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THE MICHIGAN BAlrF.'V

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i'nlJA1 U, .JULY 51 C, '195

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Sixty-Fifth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD, IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. " Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.

"Seat!"

Argentine Crisis
In Retrospect

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41

The Unsung Heroes

UHE LAST handful of confetti has been toss-
ed and the exotically-stamped postcards
ave begun rolling in.
They come regularly, from the idle voya-
eurs, from the industrious who work their way
r employ their bicycles, and from those who
imply had nothing better to do. Some sound
o charged with enthusiasm that the writing
an hardly be deciphered; others carry a lan-
uid "it really was much better last year" tone.
The postcards share one common factor:
heir authors are There. Thanks to industry,
he United States Navy or bulging bankrolls,
hey've arrived on the continent. More power
o them.
But meanwhile a sadly-neglected (and much
arger, if they only knew it) troupe of arm-
hair travelers remains at home, experiencing
ife only vicariously. Theirs is a tragic lot.
'antalizing sentences written on foreign soil

only make worse the oven-like offices and the
heated open roads or ditches. No camp counsel-
ling job nor position as a sales clerk can com-
pensate.
In their immediate memories are gala par-
ties given to send off more fortunate friends.
Going-away gifts of dramamine and bouquets
have depleted their bankrolls. If they're em-
bittered, their envy is just. These are the un-
sung heroes for whom- the parties should be
given, who deserve the bouquets.
Possibly the international set should honor
each of them with a "staying-home" present-.
a ,ten-ride ticket to the office, or a summer's
subscription to the commuters' newspaper. Or,
for those at summer school, a few ample blue-
books.
Blessed too possibly, are they who sit and
work.
-Jane Howard

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The Case of Cedri Belifrage

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Today a newspaper editor sits in federal prison
in New York City. He has not been charged
with any crime. He is contesting in the courts
a Justice Department ruling under the McCar-
ron Act (1950) that would. deport him to
England. The government denies him bail,
and until his plea for bail is ruled on by the
only political deportation case, in the U. S.
co't he cannot leave jail. This editor is the
only political deportation case in the U. S.
today behind bars.
Cedric Belfrange, a British journalist, has
lived permanently in the United States since
1936. During World War II he served in a
strategic job that necessitated keeping his
British citizenship. At the end of the war he
served directly under the Supreme Allied Com-
mand on a team working to democratize the
German press. In 1946 he received a Guggen-
heim grant to write of his German experiences;
this is now published as Seeds of Destruction
the most recent of his several books. In 1949
he founded the "National Guardian" a weekly
newspaper often critical of U. S. government
policies. Belfrage has edited the "Guardian"
full time ever since.
In 1953, Belfrage was subpoenaed to appear
before the .House Un-American Activities Com-
mittee. He answered specific questions about
his work in Germany; he refused to discuss his
beliefs with the committee. Chairman Velde
recommended his deportation. On May 13 Sen-
ator McCarthy's committee got its turn; again
Belfrage refused to discuss his beliefs, Mc-
Carthy directed that an official of the Immigra-
tion Service be present at the following day's
public hearings, May 14. One was.
A single day later Belfrage was apprehended
by Justice Department agents at the "National
Guardian" office, and taken to Ellis Island on a
deportation warrant. Attorney General Brow-
nell ordered him held without bail. Belfrage
took it to court. In April 1954 a Federal Court
of Appeals affirmed his right to bail and
Belfrage was released on $5,000 bail.
From August to October, a special Inquiry
Officer of the Immigration Service held de.
portation hearings on Belfrage. The charge:
Belfrage was a Communist in 1937-38. This
makes him deportable under the McCarren
Internal Security Act (1950). "The Attorney
General shall . . . take into custody and deport
from the United States any alien who at any
time, whether before or after the effective date
of this Act, has engaged, or has had a purpose
to engage in any of the activities described."
(Section XXII 3b). The whole hearings were
taken up with this charge.
To testify concerning "Belfrage's politics 18
years ago, the Government produced, as its total
case, a) one Lars Skattebol who testified that
he used to baby sit for Belfrage, who, he said,
told him in the presence of no witnesses that
he was a Communist; b) one Martin Berkeley,
a Hollywood script writer, who claimed that
he attended a "closed party meeting" in Bel-
frage's home in 1937. He too had no witness to
back up his story. And his memory was singu-
larly elastic. When in 1951 Berkeley name 150
Hollywood "subversives," Belfrage was not
among them. When visited by Justice Depart-
ment officials in the present case, as he
testified at the hearings, he said he "recalled"
Belfrage; c) one William Kimple, a police spy
in the Los Angeles Communist Party in the
thirties, who identified a receipt for party
membership books of a "George Oakden" as
having been seen by him in-1937. He claimed no
direct knowledge of this Oakden or of Belfrage;
d) George Mesnig, FBI handwriting expert
who testified that the handwriting on the

