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CaHi66B 6A ern Canu4e
By TOMAS TURNER
AY, AUGUST 6, 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: THOMAS HAYDEN
Nixon Presidential Limousine
Rolling Merrily Along
SAN JUAN, P.R. - "Before we
even get to Atlanta we've al-
ready decided to send a few boys
here," the little African said with
Nathanael Massaquoi, Minister
of Education for the Republic of
Liberia, is one of scores of Asians
and Africans who visit Puerto Rico
every year to see what has been
called a "laboratory for demo-
He is visiting Atlanta, Tuskegee
and Berea, Ky., after leaving here,
picking up ideas for use in his
Massaquoi said he has been par-
ticularly impressed _by Puerto
Rico's rural housing proj ects,
teacher training and vocational
"One thing I like about Puerto
Rico and her policies," he said
with a grin, "they go ahead and
act and let us who come here do
"In my country we do a lot of
talking, and act very little."
-PRESIDENT- Richard M. Nixon's jun-
through the USSR has become a poli-
ampaign for the GOP Presidential nom-
i in 1960. Nixon's Russian visit has all
rmarks of his Latin-American coup of
ear. The publicity that the Vice-Presi-
as been getting lately casts him as a
working, dependable, capable; friendly,
ent, nice guy. It just seems that some'
nen have slandered Mr. Nixon and have
o give him a bad name.
>pears that almost every time the Vice-
mt goes out of the country something
happens that puts him in the public
ht and that reaps rich returns in ex-
HAPS an over-pessimistic thought strikes
mind during the new era of good feel-
sulting from the Eisenhower-Khrushchev
I visits. .
United States delegation went to the
n Ministers' talks at Geneva convinced
he Russians wanted a summit confer-
Further, they were certain the Russians
be willing to make satisfactory conces-
as to the status of West Berlin and over
erman question as a price of a summit
Russians failed to make such conces-
And, as of a few days ago, the talks -
opes for a summit - were recessed.
, in the "New Age, of International Dip-
Y," administration-style, we find that,
ct, there will be two summit conferences.
these summit talks will be held without
oncessions from the Russians at all,
previous to the New Age, we had held
>rerequisite for any summit meeting.
trick for the Russians. We all hope the
'ences turn out better than the pre-
tensive and generally favorable news cover-
age. It must be a great gift indeed ,that Mr.
Nixon has for making news and political divi-
dends out of diplomatic chaos.
Mr. Nixon obviously does not make up the
situations in which he finds himself, but he
certainly uses them to their best advantage.
This is not to say that there is no actual re-
sult from what Mr. Nixon has done; however,
one might do well to examine the evidence. In
Latin America the results of Nixon's visit prove
that nothing concrete was accomplished diplo-
matically - with the possible exception of
Mexico. Then if no new agreements were
reached, what other possible gain did the
United States make?
PERHAPS ONE must turn to publicity for
an answer. Yes, the United States certain-
ly did publicize itself in South America, 'but
the publicity -was not exactly desirable. Ameri-
can prestige was scoffed at and the sight of
the Vice-President's Cadillac with broken win-
dows and numerous dents was no display of
American power and moral strength.
Nothing was accomplished in Latin America
of any significant value to anyone except Mr.
Nixon himself. He was martyred at the hands
of the South American peasantry and Gallop
& Company had to start making out some new
It is still too soon to assay the value of the
recent Nixon-Khrushchev Debacle but with a
little conjecture one might come to the, con-
clusion, not much. Politically, however, that
man from California struck it rich again. After-
all, advertising is expensive and any good stuff
given gratis is always appreciated.
Now the GOP Presidential situation looks
quite a bit different from two weeks ago as the
hopeful ones turn towards 1960. It seems that
Nixon may have a good chance of beating
Rockefeller out at the gate and he may owe
it all to Nikita and those rock-throwing mobs
in Latin America.
I MET MASSAQUOI in a res-
taurant at San Juan's Interna-
tional Airport. He was the guest
of columnist Earl Parker Hanson
of The Island Times, and Mrs.
Hanson, author of "Transf or-
matiori: The Story of Modern
Puerto Rico," has held American
government jobs both iih Puerto
Rico and in Liberia-hence his
friendship with Massaquoi.
