THE MICHIGAN DAILY
THURSDAY, JUNE 26, 1932
TWOTHURSDAY, JUNE 26, 1952
I _________________________________________________________________________________ I
The Legion 's Girl's State
"Woodman, Spare That Tree"
FOR THE thirteenth year, the Women's
Auxiliary of the Michigan Chapter of
the American Legion sponsored their an-
nual Girl's State. Chosen for their scholar-
ship, leadership, character, and in a few
rare instances for their parent's affiliation
with the Legion, three hundred high school
junior girls were sent to Alice Crocker Lloyd
Hall for an intensive eight day program in
local and state government.
The girls arrived last Monday, June 16,
and were greeted by their city councilors,
fifteen University women who were to be
the girls' mothers, advisors, confidants,
leaders and occasionally scapegoats for
the eight days to come. The councilors
were under the direct supervision of a
general councilor who was almost worked
to death during the week answering
questions, defending herself against a
plethora of charges, organizing activities,
and generally tying together the ends left
loose by the Board of Directors.
The Board of Directors, who sat on top of
the administrative heap was composed of
what seemed like thousands of middle aged
women from the Auxiliary. These women,
with Donald Norland of the political science
department, planned the program. Its execu-
tion was left to the councilors and county
advisors, along with Norland, who acted as
government instructor. It is unfortunate
that the program should have been in con-
trol of these ladies, who seem to think that
Americanism consists of a bugle call at
eight a.m. and the symbol of the American
The three county advisors were political
science majors from the University. They
received their instruction from Norland,
and transmitted the information, together
with any knowledge of their own, to the
girls. As a county advisor, I was directly
responsible for the instruction of sixty
girls in my county. The original intent
was to provide five county advisors; two
of whom did not appear on opening day
nor at any other time. Thus, I found my-
self also carrying on the instruction of
at least one other county during the days
that followed. The councilors and advisors
remained in the dormitory with the girls.
Before arriving at Wolverine Girl's State,
the girls were informed that they would
belong to one of two parties, the Nationalist
or the Federalist. They were also divided in-
to fifteen cities, twenty girls in each. The
cities were grouped together in threes to
form the five counties. On the first day, the
cities met separately in special city rooms,
where they elected their city administration.
This was run on the city manager plan,
whereby five councilmen and an auditor
were elected. The councilmen then elected
a mayor from among their membership and
appointed a city manager from the city at
large. The city manager was directly res-
ponsible for the administration of her town.
She appointed a police commissioner, a
street commissioner, and any other officials
deemed necessary by the council or her-
self. The city council met. each morning for
about an hour and passed various resolu-
tions pertaining to city, county, or state
business. If the legislation passed pertained
to city transactions only, the administration
was carried on through that unit. If the
resolutions passed were recommendations
to higher governmental authority, the cities
acted as pressure groups on their county leg-
* * *
N THE SECOND DAY, the counties met,
each in one of the five lounges of the
dormitory. The political parties in the coun-
ty met at opposite ends of the lounge and
decided upon the nomination of their candi-
dates for county and state offices. At the
same meeting, the parties decided upon their
platform. In my county, a problem concern-
ing the building of roads was given to the
group and the election fight centered upon
that problem. In the other counties, the
campaign was focused on wider disputes. As
a general rule, the Nationalist Party stood
for a greater amount of centralization,
proposing that counties be organized on a
county manager plan as opposed to the
county board system that was in operation.
That party also proposed a compulsory
FEPC program, advocated the signing of
non-communist affadavits in state support-
ed schools and were vigorously in favor of
more recreational time for the girls.
The Federalist Party was against fur-
ther centralization, proposed voluntary
FEPC, opposed non-communist affadavits
and in a brilliant bi-partisan move, en-
diorsed the Nationalist program for more
The state offices were those of governor,
lieutenant governor, secretary of state, at-
torney general treasurer, auditor general,
and three justices of the supreme court.
The state legislature was elected in the
counties, mainly for the reason that all those
names wouldn't fit on the election machines
used for state balloting.
As a result of the county board sys-
tem, six separate offices were elected in
the county. Had the Nationalists had
their way, the county manager plan
would have been used, with two elected
officials-member of the board of super-
visors and auditor.
On the day following the party caucuses
in the counties, the state caucuses of the
two groups were held. At this time the
county preferences for state officials were
made known, and after the usual speeches,
haggling, demonstrations and voting were
completed, the slates emerged. These cau-
cuses were something to observe. Minia-
tures of backsliding Republicans, radicals,
conservatives, back slappers and campaign
managers were scattered throughout the
convention hall (the dining rooms of Hins-
dale and Angell Houses). The only thing
that was lacking was the cigar smoke usua-
ly associated with such political meetings.