receipt was Belfrage's. This was disputed by
an expert for the defense who testified that
it was definitely not.
The Inquiry Officer found this evidence suf-
ficient. In December 1954 he ordered Belfrage
deported. Belfrage, still out on bail though
restricted to New York City, appealed to the
Immigration Board of Appeals.
Though the Inquiry Officer relied solely on
witnesses identified above, who told their
stories about the period 1937-38, he presumed
that Belfrage's Communist membership contin-
Ued through World War II. The. Appeals Board
threw out this opinion, stating that "There is no
proof of participation in the Communist Party
affairs after November 1941." Still, it upheld the
ruling of deportation, on May 12, 1955. In
effect, the Board ruled that Belfrage must be
deported for political views he presumably held
18 years ago.
Less than fifteen hours later, without notice
to him or his attorney, he was seized and jailed
in New York's West Street House of Detention.
He learned that he was to be segregated from
the rest of the prison population, not allowed
to go to the dining room,. the library, or to
participate in exercise in the courtyard. Bel-
frage went on a hunger strike to force improve-
ment of his conditions. He succeeded.
The "N. Y Times," the "Nation," Rep. Eman-
uel Celler and others have protested this illegal
incarceration.
Meanwhile, from prison Belfrage fights both
for bail and for a court review of the deporta-
tion order. He will fight it to the Supreme
Court if necessary. His point of view can be
found in the "National Guardian;" queries and
comments to its office (17 Murray St., NY 7)
elicit careful replies. It is harder to inquire of
the Justice Dept. about its case. This writer's
correspondence with Mr. Brownell's office us-
ually receives no reply. Maybeothers are more
fortunate.
McCarthy and McCarren began this case.
One bullied the Justice Department into moving
against Belfrage, the other fashioned the legal
instrument of his deportation. The Justice De-
partment continues their work, with their-
methods. It has stubbornly fought against bail
for Belfrage from the beginning, though his
whereabouts are public and he has answered
all summonses promptly. It has established a
little iron curtain (one of many on aliens in
the U.S.) limiting his mobility to New York
City for the last two years. His arrest, both
in May 1953 and May 1955 was peremptory.
He was not allowed to know who was to testify
against him at his hearing. His present im-
prisonment has no foundation in law or in
precendent; all other political detainees are
free pending final settlement of their cases. In
ia sefrage cannot even receive his own paper
These proceedings serve to disrupt the opera-
tion of his newspaper. They probably were
intended as such. The existence of a critical
and independent press, not Communism, is the
issue in the Belfrage case. People, and especially
newspaper people, in speaking for Belfrage's
rights speak for their own. They should speak
now.
-Bill Livant
Interpreting
The Newms
By JAMES MARLOW
WASHINGTON-(P)-The psychologists can
have a field day analyzing the Kremlin
mind after the Fourth of July speech by Nikita
S. Khrushchev, boss of the Russian Commun-
ist Party.
And President Eisenhower, it seems, will have
a double job on his hands when he goes to
Geneva July 18 to negotiate about peace with
the Russians,
He knew he was. going to negotiate.
But now he may even have to build up the
Russians' self-confidence beforehand so they'll
feel comfortable and be willing to negotiate
when he meets them. He's already taken a sten

