JAPAN AND PHILIPPINES
END STATE OF WAR
(See Page 2)
Latest Deadline in the State
VOL. LXVII, No. 16S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, JULY 18, 1956
Defense Will Attempt To Prove
Marine 'Not Acting Unlawfully'
PARRIS ISLAND, S. C. () - Marine S. Sgt. Matthew McKeon
pleaded innocent yesterday to charges arising from his orders to a
recruit platoon to plunge into a black swamp in which six drowned.
The defense for the former drill instructor will now try to prove
that when McKeon ordered his 74 men into the mud and water for
disciplinary reasons, he was not acting unlawfully.
McKeon, 31%years old, pleaded innocent to the charges of involun-
tary manslaughter and oppression of recruits.
His pleas were entered before t
his civilian attorney, Emile Zola B
SBill For Ie
WASHINGTON (JP)-The House
yesterday heeded an "urgent" call
from President Dwight D. Eisen-
hower and rushed through a new
military construction bill stripped
of privisions he had labeled un-
Senators, expressing surprise at
the extraordinary speed, said they
would insist on "a bit more de-
liberate" consideration of the $2,-
Money features of the bill ate
the same as those in one Presi-
dent Eisenhower vetoed Monday.
But the new version eliminates
veto authority previously included
for the Senate and House Armed
Services Committees over con-
struction of Taos missile sites and
family housing for military per-
President Eisenhower had ob-
jected that this "would destroy the
clear lines of responsibility which
the Constitution provides" be-
tween the executive and legisla-
tive branches of government.
Dwight D. Eisenhower said yester-
day the nation's civil defense must
be made stronger because of "spec-
tacular developments in weapons
and methods of delivery."
He said this means, for one
thing, that the federal government
must take over "a larger respon-
p sibility in our national plan of
President Eisenhower made these
statements in a letter to Val Peter-
son, head of the Federal Civil De-
fense Administration. He asked
Peterson to sit in on Cabinet meet-
ings hereafter "to help ensure that
c the Civil Defense program is fully
integrated into our national plan-
The letter follows much criti-
cism, at congressional investiga-
tions and elsewhere, of the present
President Eisenhower did not
specify how he plans for the fed-
eral government to take a larger
responsibility though he said Pet-
erson's agency "must be empower-
ed to work out logical pans for
possible target areas which over-
lap state and municipal boundar-
To Take Part
President Eisenhower also said
he would be back from his trip to
Panama in time to take part in
s the last two days of the Civil De-
fense Operation Alert.
The exercise will begin at 11
a.m. Friday and end the next Wed-
nesday at 5 p.m. During the oper-
ation, scores of government offic-
labs will leave Washington for
secret spots from which they will
direct operations. The alert pre-
sumes that Washington has been
President Eisenhower's com-
ments on the need for a stronger"
Federal Civil Defense Agency were
in line with some of the testimonyI
heard by a House Government Op-
erations subcommittee. -
U.S. Air Force
he general court martial board by
3erman of New York City
To charges that McKeon had
been drinking in barracks and be-
for a recruit prior to the tragedy,
Berman said, "the accused stands
Under the Code of Military Jus-
tice, a mute pleading makes it
mandatory for the law officer, in
this case Navy Capt. Irving N.
Klein also of New York, to accept
it as a plea of not guilty.
Berman has said previously that
his defense will rest chiefly on the
contention that McKeon, regard-
less of Marine orders, was acting
in accordance with accepted train-
ing methods at his 4,000-acre re-
There was a disagreement be-
tween the prosecutory, Maj.
Charles Seiver of Jacksonville, Ill.,
and Berman over the maximum
sentence McKeon could receive if
Berman contends the maximum
is four years and nine months,
and Seiver says it is six years and
three months. The matter will
have to be settled later by Klein.
The trial of the Worcester,
Mass., Marine promises to last two
more weeks and be one which will
see previous Marine training
methods thoroughly exploded.
Berman asked for home ad-
dresses of the 1,450 Marines dis-
charged from this post since Jan.
1. He said he intended to write
them a letter saying:
"The charges against him (Mc-
Keon) are that it is maltreatment
of troops and criminal to train re-
cruits by marching them into
boondocks, marshes, swamps and
creeks at Parris Island.
"We believe that it was not an
unusual practice to train troops
in discipline and to improve
morale by such occasional night
"If you have ever had such an
experience or have seen it occur
and you want to see justice done
and to assist in the defense of
this worthy man, phone or wire
collect immediately to defense
counsel, Parris Island."
Benjamin Quarles, professor of
history and chairman of the De-
partment of History at Morgan
State University, will discuss
"Negro Americanisms in History"
at 4:15 P.m. today in Rackham
Prof. Quarles is a visiting pro-
fessor at the University this sum-
mer and will speak as part of the
University series, "Patterns of
American Culture: Contributions
of the Negro."
