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VOL. LXV. No. 23S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, JULY 21, 1955
Open Letter Sent
Staff Responsibilities Controversy
Topic of Letter by Hawley, Bates
By JIM DYGERT
Some new fuel was added to the current controversy over the
S rights and responsibilities of the University faculty yesterday as
two members of the Senate Committee on the Responsibilities of
the Faculty to Society released their answer to the statement by Prof.
Edwin N. Goddard and four other faculty members.
Written by Prof. Amos H. Hawley, chairman of the sociology
department, and Prof. Marston Bates of the zoology department,
the answer is in the form of an open letter to members of the
Regretting that the issue must be discussed in the press, the
open letter focuses attention on the lack of opportunity for discus-
sion and debate in the Senate. "The present ineffectiveness of the
Senate as a deliberative body should be of deep concern to all of
us," the letter says.
Two Basic Questions
The letter sees the present controversy as a disagreement over
two basic questions: ) 1 what is the University? and 2) how is its
welfare best served? These questions, it concludes, can only be an-
swered through full and honest debate in the Senate.
Calling these questions "so fundamental that we cannot treat1
them lightly," Prof. Hawley and Prof. Bates warn, "If we disagree
on these matters, we cannot hope to agree on the solutions to prob-'
lems involving assumptions about them."
The letter infers from the position taken by Prof. Goddard and
four other faculty members in a statement protesting the report of
the Senate Committee. on the Responsibilities of the Faculty to
Society, that "Prof. Goddard and colleagues" want to cultivate "an
employer-employee type of relationship as the basis of University
Prof. Hawley and Prof. Bates argue, "It is the common assump-
tion among members of the faculty, we believe, that the faculty is,'
a part of the University. We believe that the, prevailing assumption
has it, too, that the faculty is not just a cog in the machinery, but
is a vital participant in the University's government."
Following is the complete open letter:
AN OPEN LETTER TO MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY SENATE
As members of the" Senate Committee on the Responsibilities1
of the Faculty to Society, we feel obligated to comment on certaini
questions raised in the statement by Professors Goddard, Boyce,1
Coller, O'Roke and Paton. It is strange that this must be done in
the press, yet the Senate deprived itself of the opportunity for dis-
cussion and debate. The present ineffectiveness of the Senate as a
deliberative body should be of deep concern to all of us. For if it
continues as such, we may cease to be a faculty in the full sense of
the word, and we may become instead simply an aggregate of
This brings us to what appears to be the crucial issue implied
in the statement by Prof. Goddard and his colleagues. It seems,
unless we read them incorrectly, that they want to cultivate an
employer-employee type of relationship as the basis of University
organization. Apparently they want an institution in which a man
may be summarily dismissed for holding unpopular views, in which
reason is to be set aside in favor of dogma, and in which criticism
is not to be tolerated. To accomplish this they would go so far as
to "rectify" the principles i of democracy. Continuing in that vein
they assert, "It is our considered opinion that where the University's
welfare is concerned, the University should determine whether com-
plete candor is required." There are two assumptions in this asser-
tation which should be examined rather closely. They may be stated
as questions. First, what is the University; and secondly, how is its
welfare best served?
It is the common assumption among members of the faculty, we
believe, that the faculty is a part of the University. We believe that
the prevailing assumption has it, too, that the faculty is not just
a cog in the machinery, but is a vital participant in the University's
government. Prof. Goddard and colleagues seem to imply this by
their decision to make the statement that they presented to the
Senate. Surely they do not mean that some members of the faculty
are part of the University while others are not. What do they mean
by "the University?" j
We of the Senate Committee on Responsibilities view a university1
as a community of scholars, including the President, the Deans, and
other academic officials, dedicated to the "unremitting pursuit of
knowledge and wisdom by rational methods, and . . . their dissem-
ination by teaching and writing." Given this conception it follows1
that the University's welfare is served by whatever enhances schol-1
arship and effective teaching and is impaired by whatever interferes
with these responsibilities. As we pointed out in our report, a re-
sponsibility without the necessary implementing rights is a travesty.