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FEW DEVELOPMENTS in Latin
American politics have been
more distorted and misunderstood
abroad than the struggle between
President Peron and the Catholic
church in Argentina. To suggest,
for instance, that Peron has great-
ly weakened his position by at-
tacking the Catholic establish-
ment is to misunderstand the
character of religious belief in Ar-
gentina and the history of that
country for the past century and
a half. Far from being a solid out-
post of Catholicism, Argentina,
like other Latin American nations,
acquired its independence after a
bitter struggle against not only
the Spanish Empire but its pow-
erful ally, the Catholic church.
General San Martin, the liberator
of Argentina, was branded as a
"shameless heretic" by the Ar-
gentine clergy, who compared him,
to that other Martin, "the devilish
Luther." For more than half a
century Argentina did not even
have diplomatic relations with the
'Vatican, and until 1946, when Pe-
ron established it, religious edu-
cation was forbidden in the pub-
lic schools.
Until six months ago, when Pe-
ron first attacked the activities of
the church, the strongest opposi-
tion to his regime came precisely
from the anti-clerical Radical
Party. Now he has brought this
important group to his side, and
it is probable that he will emerge
from the present crisis more pow-
erful than ever.
When Peron became President,
there were few doubts about where
his real strength lay. While claim-
ing a large measure of popular
support, he relied heavily on the
aid of the church and army and
on at least the tacit acquiescence
of the great landholders. Since
then, the situation has changed
considerably, and the only tradi-
tionalist group that remains solid-
ly on Peron's side is the army.
This realignment has been brought
about by the strong reformist fea-
tures of the Peronist program.
PERON HAS survived two gen-
eral elections since he came
t opower. Whether these elections
were free or not is open to ques-
tion, but in both he had the whole-
hearted support of the Catholic
church. Priests thundered from
their pulpits against the Radical
Party candidates, calling- them
"atheists," instruments of free-
masonry, and the like, and asking
their parishioners to vote, for Gen.
Peron, the Christian leader, cre-
ator of "justicialism," the Chris-
tian alternative to communism
and capitalism. The help of the
church was effective, and Peron
repaid it generously. Religious edu-
cation was made compulsory in
the public schools, the state sub-
sidy for Catholic schools was in-
creased, and unprecedented en-
couragement was given to the ac-
tivities of the church.
Between 1946 and 1952 church
and army were united in their sup-
port of the regime. The landown-

ers and the tradionalists in gen-
eral comforted themselves with
the thought that Peron was just
one more demagogue who appealed
for popular support in blood -and
thunder speeches but, knowing
which side his bread was buttered
on, did little to translate talk of
reform into action.
The strongest ally of the church
between Peron and the ancien re-
vout member of the family. Wlwn
she visited Europe she was unable
to obtain an audience with the
British monarch but was received
by the Pope. Her death in 1952
marked.the end of the honeymoon
between Peron and the ancien re-
gime. Soon her proteges in the
trade-union' movement and other
government departments were dis-
missed; even her brother chose
suicide when told that his finan-
cial dealings would be investigat-
ed.
This purge was followed by the
enforcement of reform laws which
had long lain dormant--among
them a minimum-wage law and a
law making membership in a un-
ion compulsory for farm workers.
The latter was a direct blow
against the landed interests. In
Argentina as elsewhere in South
America the peasants have tradi-
tionally "belonged" to the land-
owner and the church-their bod-
ies to the landowner, their souls
to the priest. Peron's attempt to
enforce these laws aroused bitter
opposition among the landowners,
who went so far as to threaten .a
nation-wide stoppage of agricul-
tural production. Peron answer-
ed by calling on the people and
the trade unions to support his
reforms. In a famous speech in
Buenos Aires he so incited the
multitudes that they stormed the
sumptuous premises of the Jockey
Club and razed the building.
F-From 'The Nation'
WHEN SOME future Frederick
Lewis Allen takes a look at
the cultural phenomena that
characterized 1955, he will cer-
tainly make much of the fact that
this was the year that hundreds- of
attractively bound, moderately.
priced paperbound reprints of ser-
ious books adorned the counters of
the nation's bookstores and crowd-
ed the pockets of thousands of
readers on beach and hotel porch.
Public. response to this "quality
paperback" pheonomenon is al-
ready being hailed as proof that
those who despair of the intelec--
tual life in America are despair.
ing needlessly .
At the moment more than ten
publishers, most of them well-
established trade houses, are is-
suing series of these volumes, with
several more reportedly. preparing
to follow in the near future. Over
a million and a half copies of books
like David Riesman's "The Lone.
ly Crowd," De Tocqueville's "De-
mocracy in America," and "The
Selected Writings of Mrs. Aphra
Behn" have been sold during the
past two years.
-Saturday Review

