&Y, JULY '7,1x55
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JNDAY CONCERTS SLATED: DisCu$ss io
Interlochen Music Camp Busy Place Set on Auto *iMELRIIIFEI
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Interlochen N a t i o n a l Music
Camp is "heaven on earth for
young artists," Prof. Joseph E.
Meaddy, of the school of music,
Director, quotes a visitor.
Founded in 1928 as the summer
home of the National High School
orchestra, the camp has grown into
a town of dormitories, studio build-
ings, cafeterias, libraries, labora-
tories, warehouses, a sawmill and
hospital. Campers ranging in age
from grade school to graduate stu-
Graduate and under-graduate
students enroll in a field branch
of the University. The University
also sponsors the All-State division
for Michigan high school students.
r Courses Offered
The University branch, Bart of
the Summer Session, offers courses
for regular credit. in the music
school, speech department, educa-
tion school and college of architec-
ture and design. Courses are offer-
ed for the same credit as in regular
At least one concert is planned
for every night of the eight weeks,
except Mondays. A symphonycon-
cert is scheduled for 8:00 p.m.
f every Sunday.
Two compositions by Tschaikow-
sky, "Symphony No. 6" and
"March Slave" will be performed
next Sunday. The following week,
Hanson's "Romantic Symphony"
and Wagner's "Tannhauser Over-
ture" will be played.
OUTDOOR CONCERT-The Oratorio-Festival Choir and University Orchestra perform at Inter-
lochen National Music Camp in one of the many concerts scheduled this summer. Their first con-
cert, July 15, will include Mendelssohn's "Elijah."
Liszt's "A Faust Symphony" and
Strauss' "Death and Transfigura-
tion" are scheduled for July 24.
They will be followed July 31 by
"Symphony No. 5" by Sibelius,
"Symphony Dances" by Grieg and
"Slavonic Dance No. 8" by Dvorak.
Schubert's "Symphony No. 7"
and Copland's "Rodeo Suite" will
be performed August 7 and Dvor-
ak's "Carneval Overture", Haydn's
"Clock Symphony and Strauss'
"The Merry Pranks of Til Eulens-
piegel,"' August 14.
The Sunday concert series will
close August 21 with "Symphony
No. 3" by Brahms and "Les Pre-
ludes" by Liszt.
Admission is 75c adults, 40c
children. Group tickets are avail-
able at 5 for $3.00 and 10 for $5.00.
All admissions go t o w a r d the
camp's scholarship fund.
War Plays Big Part in Development of Income Tax
WASHINGTON - If anyone ev-
er decides to raise a monument to
the best-loved United States Con-
gresses, a pair of extremely popu-
lar nominees would be the 7th
They have the unusual distinc-
tion of voting to abolish all intern-
al revenues in the years 1802 and
Unfortunately for today's tax-
payers, neither decision was per-
mitted to remain on the books.
During most of the years since
the government was set up in 1789,
United States citizens have had to
dig down for internal taxes of one
soit or another. However, as the
accompanying chart of per capita
federal taxes show, it is only in
'comparitively recent times that
t they' have had to dig so deep.
The long story of federal debt
and taxes started when the first
Congress assumed the 75 2 million
dollars < of foreign and domestic
obligations incurred during the
But that first Congress didn't
forget that taxation was a major
cause of the war against England
and it started the nation off tax
free-the government was sup-
ported entirely by customs duties
on foreign goods.
However, by 1792, interest on
Revolutionary War debt was run-
ning 60 per cent of federal spend-
ing (interest on federal debt now
runs 10 per cent of total outlays),
so with considerable trepidation
} Congress on March 3, 1791, laid on
taxes of' 9 to 30 cents a gallon on
"spirits." (Nowadays the whiskey
: tax is $10.50 a gallon.)
Immediately outraged cries arose
that any internal tax "controverted
the principles of liberty." The fa-
mous Whiskey Rebellion, in the
frontierland of southwest Pennsyl-
Troops to the Rescue
The federal government called
out the troops and once and for
always asserted its authority. But
the tax, as a revenue measure, was
a flop. It brought in only $422,000
4 in 1793.
In 1795, the 7th Congress
thankfully abolished the whole
embarassing business of internal
revenue. Congress re-enacted about
the same internal imposts in 1813
and 1814 to pay for the War of
1812, but in 1818 it again wiped out
all internal taxes.
Because of War
The tax repeal of 1818 lasted up
to 1861-to the Civil War. But
when internal revenue came back,
it came with a bang that still ech-
oes when paychecks are opened.
Along .with a lengthy list of sales
taxes, the Civil War tax code intro-
duced the first federal income tax,
on people and business.
Congress imposed a tax of 3 per
cent on incomes above $800 to help
pay for the war. Successive raises
brought the rates up to 5 per cent
on income from $600 to $5,000 and
10 per cent above $5,000. The cur-
rent basic rate is 20 per cent, al-
though the effective tax on lower
incomes today might be about the
same due to exemptions.
Taxation of income had been
Federal Taxes Per Capia
ChangingSources of Federal Revenue
INCOME TAXES INCOME TAXES
(corporate) (personal and corporate
,CUSTOMS:;;':;;: :.48% x EXCISES
) (personaland corporate)
Changing Source of
Personal Income Revenue
INCOMES ABOVE $50,000 INCOMES:ABOVE $50,000
.*4.* .. X
1789.37 1800 70 20 '30 '40 '50 '60' '70 '80 '80 1900 70 '20 '30 '35 ;'0 45 '50
demonstrated to be quick, easy and 1910 customs accounted for near-
productive, but it was not until the ly three-quarters of total federal
sons making more than
dropped to 15.9 per cent.
eve of the next big ,war-1913-
when the income tax that is still
with us (but very much grown up)
Along with excises, the mnrome
taxes have all but completely
eclipsed that old standby of the
early days, customs receipts. As the
first inset shows, as recently as
revenue. Income taxes climbed to
nearly one-third of the total take
by 1935 and now run near the
In 1915 the well-to-do paid al-
most half the revenue derived from
personal income taxes. But by 1951
-although still paying the highest
rates-the share of total personal
I income revenue derived from per-
In 1915 it would cost the govern-
ment about a sixth of its income
tax revenue to abandon taxation of
incomes over half a million dollars
The government could have wip-
ed out all income taxes on those big
incomes in 1951 and it would have
lost less than 2 per cent of the per-
sonal income tax yield.
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Never Before Reviews Like Thi:
"A triumph beyond compare!"
"Stupendous! Must be seen to be