TWO VIEWS ON THE
Latest Deadline in the State LDYCOOL
VOL. LXVII, No. 25S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, JULY 31, 1956
Stassen Gets OK
On Month Leave
Will Pursue Political Efforts to Get
Massachussets' Herter Nominated
WASHINGTON (A') - Harold Stassen is taking a month off from
his White House job in an effort to swerve the GOP vice presidential
nomination from Richard Nixon to Gov. Christian Herter of Massa-
President Dwight D. Eisenhower granted Stassen's request for
a leave of absence yesterday, and now apparently Stassen will havae
both hands free to try to rearrange the bottom half of the GOP ticket.
The leave of absence, effective Thursday, was announced in a
White House statement issued at Gettysburg, Pa., where Stassen
Navy Must Protect
WASHINGTON (k)-Adm. Ar-
leigh Burke says the free world
would have to write off the entire
Mediterranean area unless the
U.S. 6th Fleet could stay and
fight there in event of war.
The chief of naval operations
also said in recent congressional
testimony made public last night
that the U.S. Navy might be the
only major force capable of con-
tinuing retaliatory assaults after'
the first furious exchange of
atomic blows in another world
U.S. Must Operate
The admiral said that if U.S..
carrier task forces "cannot oper-
ate in the Mediterranean, we have
lost the Mediterranean, and we
had better be able to'operate in
the Mediterranean because of
Burke testified at a special Sen-
ate airpower investigation before
an international crisis was preci-
pitated in the area by Egypt's sei-
zure of the Suez Canal, which
links the Mediterranean with the
Behind Closed Doors
Some of his testimony was given
behind closed doors and this was
released last night.
Both the State Department and
the Navy yesterday denied a pub-
lished report that the 6th Fleet
had been specially alerted to take
Americans out of the area if the
Suez crises flares into violence.
Both agencies said the fleet has
standing orders to protect the
lives and property of Americans.
Burke testified that if the U.S.
Fleet cannot stay in the Mediter-
ranean with carriers "nobody can
He said emphatically that land-
based planes could not operate in
the area unless the fleet was there
conferred with Pres. Eisenhower
for 20 minutes yesterday morning.
The statement said in part:
Pursue Political Activities
"Mr. Stassen wanted to have
the time and opportunity to pur-
sue certain political activities
without involving his official po-
sition or the White House."
Stassen is the President's assist-
ant on disarmament matters and
has a desk in the executive offices.
After he plumped for Herter
last Monday, 20 congressmen an-
grily demanded that he resign
from his White House post. Her-
ter said he would nominate Nixon
Stassen said in Washington yes-
terday he was pleased that Pres.
Eisenhower. had approved a leave
"On Thursday, Aug. 2," he
added in a statement, "I will
make a further statement about
my continuing endeavor to add to
the strength of the Eisenhower
campaign and to the Republican
congressional races htrough the
nomination of an Eisenhower-
There was immediate specula-
tion on whether the President's
granting of leave implied a go-
ahead for Stassen or, whether it
represented a desire that Stassen
divorce his highly controversial
political activities from his White
WASHINGTON WA'-The Eisen-
hower administration yesterday
was reported considering a plan
to out the size of the six American
divisions in West Germany with-
out sacrificing their "fighting
This would be done by reducing
the number of support and supply
units now included in each of the
17,000-man divisions,. reliable in-
formants said. Proposed cuts now
under study cover the period of
the next two years.
Top Pentagon and State Depart-
ment officials are said to have in-
formed West German military and
diplomatic officials of this possible
Relays Vigorous Obetion
West German Ambassador Heinz
Krekeler met with Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles yester-
day. Acting on instruction from
Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, he
relayed his government's vigorous
objections to any idea of substan-
tial American troops cuts or siz-
able reductions in the strength of
Atlantic Pact armies.
