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July 15, 1955 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1955-07-15

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TWO UE WUTA!V ~rr m V w lw. -- ---

r n1UAY, JULY 15, 1955


Sixty-Fifth Year
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.

"It's Really More of a 2-Power Conference, Ain't It?"


The Faculty Five
And Academic Freedom


AN EXPRESSION of opinion by five Uni
versity faculty members in objection to the
rejected Faculty Senate Committee Report on
the Responsibilities of the Faculty to Society
came to our attention yesterday. The ideas it
presented were in direct contradiction to the
accepted principles of democracy upon which
this nation rests, and, as such, lead us to fear
that those principles are being subverted by
the very men who should be staunchest in their
support, the faculty of a great intellectual cen-
It is somewhat reassuring to find only five
signatures at the end of this statement. They
probably represent only a small minority simi-
lar to many other small, vociferous, reactionary
minorities across the nation that from time
to time upset the peace by disturbing freedom
with false cries of danger in dissenting beliefs
in opinions. But even as only a small minority,
they are dangerous. Here they succeeded Ie
preventing the adoption of a perceptive report
as faculty policy. They succeeded in convincing
a large enough portion of the faculty that prin-
ciples of individual liberty are not the primary
concern of this nation, so that the report was
Though the five are only a small minority,
there are obviously many more University fa-
culty members who either hold to their ideas,
or are sufficiently unaware of the true aims of
a democratic society so as to be misled by the
eager minority. This situation casts grave fore-
bodings on the future of intellectual and per-
sonal freedom at the University. And, if the
University and its segment most seriously con-
cerned with liberty-its. faculty-allow free-
dom to be subverted in favor of a false se-
curity, then the whole nation is doomed to
witness its very foundation crumbled by quix-
otic citizens,
Perhaps to say that the ideas presented in
the statement are in direct contradiction to
the accepted principles of democracy is not a'
clear and fair accusation. An examination,
point by point, of the ideas advanced will suf-
fice, we think, to justify such a claim.
1. FROM THE STATEMENT: "But since a
conspirator can hide behind this assumption
(innocence until guilt is proved) as well as an
innocent man take refuge in it, and since the
means we have as a University of establishing
proof are at times inadequate, we have had to
rectify the assumption."
COMMENT: The United States Constitution
provides an accused man with protection
against self-incrimination and lays out the
groundwbrk on which the nation's courts have
built a system of law based on the assumption
that the accused man Is innocent until proven
guilty. This assumption is basic to democratic
and American principles.
THE FIVE professors would "rectify the as-
sumption," by subverting a basic American
principle-the doctrine that a man is innocent
until proven guilty.
It is true that this assumption places cer-
tain difficulties on the prosecution in criminal
cases. But this was intended as a necessary
safeguard of individual liberty, and, despite the
headaches it has given district attorneys, has
survived almost 200 years in the United States
Now the five professors would change and
destroy that principle under conditions much
more unspecific than a criminal case. They
would remove the principle where men are be-
ing questioned for errors in the field of opin-
ion rather than in the field of action, where
misconduct can be established. It is more dif-
ficult to logically prove subversive tendencies
by evidence of a particular political belief than
by proof of acts of subversion. Because it is so
much more difficult, it is easier to cast aside
the principle of innocence until guilt is prov-
en. But it is also much more important to re-
tain that principle for the safety of individual
liberty in an area as vague as political opin-
ions, subversion and any connection,between
the two.
2. FROM THE STATEMENT: "The correct.
ive is precisely this: if a faculty member call-
ed before a lawfully appointed investigative
body refuses to answer pertinent questions, he
shall be held suspect.".

COMMENT The five professors would have
us suspect as guilty of Communist beliefs any-