. _.

WASHINGTON MERRY-GO-ROUND:
Medical Research Squabbles

By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON--While the bat-
tle over Salk polio vaccine has
been waged in the headlines, ano-
ther . battle involving many di-
seases besides polio--cancer, heart
disease, epilepsy, muscular dis-.
trophy-is being waged privately
between a handful of Congress-
men. Upon its outcome will de-
pend in part the health of, the
nation in the next few years.
The public doesn't realize that
some of the most vital issues are
threshed out in the backstage
conferences between the two, con-
ference committees of the House.
and Senate after a bill has passed.
In this case the row is over how
much money shall go to medical
research, and one argument is be-
tween two Democrats-Sen. Lister
Hill of Alabama, who wants more
money spent on health research,
and Congressman John Fogarty of'
Rhode Island, who wants to 'stick
with Mrs. Hobby's .restricted bud-
get.
In the past, Fogarty has been
called by Congressman Rooney of
New York, "the outstanding Con-
gressional leader in the field of
public health." In the past, Fo-
garty has battled the meat-axing
of Congressman John Taber of
New York when it came to chop-
ping the health budget.
But not this year. This year, for
some strange reason, Fogarty
seenms to be siding with his old,
penny-pinching critic, Mr. Taber.
At stake in the argument is
about $24,000,000 for the expand-
ed program that Senator Mill has
put through the Senate to train
more doctors and to dig further
for the cures to the nation's num-
ber one killer diseases. The pro-
gram has been approved by the
country's top medical specialists
and has been passed by the Sen-
ale, but not by the House of Re.-
presentatives. That's thanks to Fo-
garty of Rhode Island.
NEW MEDICAL DAWN
SEN. LISTER. HILL happens to
be' named for Lord Joseph.
Lister of London, discoverer of
antiseptic surgery. The Senator's
father studied under Lord Lister
and later performed the first suc-
cessful operation on the human
heart. So his son, the Senator
from Alabama, has a keen inter-
est in medicine and is convinced
that medical science is on the-
verge of great new discoveries.
Cures for cancer, leukemia and
herat disease, he believes, are just
around the corner. He points out
that in the last 14 years, life ex-
pectancy has been extended 8.5
years, chiefly through research
into the causes and cures of such
major killers as rheumatic fever,
appendicitis, influenza, syphilis
and TB.
Yet, because of the following
facts, Senator Hill considers it
doubtful that the rate of progress
can be maintained without more
federal help:
-A shortage of 22,000, to 45,000
ditors