Krekeler said he also passed on
an expression of Adenauer 's
''grave concern'' over any West-
ern strategy of gearing defense
forces too much around use of
Krekeler and his aides are said
to have been partly reassured
about U.S. government plans for
Will Maintain Forces
Pentagon authorities are said to'
have informed them that the
United States will try to maintain'
armed forces capable of fighting
without atomic weapons as well
as with tactical and strategic nu-
German representatives here'
argued that such reductions would
leave Western Europe an easy vic-'
timo of any surprise attack by
superior Soviet and satellite divi-
Krekeler is said to have stressed
that it is urgent for the Atlnntic,
MONTGOMERY, Ala. UP')-The
Alabama Supreme Court refused
yesterday to grant an immediate
stay of a $100,000 fine against the
The fine was levied by Circuit
Judge Walter B. Jones for con-
tempt of his court by failure to
produce the NAACP's Alabama
records. It was effective at mid-
Within an hour after Jones had
rejected a request by the National
Assn. for the Advancement of
Colored People to modify the fine,,
attorneys asked the higher court
to hold it up while they asked for
a review of the contempt finding.
Long Standing Policy
But the Supreme Court justices
said long-standing policy pre-
vented their acting on the request
until the other party had been
The other party is the State of
Alabama, represented by Atty.
Gen. John Patterson, who on June
1 obtained from Jones an injunc-
tion against NAACP activities in
Patterson asked the records in
an effort to sustain his reasons
for the injunction.
Sets Hearing for Today
Chief Justice J. Ed Livingston
set a Supreme Court hearing for
today on the stay request.
The NAACP request for a stay
said the contempt penalty "now.
set is so high, and such further
penalties can be set, that The
NAACP is in jeopardy of being
unable to purge itself of contempt,
in the event the court's judgement
is sustained on review."
NAAC attorneys offered to
turn over to Jones' court some
records but expressed fear of
economic reprisals and the "use
of actual force" if the 14,566 names
of Alabama NAACP members
were made public. .
Fine Due To Rise
Jones' turn-down left a $10,000
fine assessed Wednesday due to
rise to $100,000 if the records were
not in his court by midnight.
The NAACP said it owns no realj
property in Alabama, a list of,
which Jones had ordered, but of-
fered to surrender bank records,
what it called a standard form for
chartering branches, and corre-
spondence concerning the attemptf
last winter of two Negro women to
attend the University of Alabama.
This attempt and Montgomery's
8-month-old bus boycott were cited
by Atty. Gen. Patterson as NAACP
attacks on Alabama segregation
laws when he obtained the injunc-
tion. He also contended that the
organization was doing business
illegally in Alabama since it had
not registered as an out-of-state
The NAACP denied both charges.,
Ike OK's Atom
GETTYSBURG, Pa. (A')-Presi-
dent Dwight D. Eisenhower yes-1
terday signed legislation authoriz-
ing construction of what may be<
the world's first atomic-powered
Other nations, including Norway1
and Great Britain, are believed to
be planning similar vessels. c
Court Martial Witness
Calls Water Shallow
PARRIS ISLAND. S.C. (P)-A
Marine surveyor said yesterday he
found no hidden pitfalls, no deep
water and only a sluggish current
in the death march area of Rib-
Warrant Officer Leslie E. Volle
testified S. Sgt. Matthew C. Mc-
Keon would have had to lead Pla-
toon 71 far out into the creek to
find water that gradually would
rise above their heads.
Six young Marine recruits
drowned in an April 8 march Mc-
Keon led into Ribbon Creek. He
is undergoing court-martial for
Prosecution testimony indicated
McKeon, at the head of the col-
umn, never went more than 11
feet or so from the bankhof the
creek. At that distance, Volle said,
the maximum depth of the water
is only 2.3 feet.
Five Foot Depth
Volle testified a five-foot depth
of water is found some 20 to 48
feet out in the stream in that area.
"At any time, did you ever find
any holes, cliffs, falloffs, spanish
wells concealed, mud-encrusted
pits or any other depressions out
there?" Volle was asked by Col.
Alaric W. Valentin, a defense
"No, sir, we did not," replied
the 27-year-old warrant officer
from Chestnut, Ill., and Grenns-
"Is there any place where a
man walking directly out into mid-
stream would take one step and
go over his head?"
"No sir," Volle said.
"No, sir," was the reply. "He
would go gradually under water."
Moreover, Volle told McKeon's
court-martial, Ribbon Creek is
more sluggish than the average
stream and its maximum depth at
high tide along its fringes is 5.3
feet "and probably less than that."
The depth march took place two
hours after high tide was reached
Several of the platoon members
testified they found themselves
abruptly in water over their heads
on the march.
With elaborate care, Volle told
how he and a team of map makers
had surveyed the Ribbon Creek
area and how they found no holes
EGYPT HAILS HERO-President Nasser responds to cheers of enthusiastic crowds who jam Cairo
streets July 28 t. volee approval of his proclamation nationalizing the Suez Canal.