one who will refuse to say whether or not he
does hold those beliefs. Thus, one who does not
hold Communist beliefs is held suspect even
though he will not commit himself.
But this is not the real danger. Assuming
that one who will not commit himself does, in
fact, have Communist beliefs, what does it
prove? It certainly does not prove, by any sys-
tem of logic, that he is also part of the Com-
munist conspiracy. But a curious system of
thought has arisen that argues 1) refusal to
commit oneself proves Communist beliefs, and
2) Communist beliefs prove actual subversion.
It is true that subversion must be prevented
from destroying any society, even a democratic
one. But Communist beliefs do not prove sub-
version. Subversion is an act, which cannot be
demonstrated to have been committed by proof
of beliefs similar to those held by proven sub-
versives. Does a court convict a man for think-
ing that murder is just, or for committing
This connection between beliefs and sub-
version is taken for granted, so that the five
professors, in saying "they shall be held sus-
pect," mean they shall be suspected of sub-
version if they refuse to commit themselves,
skipping the chain of argument which is illo-
gical anyway. Perhaps the only way to make
the conclusion sound is to skip the reasoning.
All this is a direct contradiction of American
principles of democracy which demand that an
accused man does not have to answer questions
that may incriminate him. And he has every
justification to think that committing himself
will incriminate him, because his accusers and
judges have taken the illogical jump in reason-
ing from Communist beliefs to subversion. If
he could depend upon the intelligence of the
judges to recognize there is no necessary con-
nection, he might be more willing to answer
questions which would then not be so likely to
incriminate him in the minds of emotional
3. FROM THE STATEMENT: "...it is our
conviction that every faculty member has a
responsibility to the University and to society,'
and that these two responsibilities should be
placed above his personal privilege. It seems to
us intolerable that any man, under the delu-
sions of academic freedom or otherwise, should
put his personal rights above the welfare of
the University."
COMMENT: This one almost speaks for it-
self as a subversion of democratic principles.
The most basic aim of democracy, and the one
on which the Constitution sets the United
States, is the primacy of the individual over
the state (society). The state exists for the
welfare of the individual, and its restraints on
individual freedom are intended only to pre-
vent the freedom of one individual from des-
troying that of another.
THE BASIC tenet of a totalitarian state, as
the Communists would have, is the prim-
acy of the state (society). The individual ex-
ists for the welfare of the state, and has no
rights, but only those privileges which the
state feels safe to allow him.
This totalitarian philosophy is precisely that
which is advanced by the five professors. They
woul dsubjugate the individual freedom of the
faculty member to the welfare of his most
immediate society, the University. This is about
as un-American and subversive as one can get.
If they would only stop to think for a moment,
they might realize that the University stands
for individual and intellectual freedom, and
that to subjugate that freedoi to the "wel-
fare" of the University is a contradiction in
terms. The welfare of the University depends
upon the freedom of its faculty to hold to any
opinion, regardless of who might term it sub-
versive when he really means "different from
We suspect that the five professors and their
sympathizers have honest intentions, but are
kept from thinking clearly by an obsession with
a security that can never exist, least of all in
an atmosphere of subordination of individual
liberty to an impersonal, abstract entity.
We hope that'those on the faculty who have
been misled by their eagerness to protect the

University against Communists will awaken to
the real danger in time to permit an intelli-
gent policy to be adopted by the Faculty Sen-
ate. The first chance for a policy consistent
with democratic principles was turned away
on a mail vote. We hope a similar report is
again prepared and the next time -accepted
by an enlightened faculty.
The Administration's new approach toward
bilateral collective security, if consistently
followed through, will dispose once and for all
of the latest and most dangerous Communist
fraud: neutrality. As invariably happens when-
ever they adopt an idea-be it peace, neutrality,.
or collective security-the Communists make it
into a snare, for there are too many nations

The Faculty Five . * *
To the Editor:
IN A DOCUMENT worthy of the
most advanced thinking of the
Neanderthal era, five eminent pro-
fessors hate valiantly defended
the University "against Commun-
ist infiltration." In order to pre-
clude the possibility of the Uni-
versity staff ever being contami-
nated by Communists such as Prof.
Frederick Joliot-Curie, Prof. Leo-
pold Infield, Prof. Maurice Dobb,
J. B. Haldane, Sean O'Casey, The-
odore Dreiser, Bertold Brecht and
a host of other similar academic
incompetents, the professors advo-
cate the scuttling of the obviously
outmoded and archiac principle
that "a man is innocent until he
is proven guilty." The more mo-
dern methods of the Spanish In-
quisition, which placed the burden
of proof upon the accused, are un-
doubtedly much more suitable to
the tastes of these gentlemen.
This document represents an.
important change in the ideology
of at least some of its signers. Up
until now most of these gentle-
men were ardent advocates of
Laissez-faire. T h e government
which governs least governs best,
they eloquently argued. But now it
seems that their opposition to the
government's interference in the
private lives of its citizens is mere-
ly restricted to the interference in
the profit making process, which
they still hold to be sacrosanct.
Like all true scholars, they bol-
ster their argument by citing au-
thorities, namely the Michigan
Trucks Act and Dean Stason of
the Law School. For some strange
reason, however, they neglected to
mention the recent Supreme
Court decision in the Emspack
case, which both vigorously de-
fended the use of the Fifth Amend-
ment and sharply questioned, cer-
tain practices of Congressional
committees. Apparently the news
of this decision hasn't as yet fil-
tered-back to the Neanderthal era.
-Ed. Shaffer
The Faculty Five...
To the Editor:
LET THE Faculty Five tell us
what conspiracy they are talk-
ing about. How were the students
and colleagues of the dismissed
faculty members hurt by their pre-
sence; how are they freer now to
find the truth? Take out the teach-
ing records of Drs. Nickerson and
Davis. Point to the subversive
acts. Do not tell us it was all gone
into at the time. It was just what