then went over the lady's head
and gave her an additional $24,-
000,000 whether she wanted it or
not.
ANIMALS VS. HUMANS
HER COLLEAGUE, the Secre-
tary of Agriculture, Mr. Ben-
son, gets $51,079,563 for agricul-
tural research into the. cause of
Bangs Disease in cows, hog chol-
era, hoof and mouth disease and
various other farm diseases and
problems. Nevertheless Mrs. Hob-
by stuck by her meagre figure of
$73,958,000 for research into hu-
man diseases, not the $97,000;000
voted her by the Senate.
And she's been depending on a
Democrat, Congressman Fogarty
of Rhode Island, to scale the Sen-
ate figure down. Various Demo-
crat leaders have gone to' Demo-
cratic Congressman Fogarty to
urge more funds for medical re-
search. Even Speaker Sam Ray-
burn has urged him to' agree to
the Senate bill with its higher ap-
propriation,
JOE MARTIN'S VISITOR
EX-SPEAKER Joe Martin Is one
of the busiest men in Con-
gress. He has to attend White
House conferences. He helps chart
Republican strategy. He must keep
sometimes rebellious Republicans
lined up behind Ike. However, the
kindly Congressman from Massa-
chusetts has time to do a lot of
little things. The other day he
told friends this story:
"A few days ago there pranced
into my office, nimble and spry as
Sou please, a man from Califor-
nia 96 years old. He recalled to
me that he had met me while I
was out in his state making
speeches last year, and that I had
told him to come and see me. if
ever he visited Washington.
'Well, I remembered, and here
I am,' he said. Then he told me:
",'My son would like to get the
President's autograph for him on
this photo.'
"I asked him, 'How old is your
son?' and he said 'fourteen years.'
" 'Don't you mean your grand-
son?' I suggested, but he insisted,
'No, my son.'
"So I got him the President's
autograph and told him not to
forget to call on me for the same
kind of chore whenever there was

an increase in his immediate f am-
ily.
"He said, I'll be back.' "
WASHINGTON PIPELINE
SEN. KERR SCOTT of North
Carolina felt a bit neglected
when Senator Langer, his Repub-
lican colleague from North Dako-
ta, implied that there were no dirt,
farmers in the United States Sen-
ate. Senator Byrd of Virginia, the
millionaire apple-grower' in Lan-
ger's opinion was not a dirt farm-
er. Senator Scott mildly pointed
out in the cloakroomthat he was
a dairy farmer and has been a'
dairy farmer all his life. Scott is
right. He has long made a living
at dairying .. . After Senator But-
ler, Republican of Maryland, tang-
led vitriolically with Senator Ke-
fauver of Tennessee over the Dix-
on-Yates project, he sat down on
the Senate floor beside Senator
Gore, also of Tennessee, and half-
apologized. "The Administration,"
he said, "is in so deep on Dixon-
Yates that it can't back down. It
has-to go through." This was the
signal which had been given to
Republican Senators at that time.
Shortly thereafter, however, Eis-
exhower changed the signals.
ALABAMA-GO-ROUND
THE TWO Alabama Senators,
Lister Hill and John Spark-
man, will both okay U.S. Attorney
Frank Johnson of Birmingham
for the new U.S. district judgeship:
in Montgomery. They feel he's a
bona fide Republican, not a Dix-
iecrat, and has done a good job
as U.S. Attorney. Johnson comes
from a genuine Republican part
of Alabama, which, believe it or
not, sent a regiment of Union sol-
diers to the North during the Civ-
il War. His family have been Re-
publicans for years . . . Another
good Republican, Charles Ken-
namer, Jr., is probably going to be
ruled out by Washington because
he was too ardently for the late
Senator Taft. The Taft feud is
still causing bitterness in some
parts of the country despite Ike's
rapprochment with the late Sen-
ator . . . Sen. Lister Hill of Ala-
bama is definitely not for his cou-
sin, T. B.. Hill, for the judgeship.
There is nothing Senator Hill likes
less than a Dixiecrat. His cousin
has been a Dixiecrat for about 10
years.
(Copywright, 1955, by Bell Syndicate)

,+
x-'