He is the author of two books
on the history of the American!
Negro: "Frederick Douglass," pub-
lished in 1948 and "The Negro in
Civil War," 1953.
Also Prof. Quarles is now con-
ducting reserch on 'Negro Pol-
icy' in the Armed Forces, 1750-
1850 under a Social Research
Seventh Summer Biological Sym..
posium, under the auspices of the
Division of Biological Studies, will
Women Get Benefits
*At 62; Disabled Draw
Payments From 50
WASHINGTON (P)-The Senate
voted last night to change the
social security law to permit
women to obtain old age insurance
payments starting at 62 and total-
ly disabled persons to draw bene-
fit payments beginning at age 50.
Rebuffing the Eisenhower ad-
ministration, which opposed both
provisions, the chamber wrote the
earlier retirement for women into
the social security bill by an over-
whelming 86-7 vote. At present,
women, like men must wait until
they are 65 before drawing old
age insurance payments.
Victory for George
The disability payments-a new
concept in the U.S. social security
system-were championed by Sen.
Walter George (D-Ga) and the
47-45 vote approving them was a
personal victory for that veteran
senator, who is retiring from Con-
gress at the end of the year.
Both provisions were in the bill
which passed the House last year
372-31. But they were largely
stripped from the measure this
year by the Senate Finance Com-
mittee at the request of the Eisen-
The provision of age 62 retire-
ment for women would make re-
tirement benefits available to
about800,000 additional women in
the first year.
These would include 200,000
widows, 300,000 working women
and 300,00 wives of retired hus-
bands, who get half of their hus-
Surviving dependent mothers
also would be entitled to full So-
cial Security benefits at age 62
under the Kerr amendment. .
Debate on the lowered retire-
ment age for women was desul-
tory after the bitter fight over the
George disability amendment.
After the vote the Senate turned
its attention to other aspects of
the Social Security measure. Dem-
ocratic leader Lyndon Johnson
(Tex) announced the chamber
would stay in session until 11 p.m.
or midnight in an effort to reach
a final vote.
As it emerged from the Senate
Finance Committee, the bill pro-
vided the age 62 retirement only1
for widows. The Kerr amendment"
would give this benefit to working
women and wives of retired hus-
bands, but provides that they
would get retirement payments atE
a lower rate if they elect to re-
tire at 62. The widows would get
the full benefit rate at 62.
Under the Oklahoman's amend-
ment, a woman worker retiring1
at 62 would receive 8 per cent of1
the amount to which she would be
entitled at 65. She would receivef
a proportionate increase, five-
ninths of 1 per cent, for eachc
month she delayed retirement
The, wife of a retired workerf
going on the rolls at age 62 would
receive 75 per cent of the benefit
to which she would be entitledl
at age 65. She would get increases
amounting to 25-36 of 1 per centl
of her benefit for each month shet
delayed retirement after reachingi
PROF. DANIEL WIT
By DONNA HANSON
The Communist parties in west-
ern Europe do not regard them-
selves as mere "puppets" of the
Soviet Union, Prof. Daniel Wit,
of the Political Science Department
Speaking on Soviet Union world
affairs, Prof. Wit defined specif-
ically the French and Italian Com-
munist parties' connection as a
"voluntary subservience," because
they can "pull out" any time.
These parties regard the Soviets
as the senior member in a partner-
ship, Prof. Wit continued, where
ultimately their welfare is tied
with the Russians.
While fellow travelers define the
European Communist parties as
just active reformist movements,
Prof. Wit said, the fact remains
that the party leaders themselves
have frequently declared their
fidelity to the Soviet Union as
"the homeland of the international
They do have, however, sources
of strength withintheir own coun-
tries, two of which Prof. Wit
named as the frustration of the
industrial working classes and the
countries' inadequate agricultural
"These people are wide open for
Communist appeals, and the ap-
peals are clever," Prof. Wit said.
"They draw upon l e g i t i m a t e
sources of unrest."
The professor also pointed to
the frustration of the intellectuals
as another source of strength be-
cause little has been accomplished
compared with what can be done."
Vitality An Attraction
The main attractions of these
European Communist parties are
their vitality and good leadership.
These well-organized parties can
attract the younger elements of
society "as long as they can be
convinced that the parties aren't
puppets of the Soviet Union."
Prof. Wit commented that these
Communist parties only have a
"particular" type of loyalty to the
Soviet Union, but not that of pup-
pets, he emphasized.