needed going into but it never was.
You are scientists; set up your
measures. Let's hear about the acts
of perverting the truth for which
you were willing to have two fine
faculty members fired a year ago
.. . and for which you would be
willing to see any of your collea-
gues fired today.
Do the Faculty Five consider
that men will not testify to their
beliefs before committee today be-
cause they will not become inform-
ers? Do they know that the Clardy
committee hearings are sprinkled
with invitations to inform, and
threats for not doing so? Do they
like informers?
The Faculty Five want to be
judge and hangman, too. They
have decided what they think
makes a teacher fit to teach,
(though upon close questioning it
turns out to be a secret known to
themselves alone and infinitely
changeable). If you do not agree,
and choose to set forth the issues
that seem to you important, your
disagreement renders you unfit
The Faculty Five may be pretty
threadbare on empirical data, but
their logic is ironclad. And one
cannot disprove their circularity
by accepting its terms.
Alas, this Is .just what editor
Samra does in his critical editorial.
His heart is well placed but he
cuts the throat of his own case.
He will find that exactly the same
kind of logic was and is used in
the Smith Act trials; exactly the
same standards are applied by the
FBI in hunting "espionage and
subversion"; exactly the same
standards are fastened upon those
who in conscience and intelligence
oppose a military buildup.
Editor Samra approves all three.
Thus he cuts off the campus ques-
tion from the question at large.
Can you scoop out a hole in the
sand with the tide coming in? Let's
tackle the tide.
I refuse to accept the Faculty
Five's picture of "university wel-
fare." Summer. school studeits, if
you really want to serve this uni-
versity and your own common
sense, ask your teachers, ask us
yearly students what went on here.
-Bill Livant
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Reader Livant-
refuses to recognize the essential
difference between the prosecution
of subversive, criminal activities and
the persecution of unpopular beliefs.
The one safeguards our institution
from activities of a conspiratorial na-
ture; the other, however, tends to
disrupt those institutions by sewing
the seeds of distrust, fear and sus-
picion. The common asininity of both
the left-wingers and the right-wingers
is their ability to recognize this dis-
tinction. The Right would crucify al
suspects; the Left would let all the
suspects go scot-free.)





I I I i

At the State ***
Tom Ewell and Marilyn Monroe.
The producers of this movie ap-
parently have a special place
in their hearts for its leading man,
for they list him affectionately in
the credits as "Tommy" Ewell. It's
an affection one comes to share by
the end of the picture, for practi-
cally all its cheer proceeds from
his style and freshness as a come-
The movie's gambit, for all
that it's tricked up with allu-
sions to the mores of the Man-
hattan Indians and to "studies
by eminent psychiatrists," is
pretty familiar. Middle-aged
married man suddenly finds
himself with world enough and
time for extra-marital relations.
Most movies of the type rely
heavily on situation gags to car-
ry the show; Phfft! for instance,
had a property room full of
tigerskin rugs, circular beds, and

the like. "Itch" has its share of
situation comedy, but most of its
funniness stems from Ewell's
animated soliloquies, as he strug-
gles with his itch and his super-
ego. He alternates between bliss-
ful confidence in his "Certain
animal something" and stark
horror at his moral turpitude,
which at one point leads him to
see his face in the mirror shrivel
up a la Dorian Gray. His mono-
logue has a certain floweing
stream-of-consciousness quality
-- the picture could have been
called "The Love Song of J.
Richard Sherman" without do-
ing a gross disservice to T. E.
Marilyn Monroe isn't up to
Ewell's kind of comedy; in fact,
she functions about like a tiger-
skin rug on a circular bed. She
plays no-one but Marilyn Monroe,
and the writers even had to slip
her name into a gag, just so we'd
be sure to realize we were in the
presence of an American Ideal.
Robert Strauss, as an unshaven
and lecherous janitor, is of more