If those rights are restricted, the responsibility cannot be fully dis-
charged and the welfare of the University suffers therefore. The prin-'
ciple applies uniformly to a single faculty member, to a group of two
or three faculty members, and to the faculty as a whole.
But Prof. Goddard and colleagues were referring perhaps to cit-
izenship rights which have to be restricted in the interest of the Uni-
versity's welfare. That, however, presents a curious contradiction.
How can an institution devoted to the service of a democratic society
through reason and the advancement of knowledge accomplish its
task by the circumvention of the citizenship rights of its faculty?
One is forced to the conclusion that Prof. Goddard and colleagues
have some special definition of welfare in mind.
The questions concerning the meaning of "the University" and
how its welfare is to be promoted are so fundamental that we can-
not treat them lightly. If we disagree on these matters, we cannot
hope to agree on the solution to problems involving assumptions
about them. We must try to find answers to them and the only means
at our disposal is through full and honest debate in the Senate.
-Amos H. Hawley
SMut'al Civil Defense Topic
Of Panel on Michigan, Canada
NEW YORK (A") - Far from
swaying anything like 18 feet in
a storm as some people think,
the tower of the towering Em-
pire State Building may move
oue of line less than 12 inches,
says Frank Powell, the man
who manages it.
And to get that inch and a
half movement requires a
steady wind velocity of 90 miles
an hour, he adds.
"Today, no nation can think of
itself alone or in terms of regional
organizations such as the British
Commonwealth or NATO, but
must recognize that the welfare
of all nations is tied up in peace
for all nations."
Paul Martin, Canada's delegate
to the United Nations and Minister
of National Health and Welfare,
told the audience at the Summer
Session lecture yesterday, "The
cooperation between our two na-
tions can well serve as an example
to the nations of the world."
Martin said, "Although Canada
and the United States have had
misunderstandings in the past, we
have managed them as civilized
men, not by resorting to war."
The Canadian Delegate to the
General Assembly also pointed out
that "Canadians feel that they are
like Americans and that they know
what Americans are thinking. This
comes not only from the fact that
we are next door neighbors geo-
graphically and that we have solv-
ed the same problems in developing
our economies in the same way,
but also because of the importance
that both of our nations attach to
the individual human being.
"As close as the two countries
are," said Martin, "there has been
BIG FOUR MEETING OPENS AT GENEVA - Here's how the key figures were seated at the opening Big Four session at Geneva.
The table arrangement forms a square in the big council chamber of the Palace of Nations. President Eisenhower opened the
summit conference with a six-point proposal of action aimed to avert the danger of atomic warfare.
Minimum Pay, ReserveBillActedon
Canadian Speaker ...
some worry in Canada recently
over the trade policies of the
"As one-fifth of the people of
Canada are directly dependent on
foreign trade for their livelihood,
the recent restrictive tendencies in
American legislation have had a
great effect there."
Only besause of the friendship
between the two nations has it
been possible for the United States
to keep troops stationed in Canada
for the years sinde the war with
no fridtion, Martin said, discuss-
ing joint efforts in the field of
continental defense. A century and
a half of co-operation makes such
mutual efforts possible, he added.
By The Associated Press
Minimum Wage Boosted
The House ignored President
Dwight D. Eisenhower's wishes"
yesterday and agreed with the
Senate to boost the national mini-
mum wage from 75 cents to $1 an
Eisenhower had steadfastly held
to his recommendation that the
wage floor for workers in interstate
commerce be raised only to 90
Overriding Republican protests,
the House decided on $1 by a
spanking 362-54 margin.
The vote represented Congress'
final verdict except for a differ-
ence over timing of the increase.
The House set the effective date
at next March 1. Previously the
Senate had fixed it at Jan. 1.
* * *
Governmental Debt .. .