"I'm here with a representative
of the ICA (International Co-
operation Administration), Dr.
Neale," Massaquoi said.
"We're building new teacher-
training institutions-rural teach-
er-training-and we would like to
know how it's being done in Puerto
Most Liberians still live in a
"tribal" condition, he explained.
So, community development has
to take place simultaneously with
teacher-training, he 'continued --
"it's no use otherwise."
The teacher - training institu-
tions will be built by his govern-
ment, Massaquoi said, but fi-
nanced by the ICA.
"There's the man who signs'the
checks," he said, with a nod to-
ward Neale. "We are inseparable."
SINCE THEIR arrival three
days before, Massaquoi continued,
the "inseparable" pair had worked
a minimum of 12 hours per day.
The first day, they visited Puerto
Rico's Department of Education
and the Commonwealth's radio-
Visits to "Fomento" - the Eco-
nomic Development Association-
and to the University of Puerto
Rico took up the second day.
He knew UPR Chancellor Jaime
Benitez, Massaquoi mentioned,
having met him in Paris at a
"Benitez had me elected a mem-
ber of the executive board of
UNESCO," he recalled wryly. "I
reminded him of that."
Massaquoi said he is going to
send some Liberian students to
The third day took Massaquoi
and Neale to the Community Edu-
cation Division of the Education
Department and to a rural hous-
"I really liked that rural hous-
ing," the Liberian said emphati-
THEN HE turned toward his
host Hanson, characterizing him
as a friend and a friend of Liberia.
"If we'd listened to him, we'd be
ahead of Puerto Rico," Massaquoi
said, shaking his head. "We did
what he said, but we did it a bit
Hanson told Liberia to become
"economic-minded," according to
"In my country, people never
had the opportunity of being
money-conscious," he explained.
"We're trying now to build
Liberia on very realistic terms -
of overall economic development.
"Operation Bootstrap," he le-
clared - "it's the same thing."
In the past Liberia never had a
realistic educational program, he
continued. American texts were
used "with snowflakes and all that
kind of stuff."
"When I took over, kids knew
more about American history and
geography than our own," he said.
* * *
IN CONTRAST, pupils in the
first four grades now study Liber-
ian geography and history.
But the problems still facing
Liberia and her education min-
ister are enormous.
"Ninety-five per cent of the peo-
ple are tribal - their ancestors
never came from the United
States," Massaquoi explained.T"I'm
He explained that his father,
a pative prince, was educated by
missionaries, but after completing
high school could not gain ad-
mittance to Liberia College, which
was for descendents of the freed
He came to the United States
for college, and later rose to the
post of Liberian consul-general in
Germany. His son Nathanael grad-
uated from the University of Ber-
* *. *
CURRENT President William
Tubman ("one of the greatest
we've ever had") has made it a
lot easier for men of tribal origin
to enter the government, Massa-
Not until Tubman were the na-
tives given ownership of their own
land or the right to vote. Nw
several other cabinet posts are
held by tribesmen.
But tribesmen are still held back
by lack of education, Massaquoi
concluded, so rural teacher-train-
ing is essential.
PRE-DISCOVERY-The Duke (center), laughs appreciatively as
his courtiers relate the abduction of Rigoletto's "mistress," not
knowing it is actually Gilda who was taken.
LT LYDIA MENDELSSOHN:
.. visiting the lab
TODAY AND TOMORROW
Sy WALTER LIPPMANN
Very Peaceful, but 0
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst.
SECRETARY OF STATE Herter all unwittingly threw cold water
on Nikita Khrushchev just as the Soviet Premier was putting on
the' greatest of all the great Communist peace, acts.
If the world didn't know the International Communist record so well,
and that Khrushchev is a dyed-in-the-wool international Communist,
it would have been thrilled by his high-sounding words about United
"There are no territorial disputes between our two countries, nor any
insoluble contradictions, nor any issues which could prevent the estab-
lishment of a climate of confidence and mutual understanding."
