability to reach agreements at
lower levels, he is now prepared
to do some bargaining at the top
level.
The British are still inclined to
think this is a good idea, though
somewhat shaken by the totality
of the Geneva impasse.
France and the United States
are convinced the whole Kremlin
objective is the engulfment of
West - Berlin by Communist-con-
trolled East Germany, something
they will not permit.
The best bet is that the West,
which has succeeded for seven
months in stalling off a crisis over
Berlin, will cling to the tactics
which have proved successful so
far. These are to display complete
firmness about staying in Berlin,
and to talk, talk, talk.
* * *
A TEST may come when and if
the West German Parliament
meets in Berlin July 1 to elect a
new president. The East German
Communists have threatened to
blockade the city if the West Ger-
mans 'go through with their an-
nounced intention. Chancellor
Konrad Adenauer has tried, so
far without success, to avoid what
he considers such a provocation.
ii DAILY I
n r.1mot

'4

Editorial S

SUSAN HOLTZER
Co-editor
PETER ANDERSON ...........
THOMAS HAYDEN ...........

I~ x \U -

U

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