Immediatey after the caucus, the leaders
of the two parties, confered in separate
rooms to work out the compromises in the
THE NEXT DAY was given over to cam-
paigning, and on the following day the
election was held. The Federalists garnered
all but two of the executive posts, placing
both the governor and the lieutenant gov-
ernor. The Nationalists gained control of
the House of Representatives. In the Sen-
ate, the Federalists won seven positions, the
Nationalists won seven, with a tie for the
last post. In the run-off election the next
day, the Federalists took control of the up-
The remaining days were filled with
the governors message, meetings of the
legislature and a rash of petitions circulat-
ed to obtain more recreational time. The
petitions, which were signed by about
80% of the girls, were tied up in red tape
for some days and then vetoed by Legion
Auxiliary's Board of Directors.
The bills passed by the egislature were
ones providing for voluntary FEPC, the set-
ting up of a fund for a banner for Wol-
verine Girl's State, the lowering of the
voting age to eighteen, and one authorizing
more recreational time for the girls.
The governor, in a spectacular bolt from
party lines, vetoed the FEPC bill, and rec-
ommended that the 1953 session of the leg-
islature pass a law making FEPC compul-
The Board of Directors vetoed the bill
authorizing more recreational time.
That Wolverine Girl's State is a fine
and rewarding experience is not to be
denied. Outside of the purely governmen-
tal experience that the girls gained, they
met, many for the first time, girls of
other races and religions. That preju-
dice was noted to be virtually non-
existent during those eight days is one
of the more encouraging signs of our time.
But the set-up is not perfect. Amid all the
meetings, speeches (some by top state of-
ficials such as Governor Williams and Audi-
tor General Martin), and pajama parties,
there was NO time alloted for the theory of
democracy. During the hectic week, the girls
were made vividly aware of what govern-
ment is. They had no time to discuss WHY
government is. That the democratic process
was proposed to maintain what we consid-
er to be necessary fundamental rights was
not made clear. Many of the Girl's Staters
are still not aware that the difference be-
tween a democratic and a totalitarian sys-
tem is not just the method involved but also
is a matter of purpose. The girls still do not
realize that an "X" on a ballot means noth-
ing unless those rights are guaranteed.
Another serious flaw in the system is
the amount of regimentation imposed by
the Legion directors. The girls were not
allowed to leave the dormitory without a
councilor accompanying them. Lights
were to be out at 10:30 and the girls were
presumably to be asleep at 10:31. In or-
der to assure that the rules were followed,
the police commissioner of each town took
bed-check. After this the city councilor
took bed-check, followed by the general
councilor who checked on the city coun-
cilor. Occasionally a Legion director or
two came up to make sure everyone was
in bed. It seems incongrous that three
hundred girls, the top high school stu-
dents in the state, and ranging in age
from 16 to 18, were not trusted to catch
a breath of air or to put themselves to
sleep. It was probably for this reason,
more than any other, that many of the
girls did not enjoy their stay at the Uni-
versity as much as they might have.
It should be pointed out now, that as a
University held function, Girl's State is go-
ing to be influential in deciding whether a
large number of high school students are
going to attend this or some other school
when they finish their preparatory work.
For this reason the University should take
a more active interest in Girl's State, and
in order that the girls do not receive the
impression that the University is more pa-
ternalistic than it is, should perhaps request
that "more recreational time be allotted
to the girls."
A mend ment
WASHINGTON-"Why not bring it up?
It should take only 20 minutes to de-
The bill which was the subject of this
nonchalant argument by Senator McCar-
ran on the Senate floor was not, as one
might suppose, a measure to erect a com-
fort station in the District of Columbia.
It was, instead, a Senate resolution to
amend the Constitution of the United
It has other distinctions in addition to its
classification as organic law. No public
hearings were held on it. The full Senate
Judiciary Committee had never seen it un-
til after it was suddenly produced on May
28 on the Senate floor.