UN To Oust
JERUSALEM (RP)-Jordan start-
ed a move yesterday to oust Cana-
dian Maj. Gen. Edson L. M. Burns
from leadership of the UN's Pal-
estine truce observers.
A Defense Ministry spokesman
in Amman said Jordan would ask
the UN to replace him in the job
of chief of the UN truce super-
vision organization on grounds he
was biased in favor of Israel.
He said it was listing cases of
such bias for presentation to the
UN and had proposed to Egypt,
Lebanon and Syria that they do
the same. The four Arab countries
are signers of armistice agree-
ments with Israel under which.
Burns' group works on Arab-Is-
raeli demarcation lines.
A spokesman for the truce su-
pervision organization, which has
headquarters here, said-it did not
plan any change in its direction.
Burns has been in Palestine since
August 1954. His present year's
contract expires next month. He
was appointed by UN Secretary
General Dag Hammarskjold.
Disclose Andrea Doria
Radar Saw Stockholm
NEW YORK (M)-The Italian Line said yesterday that its Andrea
Doria radar-traclood the oncoming liner Stockholm before the crash
last Wednesday night that sent the luxurious Doria to the bottom of
The line also disclosed that vital records thought lost were saved
by Capt. Piero Calamai, the last man to leave the sunken liner. What
the records show was kept secret.
Calamai reportedly told of the radar watch in addressing a rally
of his crew Sunday. Guiseppe Ali, New York director-general of the
Italian line, confirmed it yester- ,
Three Discuss Suez Canal Seizure
For how long a period the Do-
ria's radar was working was not
What was confirmed was that
Calamai told the crew the device
was on, that he himself watched
the Stockholm's approach on the
screen and that he was on the
bridge from 3 p.m. on, when the
heavy fog that shrouded the crash
The collision south of Nantucket
Island, off Massachusetts, occur-
red at 11:22 p.m.
Officials of the Italian line and
the Swedish-American line have
been close-mouthed about what
The New York Post said yester-
day that both liners had tracked
each other on radar for some time
before the crash that apparently
took at least 25 lives.
The Post said a source on the
Stockholm said Doria "blips" were
observed for half an hour, right
up to the crash.
The Swedish line declined to
Meanwhile, the Andrea Doria's
death list remained at two known
dead and 18 missing and presumed
dead-but the number of those
additionally unaccounted for was
reduced from 37 to 29.
"The Economic Position of the
Negro since the 1930 Depression"
is topic of a. speech to be given
by Abram L. Harris, professor of
economics at the University of
Chicago, 4:15 p.m. today in Audi-
torium A, Angell Hall..
Tnf, ....c.is. a acra i ..a -- r
In Near East
Communist poses no great threat
in the Near East if the West comes
up with some kind of constructive
action, Prof. William D. Schorger
But Communists can and do stir
up a lot of discontent, the Near
Eastern expert said in the Uni-
versity's Summer Session Seminar
in Russian Studies.
"The limited technology, poverty
and discontent rising from an in-
crease of knowledge about how
other peoples live makes the Near
East susceptible to certain appeals
of Communism," Professor Schor-
ger said. He is a member of the1
Department of Anthropology and
Near Eastern Studies.
He listed five appeals that Com-
munism uses in the Near East:
1. Anti-Westernism, based on
the Near East's fear of colonial-
2. Anti-"feudalism," exploiting'
the peasants' discontent with the
concentration of arable land in a'
few landowners and their identify-
ing the West with the land-owning
3. Anti-Israelism in the Arab,
states, based on power politics
rather than ideology;
4. Desire for modernization, but
with independence, which the
Near East tends to think is possible,
from the Soviet because of inex-
perience with Russia and Russia's
modernizing itself without West-
ern entanglements; and
5. General frustration of the in-
tellectuals. who are finding them-1
LONDON W-)-Prime Minister
Anthony Eden announced to cheers
in the House of Commons yester-
day Britain's refusal to acce*
Egypt's "unfettered" control of the
vital Suez Canal.
He also announced a curb o'all
British arms shipments to Egypt.
Immediately afterward, Ameri-
can, British and French diplomats
discussed moves to bring the 103-
mile waterway under international
control. There were reports the
United States and Britain were
balking at any idea of allowing
Russia into wider talks on the
question, although Egypt would be
invited to take part.