FUNDAMENTAL WESTERN policy is based on the concept that the
Soviet international Communist conspiracy must be restrained until it
undergoes a change of heart from within. One of the problems has been
to maintain an objective frame of mind which will, in the end, be quick
to recognize and encourage such a change when it truly begins to ap-
It is Khrushchev's objective now to create uncertainty and wonder-
ment on that very point. For it is written into recommended Commu-
nist procedure that there sh'all be concessions and peace offensives
until the capitalist world is sufficiently softened for the kill.
V ERDI'S "Rigoletto" was given.
a generally first-rate perform-
ance last evening by combined
forces of the speech and music
departments, with sets, lighting,
and costuming all contributing to
the effect of , overall excellence.
Especially noteworthy was the
orchestra, rehearsed to a rare.
state of uniform elegance by con-
ductor Josef Blatt.
Robert Kerns turned out to be
the most impressive stage person-n
ality, having both voice and man-
ner to bring realism and vigor to
the role of Rigoletto. Judith
Woodall as Gilda was right up
there too, as the saying goes, hes-
itating only once during the sing-.,
ing of "Cara Nome' (or what-
ever it's called in English), an
aria of uncommon difficulty.
Willis, Patterson's Sparafucile
has a tendency to become inaud-
ible when his string accompani-
ment gets out of hand. But he is
appropriately grim and greasy
and is matched, in acting ability,
only by Kerns.
VOCALLY speaking, -Richard
Wrentmore had several uncom-
fortable moments in the role of
the Duke where the range gets
out of hand. The famous Act IV,
Quartet was more successful; es-
pecially with the addition of Mu-
riel Greenspun as Maddalena.
Act IV contained the musical
peak of this performance, with
an offstage chorus impersonating°
the wind during a storm, and an
orchestral barrage of tremendous
effect, while the Duke, Rigoletto,
Gilda and Maddalene sing for all
they're worth; in this case $1.75.
Ralph Duckwall's sets were well
designed; a semi-transparent sec-
tion during Act IV showed real.
ingenuity and brought gasps of
astonishment from many, includ-
ing cynical reviewers. Sets are
enhanced by the costumery of Liz
Birbari who seems to know Man-
tua like she lived there for a few
years. Unfortunately, with the
English lines, the chorus occa-
sionally seemed to be wayward
Gilbert & Sullivan players; es-
pecially in their robes.
* * *
THIS ENGLISH translation af-
fair is a problem. I rather doubt
that the real meaning of this op-
era was too well conveyed by
what words of English g o t
through to the audience, although
this is a matter of preference.
Staging, presumably 4y a co-
alition of speech department di-
rectors and Prof. Blatt, tended to
be less wooden than usual. The
mob scene from Act II actually
moved a trifle. The start of Act
III has Rigoletto roaming through
the Chprus of gloating courtiers
searching for his daughter, and
this too is well managed; also well
'uCareful, readers will note. no
mention has been made of Act I.
The management had a priori de-
cided to seal the theatre en-
trances promptly at eight, le.av-
ing some fifty late-comers seated
on the - stairs, including guess
who. This policy is certainly with-
in the prerogatives of the power
elite, although a warning might
have been issued. So a word to the
wise: perfortnances start prompt-
ly at eight.
Summing Up: "Rigoletto" Is a
well sung, well acted affair, with
the orchestra in rare"form, and
costumes and sets to match. Sec-
tions of the last two acts are
-David Kes el
MR. NIXON'S trip to Russia has proved to be
much more important than, many ,'of us
expected it to be. In fact, it has produced a
diplomatic breakthrough. ,This is not only
because lie has handled himself skillfully and
with poise, but because he took with him to
Moscow a large and unexpected and appetizing
concession to Soviet policy. This was the ac-,
ceptance of the idea that peace can be main-
tained by direct discussion at the highest level
between Moscow and Washington.
This is a big departure from our previous
position. Mr. Nixon was no longer insisting that
there' could be no discussion at the highest
level until there was some substantial agree-
ment by the Foreign Ministers. But most im-
portant of all he negotiated the exchange of
visits, and thus he acquiesced in the. idea ,of
by-passing the multi-lateral Foreign Ministers
and indeed the multi-lateral summit meeting
itself by bi-lateral contacts between the United,
States and the Soviet Union.