Seven men, a bare majority of the com-
mittee, had approved it in a flash meet-
ing called together in the office of the Sec-
retary of the Senate that morning and last-
ed about 20 minutes. The seven: Chairman
McCarran and Senators Willis Smith and
Eastland, Democrats; Senators Ferguson,
Jenner, Watkins and Hedrickson, Repub,
licans. Of the other six members, Senators
Kefauver, Magnuson and Kilgore were out
This trio admits to believing that a
constitutional amendment deserves some-
thing more than 20 minutes in commit-
tee and 20 minutes on the floor, but their
fortuitous absence was followed by anoth-
er circumstance fortunate for the bill's
author and determined proponent, Sena-
A parliamentary situation in a lackadai-
sical session on Saturday designed to clean
up routine matters enabled Senator McCar-
ran to force agreement on giving priority to
his motion to call up his amendment.
The situation was saved for the adminis-
tration only after both the majority and
minority leaders had testified that Senator
McCarran's maneuver violated the gentle-
man's agreement between them which
made the Saturday session possible. Sena-
tor McCarran violently protested, but the
Democrats, except for himself and Senator
Byrd, stood by majority leader McFarland,,
Minority Leader Bridges and whip Salton-
stall kept their word, and Senator Morse
added another Republican vote to the ma-
jority to table the bill.
The episode is instructive of the mood
of the coalition which is bringing an un-
productive session to a shabby close. The
amendment represents a gratuitous slap
at President Truman, and doubtless Sena-
tor McCarran is right in believing it could
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University.Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3510
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (11 a.m.
Applications for Fulbright Awards for
graduate study or research abroad dur-
ing the 1953-54 academic year are now
available. Countries in which study
grants are offered are Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Burma, Denmark, Egypt,
France, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy,
Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thai-
land, Turkey, the Union of South Af-
rica, and the United Kingdom. The
grants are made under Public Law 584,
79th Congress, the Fulbright Act,
which authorizes the Department of
State to use foreign currencies and
credits acquired through the sale of
surplus property abroad for programs
of educational exchange with other na-
tions. Grants are made for one aca-
demic year and generally include round
trip transportation, tuition, a living
allowance and a small amount for
necessary books and equipment. All
grants are made in foreign currencies.
Interested students who hold an A.B.
degree or who will receive such a de-
gree by June, 1953, and who are pre-
sently enrolled in the University of
Michigan, may request application forms
for a Fulbright award at the office of
the Graduate School. The closing date
for receipt of applications is October
Persons not enrolled in a college or
university in the spring or fall of 19-
52 should direct inquiries andarequests
for applications to the Institute of In-
ternational Education, U.S. Student
Program, 1 East 67th Street, New York,
21, N.Y. The last date on which appli-
cations will be issued by the Insti-
tute is October 15.
La Petite Causette: All students and
summer residents who are interested
in speaking French are invited to join
this very informal group every Tuesday
and Thursday afternoon between 4:00
and 5:00 o'clock in the Tap Room of
the Michigan Union. A table will be
reserved and a French-speaking mem-
ber of the staff will be present, but
there is no program other than free
conversation in French.
Registration of Student Organiza-
tions: Student organizations planning
to be active during the Summer Ses-
sion must register in the Office of Stu-
dent Affairs not later than July 3.
Forms for registration are available in
the Office of Student Affairs, 1020 Ad-
Registration for Positions: The Bu-
reau of Appointments will hold a meet-
ing at 3:10 Thursday, June 26, in Room
231 Angell Hail for all students who
wish to register with the Bureau for
positions after summer school. This
applies to those interested in the Teach-
er Placement Division or the General
Placement Division. Registration is op-
en to both seniors and graduate stu-
dents. Any student who will be avail-
able for permanent employment after
the summer session may register, even
though it may be his first term in the
For further information concerning
registration for positions contact the
Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Admin-
istration Bldg., or call-extension 2614.
Summer School Elections: All stu-
dents who have been registered previ-
ously with the Bureau of Appointents
areasked to come to the office, 3528
Administration Bldg., and give us your
elections for this term in order to bring
your record up to date. Current address
and telephone are also essential.
The Eaton Manufacturing Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, has an opening for a
young woman who is interested in in-
dustrial editing, as assistant to the edi-
tor of employee publications. Persons
qualifying for the position should be
able to type and do correspondence and
have some training in journalism.
The Philadelphia Quartermaster De-
pot, U.S. Army, Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
vania, is currently recruiting Physical
and Organic Chemists and Physicists
with Ph.D's to conduct basic research
on items related to the Quartermaster
The Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Inc.,
need a structural or civil engineer for
work in their Detroit plant.
Armour and Company, Chicago, 1111-
nois, is in need of chemists in its lab-
oratories which is a training ground
f*----------- oca".Y rPn~t
in receiving applications from Metal-
lurgical or Chemical Engineers, for job
as assistant to lab director.