He described, however, how these
parties did and do closely follow
the Soviet Union policies, consider-
ing them "for their own interests
as well as the Soviet Union's."1
.. i i V si V " r ' .f / v
To 'Plunder Workers'
MOSCOW (0P)-Nikita S. Krush-
chev ridiculed the West and its
freedoms yesterday night at a
Kremlin banquet for East German
It was reminiscent of the cold-
er cold war days.
The party chief called Western
democracy a sham, said its free-
dom was only for monopoly cap-
italists to plunder workers "and
shear them like sheep," and
charged that the Western press
and radio served monopolists.
'Can't Strangle Us'
Krushchev said the West "could
not strangle us in 1917 and 1918
when we stood alone. How can
they do it now?" he demanded.
"I won't underestimate their
strength but on the socialist side
the strength is not negligible."
Krushchev turned to Marshal
Georgi Zhukov, Soviet minister of
defense, asking, "is that not right,
A picked audience of Soviet of-
ficials and members of satellite
and neutral embassies several
times interruputed the 45-minute
tirade with appreciative laughter.
Krushchev himself frequently
bubbled over with mirth.
"The Western powers, that is
the capitalist powers, like to call
themselves free countries, the free
world (laughter), but this is the
free world we liberated ourselves
'from 39 years ago (more laughter)
and we wouldn't be tempted back
if they offered it to us on a plat-
ter," he said.
He scored what he said was the
crushing of a legally elected gov-
ernment in Guataemala and re-
fusal of the free world to allow
elections in Indochina.
East Germans Linked
A half hour before the recep-
tion the Soviet Union and East
Germany signed an economic and
political declaration linking the
two regimes even closer than be-
Krushchev commented on the
speed of the agreement: "We un-
derstand each other well and we
don't have to waste time."
But he told East German Pre-
mier Otto Grotewohl and his dele-
gation they would have to be pa-
tient on their goal of reunifying
Germany on Communist terms.
He told the East Germans not
to worry because West Germany
refuses to sit at the same table
"The time will come when they
will come knocking at your door,"
he predicted. "The United States
did not recognize us for 13 years."
ROME (P) - The secret of her
illness finally out, Clare Boothe
Luce is returning soon to the 17th
century Villa Taverna where ar-
senic poisoning has sickened her
through much of her work as U.S.
ambassador to Italy.
To Reach 3100 in Fall;
No Poli Change Seen
Khrushchev'Ex ect Freshman lass
LINGUISTICS PANEL-Professor Albert H. Marckwardt (stand-
ing) addresses members of a panel on "Linguistics and the
Teaching of Composition." Other members of the panel were
(1. to r.) Seymore Chatham, ,James Downer, John H. Fisher,
William Schwab and John H. Hagopian.
Linguistics Panel Debates
Applications in Writing
There are no courses in any university subject to so much tinkering
as the introductory courses in English, Professor Albert H. Marckwardt
of the English Department said in his introductory remarks before the
linguistic forum last night.
Prof. Marckwardt was the moderator of a panel discussing "Lin-
guistics in the Teaching of Composition," part of the Linguistic Forum
programs sponsored by the Summer Session Linguistics Institute.
Another member of the panel, John H. Fisher, from Duke Uni-
versity, claimed, "The concept of usi
English has grown gregtly since-
the successful application of lin-
guistics theory to the teaching of
foreign languages in World War
ng linguistics in the teaching of
By The Associated Press
Still Too Early
To Sense Trend
By LEE MARKS
Daily Managing Editor
Fall semester's incoming freseh-
man class was estimated at 3100
yesterday by Clyde Vrooman, di-
rector of admissions.
This compares with 2900 last
year. Vrooman said it was too
early yet to sense any trend or
drift from processed applications.
Tentative admissions have been
granted to 4400 but only about
1500 applications have been cleri-
cally processed, he reported.
The estimate is based on in.
creased numbers of students
graduating from high schools
across the country and represents
what Vrooman termed a "normal"
increase for colleges.
There has been no change in
admissions policy or standards
Vrooman said. Despite a slight
trend to reduce out of state stu-
dentsin state-supported Institu.:
tions the University will continue
to admit roughly a third of its
freshman students from outside
"No change in our out-state
policy is being made now," Vroo-
He noted, though, that if con-
tinued expansion was not met by
increased appropriations, the "fun-
damental question" of where the
University's obligation lies, would
have to be faced.
So far the State Legislature has
stood behind the University in
recognizing the advantages of a,
diversified University community..
There has been speculation,
however, that if Michigan's col-
lege population continues to ex-
pand as it has been doing, the
Legislature might be reluctant to
increase appropriations propor-
tionately. In that case the Univer-
sity would have to cut its out-
Vrooman said no action of that
sort was anticipated now.