The government ran almost $4,-
200,000,000 into the red in the year
ended June 30. '
This was a deficit more than a
billion dollars bigger than in the
year before but 300 million smaller
The Treasury and the Budget
Bureau reported that "greater
prosperity," reflected in rising in-
come tax payments, sent federal
revenues about $1,300,000,000 high-
er than President Eisenhower's
This heightened .hopes for a
sharp reduction - or even possibly
the elimination - of the estimated
$2,400,000,000 deficit for fiscal
1956, which began 20 days ago. Not
only has consumer income contin-
ued to climb, but taxable corpora-
tion profits are nearing record
* * *
Military Reserve Bill...
A military reserve bill that would
exempt present and former serv-
icemen from active reserve training
was reported agreed upon yester-
day by a Senate-House Conference
As described by members of the
committee, it would require train-
ing in thereserves for all men
who entered the services once the
bill became law.
As outlined, the bill is a com-
promise between Senate and House
versions that in themselves were
far less stringent than the Pen-
tagon wanted in its announced
plans to build the reserves from the
present 700,000-800,000 men to a
force of 2,900,000 by 1960.
University Granted $85,050
For Polio Research, Study
NEW YORK (AP)-Two Universi-
ty grants totaling $85,050 were an-
nounced yesterday by the National
Foundation for Infantile Paraly-
The Michigan grants were
among 31 totaling $1,652,741 giv-
en for polio research and support
of respirator centers over the coun-
The University was given $72,-
787 for continued research on pa-
tient care and development of pa-
tient care teaching programs at
its respirator center, headed by
Dr. David G. Dickinson, professor
of pediatrics and communicable
An additional $12,264 was giv-
en the University for study of elec-
trical activity of muscles used in
breathing. It will be directed by
Dr. George H. Koepke, professor
of physical medicine and rehabil-
"In making. these grants we
recognize that the fight against'
polio is not over," Basil O'Con-
nor, foundation president, paid.
"So long as there are patients who
need care, the battle against po-
lio can and must continue."
In Viet Nam
SAIGON, South Viet Nam (A)-
A rioting mob burst out of a
peaceful anti-Communist student
demonstration y e s t e r d a y and
sacked two Saigon hotels housing
Mrs. Perle Mesta, former United
States minister to Luxembourg
who was ending a two-day visit
to Saigon, was trapped in her
suite but convinced a group of
rioters she should not be molested.
She was rescued after nearly two
hours by United States Embassy
Twenty-eight Americans, in-
cluding officers of the military
aid mission to Indochina lost all
Room Torn Apart
Angier Biddle Duke, former
United States ambassador to El
Salvador, visiting Viet Nam as
head of a private relief organiza-
tion, returned to find his room
torn apart, with his passport and
private papers missing.
Two hundred hotel guests were
left without shelter. Many had
only the clothes they wore.
Fifty demonstrators, eight Viet-
namese policemen, a French gen-
darme and the wife of one hotel's
manager were injured. Official re-
ports said no one was killed.
Began as Demonstration
The riot began as a demonstra-
tion against the Indian-Polish-
Canadian Indochina Armistice
Commission. Ringleaders shouted
it is favoring the Communist Viet-
minh regime in North Viet Nam.
The commission had headquarters
in one of the hotels, the Majestic.
Its members live at the other, the
Gallieni, a mile away.
Spokesmen of Premier Ngo Dinh
Diem's government charged that
the rioting actually was inspired
by Communist agents armed with
pistols and grenades. They said
the Reds filtered in among the
About 1,000 marched on the Ma-
jestic, the city's leading hotel.
LANSING (R) - A new shipment
of 115,000 doses of the Salk polio
To Ease Reaction
GENEVA (A') - The top men of
the Big Four powers came to a
deadlock yesterday on how to re-
unite Germany and to bring secur-
ity to Europe.
They tossed the whole tangled
problem to their foreign ministers.