Stress International Angle
The international angle was
stressed in Eden's Commons state-
ment in which he said, "No ar-
rangements for the future of this
great international waterway could
be acceptable to Her Majesty's
government which would leave it
in the unfettered control of a
single power which could, as' re-
cent events have shown, exploit it
purely for the purposes of na-
Eden did not elaborate on spe-
cific measures to avert Egyptian
control. But informants said the
three powers, up to this time,
have not discussed the use of mili-
tary force against Egypt. A Brit-
ish informant explained that con-
siderations of force would not
arise unless Egyptian took aggres-
sive action against world shipping
or refused to accept any interna..
tional arrangements for supervis-
ing the canal.
U.S. To Back Plan
In the closed talks the United
States was reported ready to back
a British-French plan to assure
free and efficient use of the canal
by world shipping in peace and in
war, but urging caution while
seeking to maintain a common
Diplomats said the first step
under consideration involved an
untimate widening of the discus-
sions here to include all the mai-
time countries which use the canal
The goal for such negoitations
would be the establishment of an
international authority for the
waterway linking the Mediterran-
ean with the Red Sea. Such a move
would, in effect, recognize Egypt's
nationalization action and allow
her to share in canal operation
Egypt To Be Invited
The informants said Egypt would
be invitedsto take part in these
Britain and the United States,
however, went to keep Russia out
of the negotiations, the sources
said, pointing out that ships of the
Soviet Union represent less than
one per cent of the traffic passing
through the canal. Russia was one
of the nine signers of the 1888
Constantinople Convention which
declared the canal open to all na-
tions in peace and war.
Large crowds gathered outside
the Prime Minister's residencein
the atmosphere of crisis. The Brit-
ish press has been urging forceful
Yesterday's three-power talks
lasted more than two hours. They
resume this afternoon.
Egyptian President Gamal Ab-
del Nasser suddenly nationalized
the canal Thursday.
In Cairo, Egypt said toll charges
would not be raised on shipping
throgh tn Rpzfm.m.rO
...music school lecturer
Prof. Mary Tolbert of Ohio State
University will discuss "Creativity,
the Spark in Music Education," to-
day at 3 p.m. at Aud. A, Angell
Chairman of music education in
the College of Education, she was
recently elected to the Executive
Committee of the Music Educa-
tor's National Conference.
Prof. Tolbert has also worked
with the State Department of Edu-_
By MARY ANN THOMAS
Egypt's nationalization of the
Suez Canal has created a serious
diplomatic crisis, but the conse-
quences are still open to specula-
Although they describe the Suez
situation as "very serious," "la-
mentable" and "explosive," three
University faculty members indi-
cated doubts it would foment war1
in the Near East.
Accentuatng the fact that we .
have very lttle information, An-
drew S. Ehrenkreutz, lecturer in
the Near Eastern studies depart-
ment, said the United States was
cool toward intervention in Egypt
because it had little at stake there.
"And England cannot embark on
a miiltary expedition of its own,"
he commented, "because the
waterway has international status.
3.) -Danger to the international
route: "Any military action might
result in destruction or obstruction
of the canal."
Representative of the Egyptian
viewpoint, Prof. Aziz S. Atiya,
visiting lecturer of medieval his-
tory, warned against English and
He believes "Common sense will
reign in the long run when West-
ern politicians realize the Egyp-
tians have fought for their inde-
pendence and want to keep it."
"There is no indication that
Egypt will block the Canal," the
Egyptian medievalist commented.
"Common sense dictates Egypt
wants more shipping, not less."
Regarding the American stand
on the conflict, Prof. Atiya observ-
ed, "It's now a question of whether
Qm -iro- voolc. ~ - A f - f~
cussed cooly at a conference table,"
he commented. "No one says that
Egyptians are not open to negoti-
"But it is the question of princi-
ple that worries Egypt," he ob-
served. "The canal was dug by
Egyptian hands and thousands
died in the process."
Interference with Rights
"'Furthermore, the imposition of
international control over one of
its provinces is to Egypt an inter-
ference with its rights," he added.
Clarifying further the Egyptian
viewpoint, Profr. Atiya emphasized
that people who think the Big
Powers own the Suez concession
are wrong. "Egypt gave the con-
cession," he said, "and Egypt can
decide when the concession should
be terminated within the limits of