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it 'is construc-
tive notice to all members of the Uni-
versity. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day precedingtpublication (be-
for 10 a.m. on Saturday.) Notice of
lectures, concerts and organization
meetings cannot be published oftener
than twice.
FRIDAY, JULY 8, 1955
VoL. LXVI, NO. 17
Notices
PERSONNEL REQUESTS:
Mich. State Civil Service announces
exams for Pharmacist II and Blind
School 'Teacher, Deaf School Teacher,
and Special Education Teacher.
U. S. Civil Service, Vet. Admin. Hos-
pital, Battle Creek, Mich., announces
exam for Manual Arts Therapy Aid -
GS-3 and GS-4. Requirements include
one year of experience for GS-3 and two
years for GS-4.
Perrigo Co., Allegan, Mich., is looking
for a man to work as Chemist in Phar-
maceutical Control Lab. Should have
B.S. or M.S. and be veteran or draft
exempt.
For further information contact the.
Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Admin.
Bldg., ext. 371.
Academic Notices
M.A. Language Examination in History
Fri., July 15, 4:15-5:15 p.m., 439 Mason
Hall. Sign list in History office. Can
bring dictionary.
Doctoral Examination for Frank J.
Irgang, Education; thesis: "Community
Factors in the Determination of the
Instructional Areas of an Industrial
Arts Program," Fri., July 8, 4015 Uni-
versity High School, at 1:00 p.m. Chair-
man, F. W. Dalton.
Doctoral Examination for Frank
Stuart Stillings, Music; thesis: "Arc-
angelo Corelli," Sat., July 9, East Coun-
cil Room. Rackham Bldg.. at 10:30 a.m.

4:15 p.m. Sun., July 10, in Aud. A,
Angell Hall, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master
of Music. Compositions by Bach, Schu-
mann, Rossini, Cimara, Mozart, and
Britten. Open to the public'. Mr. Byler
is a pupil of Harold Haugh.
Student Recital. Marvel Dawn Waldo
ron, soprano, assisted by FrancesBorne,
piano, Rosalie Savarino, flute, and Jack
Snavely, clarinet, in a recital at 8:30
p.m. Sun., July 10, in Aud. A, Angell
Hall. Presented in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for. the Bachelor of
Music degree, the" program will include
works by Bach, Boyce, Brown, Mozart,
Schubert, Fourdrain, Hue, Canteloube,
Griffes, Arensky, Gibbs, Warren, and
will be open to the public. Miss Waldron,
is a pupil of Harold Haugh.
Events Today
Bell, Book and Candle, John van Drut-
en's comedy, will be presented by the
Department of Speech tonight at 8:00
p.m. in Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre.
Tickets are available at the Lydia Men-
delssohn Theatre Box Office for $1.50-
$1.10-75c, 10:00 a.m.-8:00 p.m.
- Services at the Hillel Foundation Fri.,
July 8 at 7:45 p.m.
Punch Refresher -- served informally
in Lane Hal Library, 4:30-6:00 p.m.
The Fresh Air Camp Clinic will be
held at the Main Lodge of the Camp
on Patterson Lake, Fri., July 8, 8:00
p.m. Students with a professional in-
terest are welcome. Dr. Ralph Aabinov-
itch will be the psychiatric discussant.
Coming events
Delta Kappa Gamma Summer Tea
Sat., July 9 from 3:00-6:00 p.m. at the
home of Mrs. Dan Nanry, 1663 W. Sta-
dium, Ann Arbor. All visiting members.
are urged to come. Notify Mrs. -Louis
Deising, No. 24193.
Michigan Christian Fellowship. Sun.,
July 10, Lane Hall, 4:00 p.m. Lecture

4-

4

Progress at San Francisco

The Daily Staff

Editorial Board
Pat Roelofs

Jim Dygert

Cal Samra

THE UNITED NATIONS tenth-
anniversary reunion at San
Francisco was neither the com-
memorative get-together its or-
ganizers intended nor the political
free-for-all they feared. Politeness
was the general rule, but politics
obtruded from the start. It was not
only the Russians who ignored the
ground rules. Such rasping local
problems as 'Kashmir, Arab-Israel
hostility, and North African na-
tionalism were raised by bitterly

for eontinued East-West tensions
and what are the proper means of
reducing them. Significantly, he
was not admonished by the chair.
In spite of this the results of
the San Francisco meeting were
more good than harmful. It pro-
vided an opportunity for private
conferences in which plans for the
"summit" meeting at Geneva were
-despite polemics--harmoniously
completed. It emphasizes the over-
powering demand for peace that
presses on a11 of them. And if the

NIGHT EDITORS
Mary Lee Dingier, Marge Piercy, Ernest Theodossin
Dave Rorabacher........................Sports Editor
Business Staff

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