The President at Geneva

(Ed. note - Drew Pearson has flown
to Geneva to cover the Big Four meeting
and today writes his first column on
that important forthcoming event.)
GENEVA--Inside fact is that
President Eisenhower at first
didn't want the Big Four talks to
be held in Geneva and argued
against this city when the Rus-
sians first proposed it.
Ike is a bit superstitious, and to
him Geneva was too closely iden-
tified with the Indo-China con-
ference which his Secretary of
State ballyhooed as the "world's
best hope," but which turned out
to be one of this country's most
crushing diplomatic defeats. To
other diplomats, Geneva is a city
which has watched some of the
world's greatest tragedies and the
world's greatest hopes.
It watched the birth of Wood-
row Wilson's dream of a bright
new and peaceful world.
And it watched Emperor Haile
Selassie walk down from the Lea-
gue of Nations' rostrum, after his
plea for helpless Ethiopia, a
heavy-hearted, beaten man.
IT WATCHED the ambassador of
Adolf Hitler bluster out of the
disarmament sessions when Frank-
lin Roosevelt was making one'last

attempt to block rearming of Nazi
Germany. And it watched Japan-
ese Ambassador Yoshizawa insult
the 'council by keeping it waiting
a full hour during the Manchurian
crisis and then saunter down the
aisle, stogie at a jaunty angle, to
announce his usual alibi: "I am
awaiting instructions from my
And it watched the repeated
conversations between the old bat-
tler for peace, Aristide Briand, and
German delegates in an effort to
patch up a partnership between
those two age-old archenemies,
France and Germanyq
As these conversations failed, it
also watched the huge mustachios
of Aristide Briand droop lower and
lower, as the League of Nations
more and more sank to the point
where it had only the noncontro-
versial task of preventing opium
But there is one big difference
between Geneva's failures of the
1920-30's and the position Presi-
dent Eisenhower is in today.
The League of Nations in those
days was operating -without the
United States. It was limping on
one crutch, with the other crutch,
the most powerful nation in the
world, aloof, suspicious, and iso-
(Copyright, 1955, BelSyndicate, Inc.)

service to the comedy of the whole
thing. The rest of the cast forms
a nagreeable background to Ewell's
passionate performance.
-Bob Holloway
* * *
it Architecture Aud... .
with Gerard Philipe, Michele
Morgan, Vivian Romance, and
This is probably the most episodic
of the episodics - eight vig-
nettes and semi-dramatic bridges
between them. The tendency,
therefore, is either for the various
sequences to be too short, or for
the whole picture to be too long.
In general, the latter is the case.
The film is mostly comic, and
is better when it is. The few
serious segments are a bit over-
intense, particularly that entitled
"Envy." The exception is "Pride,"
which stars Michele Morgan as the
daughter of an impoverished so-
ciety woman (Francoise Rosay).
Mlle. Morgan is quite an actress
indeed, and her facility in almost
any role is amazing. It may be
idle to compare this brief appear-
ance with her performance in "La
Symphonie Pastorale," but a know-
ledge of both amply illustrates her
A surprise in this picture --
even more surprising than the
trick ending -- is the subtlety of
Vivian Romance's characterization.
As a young matron in "Lust" she
is as little a Carmen as can be
imagined, which may just prove
that French glamor girls are more
talented than American ones.
Gerard Philipe has little oppor-
tunity to display his ability. He
appears as a barker at a carnival
who invites his customers to knock
over the seven sins with baseballs,
and as each falls he tells them
stories. M. Philipe can do more
than this.
There are times when this is a
very good movie; it certainly has
a brilliant cast. But it is not "La
Ronde," and tries to be. Most of
the episodes rely upon tricks as
blatant as the one which ends the
picture, and one - "Gluttony" --
is simply an over-extended joke.
Little good can come to a movie
which is so weighted with gim-
micks that even its actors cannot
hold the stage.
And to mention things which
might better be left understood,
Architecture Auditorium continues
to hold first place among uncon..
fortable theaters. An attempt is
made to provide proper ventilation,
but more than half a house' can
smother the fans in no time. Cine-
ma Guild might take a lesson from
the vacationing Orpheum.
-Tom Arp