Kelvinator, Detroit, Michigan, desires
young man for advertising and sales
General Exchange Insurance Corpora-
tion, Detroit, Michigan, is interested in
college men who would like to become
Station W-A-N-D, Canton, Ohio,
would be interested in receiving appli-
cations from single men students for
radionannouncer and news reporter po-
sitions now open. Prefer men from area
of Canton and Massillon, Ohio.
Amedical research laboratory in Ann
Arbor is currently looking for a bio-
chemist for its laboratory (man or wo-
The g. H. Leggitt Company, Marshall,
Michigan, wants to hear from men in-
terested in a sales career. Firm does a
large volume of business with Plumbing
and Hardware, Public Utilities, B. P.
Gas. Trailer and the soft Water In-
dustries, with a Branch Office in San
Atomic Energy: Industrial and Legal
Problems. Lectures. Thursday, June 26
at 10:00 a.m. 2 p.m., 100 Hutchins Hall.
Morning session: "Nuclear Reactor
Developments," Lawrence R. Hafstad,
Director, Division of Reactor Develop-
ment, Atomic Energy Commission.
"Producing and Using Radioisotopes,"
Paul C. Aebersold, Director, Isotopes
Division, Atomic Energy Commission.
Afternoon session: "Public Utilities
and Nuclear Power," Walker L. Cisler,
President, Detroit Edison Company.
"Chemical Companies and Nuclear Pow-
er," Edwin J. Putzell, Jr., Secretary,
Monsanto Chemical Company. 2:00 p.m.
"The Canadian Atomic Energy Pro-
gram," J. Lorne Gray, General Man-
ager, Atomic Energy of Canada. Ltd.
"Labor-Management Relations," Wil-
liam H. Davis, Chairman Atomic En-
ergy Labor Relations Panel. 7:00 p.m.,
Linguistic Forum. "A Linguistic Ap-
proach to the Teaching of Classical He-
brew." George E. Mendenhall, Profes-
sor of Exegetical Theology, Hama Di-
vinity School, Wittenberg College. 7:30
p.m., Rackham Amphitheater.
Sociology 51s. Room Change. Section
2, 10 a.m., will meet in Room 2, Eco-
nomics Building, instead of Angell Hall.
Algebra Seminar: First meeting -
Thursday, June 26, in Room 3010 A.H.,
from 3:00 to 4:30 p.m. Dr. M. Suzuki
will speak on "Lattices of Subgroups."
Carillon Recital. Sidney Giles, Assistant
University Carillonneur. 7:15-8:00 p.m.
Recital Postponed: The recital by Ro-
bert Thompson, pianist, originally sche-
duled for Thursday, June 26, in the Ar-
chitecture Auditorium, has been post-
poned until Monday evening, June 30.
Carillon Recital: Sidney Giles, Assist-
ant University Carillonneur, will open
the series of summer carillon programs
at 7:15 Thursday evening, June 26. It
will include his Prelude 1 as well as
works by'Lefevere, Nees, Clemet, Han-
del, Gossec, Boccherini, MacDowell, and
The second program will follow at
7:15 p.m. Friday, June 27, with Ronald
Barnes, Carillonneur of the University
of Kansas, as Guest Carillonneur.
Faculty Concert: Emil Raab, violin-
ist, and Benning Dexter, pianist, will
open the summer series of faculty con-
certs at 8:30 Tuesday evening, July 1,
in the Rackham Lecture Hall, with a
program of sonatas for violin and pi..
ano by Beethoven, Piston, Frauck, and
Ives. The concert will be open to the
general public without charge.
Museum of Art. Sixth annual exhibi-
tion, Michigan Water Color Society.
General Library, main lobby cases.
Early and important works pertaining
Museum of Archaeology. Ancient
Egypt and Rome of the Empire.
Museums Building. Rotunda exhibit.
Some fungi of Michigan (through June
Michigan Historical Collections, 160
Rackham Building, The changing Cam-
Clements Library. American books
which have influenced the modern
mind (through September 1)
with DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-The State Department has struck a snag with
Dictator Franco of Spain regarding the much-discussed na-
val and air bases he was supposed to give U.S. forces in return
for the $187,000,000 which Congress voted him.
When Ambassador Stanton Griffis discussed bases with
Franco, about a year ago, he was effusive in his anxiety to
do anything the United States wanted. In fact, it was Fran-
co who took the initiative in wanting American cash and
there seemed to be nothing he wouldn't do in return.