Thus Mr. Nixon did not induce Mr. K. inE
Moscow to make concessions about Berlin and
about Germany which Mr. Herter has been
unable to obtain from Mr. Gromyko at Geneva.,
What-Mr. Nixon did was to propose to Mr. K.
something much more interesting and attrac-
tive than the deadlock over Berlin. This opened
the way to direct negotiation on global problems
with the United States.
This has long been a prime Soviet objective,
and in making the objective attainable, Mr.,
Nixon was assured of a good reception not only
by the Soviet government but also by the
THE EXCHANGE of visits, arranged by Mr.
Nixon, is a far-reaching and sensational
event. It is a deliberate change of diplomatic
strategy by the Eisenhower administration.
This is shown by the fact that our allies have
been consulted and their blessing has been
obtained before Mr. Nixon in Moscow opened
the door to a visit by Mr. K. Our allies and 'we
have moved a long way since May.
Why? No doubt because we have learned at
Geneva that we cannot get an agreement at
the price that, collectively, we are willing to
pay. At the same time, neither the Russians
nor the rest of us have any appetite for a show-
down over Berlin. They are ready, therefore,
to try something else and are supporting a
new strategy arranged by Mr. Nixon, which is
to, change the subject and to allow both sides
,rto back away from a showdown.
WHAT WE have backed away into is a round.
of popular diplomacy which draws its
energy from the popular feeling everywhere
that a nuclear war must be avoided. For the
time being at least, the professional diplomats
and the old chieftains abroad have been pushed
aside by the politicians who are far .more
"flexible" than the diplomats ever dreamed of
Perhaps if the diplomats had been allowed
by the old statesmen to be flexible enough to
negotiate effectively, they would not pave been
pushed aside by the young politicians. Dr. Ade-
nauer and Gen. de Gaulle have deflected Mr.
Macmillan and they have held Mr. Herter in
an unnegotiable position. But they have been
unable to hold the Republican party in an
election year. For their pain, they have Mr.
Nixon to deal with, and Mr. Nixon is not only
running for President but is running on a very
popular line, which is to avoid war by seeing
a lot more of the Russians.
In most respects, Mr. Nixon's television ad-
dress in Moscow was self-respecting and well
directed to the Russians who heard it. But on
one important point, his exuberance took him
onto soft and dangerous ground. This was in
the implications of what he said about co-
existence that co-existence is not good enough
and that we should have not two worlds but
one world. The implications of this passage
wer6 that Mr. K. would or could detach the
Soviet Union from its interest in and its sup-
port of the great revolutionary movements in
Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
This is not possible and it will not happen.
The Soviet Union may not, or most certainly
will not, give direct military support to any of
the various revolutionary movements. But it
will help them by measures short of war, and
because of that we shall not be lviing in "one
world" of like-minded nations but in at least
two worlds of co-existing but competing rival
It is unwise to let exuberance create 'illusions,
and to let the best, which would be universal
ONE OF WORLD'S LARGEST:
Open Pit Copper Mine a Scenic Wond
By JAMES BOW
BINGHAM CANYON, Utah -
"One of the world's largest
=open pit copper mines could seat
the populations of Texas, Arizona
and Utah on bleachers along its
terraced banks .. .
"Ten football stadiums could
amply fit on the mine floor..
and folks, the west wall of the pit
is 1,000 feet higher- than the Em-
pire State Building.."
The loudspeaker at the Bing-
ham Copper, Mine, some 30 miles
south of Salt Lake City, gives
tourists its spiel. One merely
pushes a button at the observa-
tion point and Kennecott Copper
Corporation provides a ten-min-
THE MINE alone is not awe-
inspiring. Grand Canyon has a
deeper, more colorful hole and the
Tetons are far more beautiful.
The breath-taking effect is
produced by mountains of waste
rock which approach the height
of the surrounding Oquirrh
Mountains (pronunciation disput-
ed). These piles of waste material
are visible 50 miles across the Salt
Lake Valley and provide blank
walls for sightseers as they drive
up the canyon to the mine.
AFTER THE thrill -- or shock
-of drivingthrough Bingham
Canyon, the. mine seems a bit
anticlimatic. But if one. arrives
for', tfhe ma in 'yl~lfnr.nrp aj~a hiA