'The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the Uni-
versity. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication (be-
for 10 a.m. on Saturday.) Notice of
lectures, concerts and organization
meetings cannot be published oftener
than twice.
FRIDAY, JULY 15, 1955
Health Service. The Ophthalmology
Clinic closes for the summer Sat., July
30. Summer Session students wishing
refractions should make appointments
well in advance of that time.
Mich, Civil Service announces exams
for Maintenance Mechanic A, Mainte-
nance Mechanic 1, Maintenance Me-
chanic 1A, Tabulating Machines Super-
visor II, Tabulating Machines Supervisor
IIA, Store Clerk A, B, C.
Pet-Ritz Foods Div. of Crystal Can-
ning Co., Beulah, Michigan, is interested
in securing a Jr. Accountant.
New York Central System is looking
for a Civil Engineer to work as Instru-
ment man for the Michigan area.
Farm Bureau Insurance Co., Lansing,
Mich., has an opening for an Account-
ant, experience preferred but not essen-
G. D. Searle & Co., Chicago, Ill., needs
a woman with a major in Zoology to
work as Biology Technician in the Biol-
ogy Research Department.
Bureau of Medical Economic Research,
Amer. Med. Assoc., Chicago, Ill., has an
opening for a woman to work as Re-
search Assistant. Should have major
in Econ. or any related social science
field or Math.
For further information contact the
Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Admin.
Bldg., Ext. 311.
Department of Astronomy. Visitors'
Night, Fri., July 15, 8:30 p.m. Dr.
Kenneth M. Yoss of Louisiana State
University will speak on "Saturn -
The Ringed Planet." Following the
illustrated lecture in 2003 Angell Hall,,
the Students' Observatory on the fifth
floor will be open for telescopic obser-
vation of Saturn and a nebula, if the
sky is clear, and for inspection of the



Student Recital. Mary Ann Tinkham
soprano, recital at 4:15 p.m., July 17,
in Aud. A, Angell Hall, in partial fulfill-
ment of the requirements for the degree
of Master of Music. Compositions by
Vivaldi, Wolf, Debussy, andBritten.
Open to the general public. Miss
Tinkham is a pupil of Frances Greer.
Faculty Recital. Leslie Bassett, In-
structor in Theory-Composition in the
School of Music, will perform works
for the trombone, at 8:30 p.m., July 17,
in Aud. A, Angell Hal. He will be assist-
ed by Mrs. Bassett, piano, Paul Bryan,
Instructor, 2nd trombone, and students
Patricia Ricks and Jane Stoltz, violins.
The program includes Mr. Bassett's Son-
ata for Trombone and Piano, the first
performance of Ross Lee Finney's Elegy
and March (for trombone alone), and
Paul Hindemith's Sonata for Trombone
and Piano. After intermission five com-
positions by Biagio Marini will be played
by Mr. and Mrs. Bassett, Mr. Bryan,
Miss Stoltz, and Mrs. Ricks. Open to
the general public without charge.
Band Concert. By Joliet Township
High School Band, Bruce H. House-
knecht, Conductor, 8:30 p.m. Mon., July
18, in Hill Auditorium, in conjunction
with 7th National Band Conductors
The program, open to the general
public, will include Overture to "Russ-
land un Ludmilla," by Glinka; Finale
from Mendeissohn's violin Concerto in
E minor; Come, Sweet Death, by Bach;
"'Festival at Bagdad," from Rinsky-
Korsakow's Scheherazade; Frenk ven-
ture's "Wings of Victory" March; How-
ard Hanson's March Carillon; Finale
from Dvorak's Symphony No. 4 in G
major. After intermission the band
will perform Two Spanish Dance Forms
by Frank Perkins and Louis Palange;
Theme for Tomorrow by Sid Feller; and
John J. Heney. In a tribute to Glenn
Drum Quintet, "A Soldier's Life," by
John J. Heney. In a tribute to Glenn
Miller, the band will play four pieces
associated with the memory of the late
conductor. Concluding the concert the
band will perform three type of Ameri.
can march music. Most of the com-
positions on the program have" been
especially arranged for symphonic band.
Events Today
Fresh Air Camp clinic at the Main
Lodge of the Camp on Patterson Lake,
Fri., July 15, 8:00 p.m. Students with
a professional interest are welcome,
Dr. Ralph Rabinovitch will be the
psychiatric discussant.
Punch Refresher, Lane Hall Library
- 4:30-6:00 p.m.



The Daily Staff

Editorial Board
Pat Roelofs

Jim Dygert


Cal Samra

Mary Lee Dingier, Marge Piercy, Ernest Theodossin
Dave Rorabacher....... ...............Sports Editor
!?.---- -- C _1


Christopher Morley, perhaps A-
merica's best known book-lover,

He plays the role of the court
jester or fool of dramatic tradi-
tionn wrhose fac~ile~ nr~niono ,e.

The reader is entertained with
verses involving intricate rhyme
,rhm ~q_ Lva r~ii ns wh,1"ich ni a ~

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