The University is believed to
have the largest out-state and for-
eign populations of any state-
Although the freshman class .
will increase only 200 over last
fall total University enrollment
is expected to be up 1600. Enroll-
ment is expected to increase in
average increments of 1200 until,
by 1970, it reaches 40,000.
Let's educate out of this country
all criticism of the intellectual ex-
pressed by such words as "egg.
head" and "long-hair," an educa-
tor declared at the University yes-
Roma Gans, professor of Edu-
cation, Teachers' College, Colum-
bia University, gave the opening
address at the 27th annual Sum-
mer Education Conference on cam.
pus July 17-19. She spoke on "The
Importance of Reading to Whole-
some Child Life."
Professor Gans claimed, "This
country needs every 'egghead' it-
can get. Russia is financing every
brain from the ground up. There
will be no wasted I.Q's in Russia.
"But in this country 50 per cent,
and more drop out before the com-
pletition of high school. Among the
50 per cent who drop out there is
certainly a great deal of wasted
"However. the problems of
teaching English composition are
different than those in teaching
a foreign language and thus.lin-
guistic principles have no applica-
Another objection t(. the use of
linguistics principles in the teach-
ing of English composition was
offered by John H. Hagopian of
the English department, also a
member of the panel.
He said linguistics could not be
used directly to teach composition
because "Linguistics is the study of
spoken language while the study of
English composition involves only
the written language."
Atom Plant May Replace Coal
By ADELAIDE WILEY
The use of atomic energy plants in underveloped countries may
increase when it is possible to build small plants economically, accord-
ing to J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., who spoke in the University series,
"Patterns of American Culture: Contributions of the Negro."
Wilkins said yesterday afternoon that certain countries such as
Australia have enough coal reserves distributed evenly to last for 50
years for power plants, thus making atomic plants impracticable.
The other "conventional" method of generating power-hydro-
electrically-would probably be the most reasonable in India, which
"has ample water, but only 2% of it is developed."
India's power plants are behind the time4 only because hydro-
electric plants require big dams. In time, Wilkins commented, this
country will construct enough hydroelectric plants to throw atomic
plants out of the question.
Brazil, Wilkins explained, will probably not use atomic energy
plants because of extensive oil fields recently discovered which will
reduce expences in importaing oil.
However, Argentina is a country that may "have ten million kilo-
watts of atomic plants by 1980 and is very optimistic about the use
of atomic power."
Argentina has some deposits of uranium, thorium and graphite.
Eighty-six per cent of its thermal plants are fired by coal and oil
READING, Pa. ()-The Berks
County Court yesterday set aside
the conviction of a Reading, Pa.
Times reporter fined $50 for cre-
ating a disturbance in connection
with a dispute between the city
administration and the Reading
Charles H. Kessler, Times re-
porter, was arrested July 9 on the
order of Mayor Daniel McDevitt.
Kessler was fined $50 by a police
magistrate on a disorderly conduct
The reporter was arrested for
posing on the City Hall steps with
a typewriter after the mayor had
closed the press room. McDevitt
accused the Times of "descending
to yellow journalism."
The newspapers said McDevitt's
action was prompted by recent
news stories which led to slot
machine raids on more than 20
places, among them was a tavern
operated by the mayor's brother.
Besides arresting Kessler, the
mayor ordered police to ticket
newspaper trucks for stopping in
NEW YORK-The 73-year-old
Metropolitan Opera announced
last night it is cancelling its 1956-
57 season because of labor trouble.
The Metropolitan Opera Assn.
said the decision was made be-
cause of failure to reach agree-
ment with the American Guild of
Musical Artists, representing some
220 opera singers and ballet
It was not wage scales, how-
ever, but a fight over the dual
role of an opera official which led
to the opera association's action.
AGMA said an 11th-hour pro-
posal to the Met, aimed at post-
poning the issue while a contract
was signed on all other matters,
had been rejected by the opera
SPRINGFIELD, II.-Orville E.
Hodge yesterday offered to make
restitution at least in part of
missing state funds, while Demo-
cratic leaders called for a "top-
to-bottom" investigation of Illi-
nois Republican administration.
Hodge, who resigned as state
auditor Monday at the insistence
of Gov. William G. Stratton, said
he would reimburse the state "to
the full extent of my resources"
and make a full disclosure of his
activities before a grand jury.
Later yesterday, Stratton, named
Lloyd Morey, president-emeritus
of the University of Illinois, to
serve out the balance of Hodge's
term as state auditor. Morey, 70,
was U. of I. president from August
1953 to September 1955. He pre-
viously was comptroller of the
NEW YORK-A cancer expert
said yesterday that 14 Ohio State
Penitentiary inmates have ex-
perienced marked reactions to live
cancer cell injections.
The 14 volunteers were injected!
nearly a month ago. The purpose