These four men were directed to
see what crumbs they could sal-
vage out of the dispute, either in,
the next few days or in the next
The deadlock on these two prob.,,_
lems - perhaps the toughest the
summit conference will tackle -
was 90 per cent expected even be-
fore the conference began.
But James C. Hagerty, White
House press spokesman, recognized
the bad effect such a deadlock
could have on public opinion, and
tried to offset it. He said the
action in turning over the problem
to the foreign ministers should be
looked upon as the first job as-
signed them by the conference.
That, in a sense, is what the
conference was intended to do --
find sources of tension where the
foreign ministers could search for
means of relief.
The deadlock is definite. The
Russians want to set up a system
of cooperative security in Europe,
and only then reunite and perhaps
arm Germany. The Western Pow-
ers want to end the division of
Germany right now.
The Russians backed up their
own point of view Wednesday by
laying before the conference a new
security pact based on the outline
Premier Nikolai Bulganin gave
Monday. He called for a freezing
of present forces, an agreement to
settle East-West disputes without
force, then the creation of a
security organization which would
lead to transfer of all American
and other foreign troops from
This struggle must have taken
some focus over a lunch table
where President Dwight D.Eisen-
hower and Soviet Marshal Georgi
Zhukov finally got together for a
serious talk. What they said may
remain locked up in the archives
for many a day. But President
Eisenhower announced weeks ago
that he was exchanging letters
with Zhukov, a wartime battle
partner, out of which he hoped
good would come.
This meeting had many possi-
bilities. The two are fairly good
friends, although divided by na-
tional differences. They were able
to talk freely, one soldier to an-
other, because they had only in-
terpreters with them.
Reporters could get no official
briefing on what the two men
talked about, but it was a primary
grade guess that President Eisen-
hower followed up what he started
Tuesday. That was to appeal to
Zhukov on a personal basis to look
upon the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization as a peaceful organi-
zation skillfully designed to pre-
serve peace, and especially a peace
that would include Germany.
Recreational swimming for all
women students is provided with-
out charge at the Women's Pool,
Dr. Margaret Bell, chairman of the
women's physical education de-
partment, said yesterday, adding
that many coeds were unaware of
Only requirement for swimming
at the pool is a medical approval
obtained from Health Service.
Suits and towels are provided free.
Hours for recreational swimming
ISRAELI AMBASSADOR EBAN:
Near East PatVital to- Present
"The greatest resource of they
Near East is not water, territory
or oil but its sense of historical
continuity," Alla Eban, Israelian
ambassador to the United States,
Speaking to an overflow crowd
in Auditorium C. Eban discussed'
the modern awakening and rise of
nationalistic states in the Near
Eban stressed that the future of
the Arab and Israeli countries lies
in a "sense of solidarity" and in
"taking pride in the glory" of the
heritage of their cultures.
"Outside Main Stream"
For many centuries the Near
the old feudality and poverty go
on, the new facade loses its shine."
The formula does not lie in secu-
lar radicalism, he continued. The
Western spirit must not be kept out
or allowed to swamp the Middle
Discussing the Arab countries
and Israel, Eban stressed the im-
portance of their history and lan-
guage to each, not as something of
antiquarian interested, but as ele-
ments vitally affecting the region's
Not New Nation
"One of the most important and
least publicized things about Is-
r.n> " 1. vca1,-P.- "i that it is
in imperial or economic power.
But their heritage and continued
contribution is "the peculiarly lu-
cid and radiant insights beyond
any record of spiritual florescence
in any other part of the world."
Symbol of Future
As symbolic of the future Israel,
and in a larger sense, of the Near
East, Eban pointed to two events:
the recent establishment of a nu-
clear physics laboratory and the
acquisition of several ancient Bibi-
At a press conference earlier
yesterday, Eban expressed the hope
that Western powers would exert
increasing influence to get the
ArahP t Aiscussn - orcommon
Informal cooperation between
the United States and Canada on
Civil Defense preparations was the
concerning civil defense between
the two countries so that, in ease
of. anafat hr rA o a
'W"W} MAMM I