Now, however, he is just the opposite. He wants American
dollars to be spent in Spain only on his own terms.
Specifically, the difference with Franco boils down to the
fact that the U.S. Navy and Air Force want bases in Spain, while
Franco wants modern military equipment for the Spanish Army.
However, the tanks and heavy armor which he demands hap-
pen to be the things which the U.S. Army is short of. Priority on
this equipment goes 1st to Korea, 2nd to U.S. Forces in this
country, 3rd to NATO allies in West Europe. Defense officials
argue that to give Franco modern army equipment before we send
it to France, Italy, Belgium, and other non-Fascist Allies would
cause a furore in Western Europe. We are already far behind
in our promises to them.
Furthermore, Defense officials point out that they aren't
much interested in the Spanish army anyway. Located on the
southern tip end of Europe, it would be of no help in stopping
the onrush of the Red atmy over France and Belgium to the
English Channel. What they are interested in instead is air
and naval bases in Spain. And regarding these, Franco now
seems much less enthusiastic.
Franco hasn't said so in so many words, but he seems to
want the latest $100,000,000 voted by Congress more or less with
no strings attached.
WHAT U.S. WANTS
MEANWHILE, the State Department has been engaged in a
lengthly painstaking negotiation with Spain for the following;
1. Air and naval bases.
2. A technical aid agreement by which the United States
would supply technicians for the improvement of Spanish agri-
culture, public health, etc.
3. Anti-discrimination against American investors. At pres-
ent Franco has strict laws against foreign capital, and so far
has not been willing to change them.
Negotiations for the above have now dragged on for three
to four months. But whereas the Spanish dictator was practical-
ly kissing Ambassador Griffis before the $100,000,000 was voted,
now all he wants to kiss is the $100,000,000.
However, Congress voted that this was to be spent at the
discretion of the President, and both the State Department and
the Defense Department have advised going slow.
Franco lobbyists and friends in Congress are now pressuring
to get the $100,000,000 spent right away, without the commit-
ments demanded by the State Department.
POLITICAL observers watch the struggle of General Eisenhower
become a professional politicians overnight wish that the
men around him had more political savvy.
Two tactical boners which seriously hurt Ike's bargaining
power could easily have been prevented.
Boner No. 1-was Ike's statement endorsing MacArthur
at his Abilene press conference. This aute.atically destroyed
Eisenhower's bargaining power when Taft forces proposed
MacArthur as keynote speaker.
Eisenhower representatives were thunderstruck at the idea
of having Ike's bitter army critic as keynote speaker. But since
their chief had referred to MacArthur so glowingly at Abilene,
the ground was cut out from under them in voicing mu4 opposi-
tion to MacArthur at Chicago.
Boner No. 2-was Eisenhower's statement in Dallas that
he would lead no third party. ile it was undoubtedly true
that Ike intends to lead no _Aird party, nevertheless his
chief bargaining power in forcing Taft leaders to seat his
delegates is the threat of a third party.
Yet Ike threw that threat away.
Had William Howard Taft, father of the Senator, known
that Teddy Roosevelt would form the Bull Moose party as an
aftermath of the delegate ruckus at the Chicag convention of
1912, Teddy would have had more delegates seated in that con-
Today, Bob Taft knows from his father's experience, that
he cannot afford a third party movement. The threat of such
a movement brings heart failure to his cohorts. Some of
Eisenhower's leaders, knowing this, had been dropping hints
of a 3rd party walkout. Whereupon their chief, General Ike,
chucked this bargaining power out the window.
Franklin Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, and Harry Truman, all
master political strategists, 'never would have been caught mak-
ing an error like this.
ANOTHER RUSSIAN ATTACK?
THE AIR FORCE fears that the B-29 that crashed into the
Japanese sea a week ago may have been shot down by the
Inside story is that the plane was on a weather reconnaissance
mission along the Siberian coast.
No radio report was received that it was in trouble. It just
mysteriously disappeared. It may have flown too near the Siberian
coast to suit the Russians, and jet fighters may have caught it
by surprise as they did the Swedish plane over the Baltic.
NEW TAX DEAL
HAVING BEEN ONE of the first to criticize tax-fixing in the
Internal Revenue Bureau, I want to be the first to con-
RECENT CONTROVERSIES have renewed
opposition, long standing in some quar-
ters, to political nominating conventions.
The attitude that they are undemocratic
and conducive to bossism and shady politi-
cal deals is finding increased expression. The
not unpopular view that a direct national
primary would be the most satisfactory man-
ner of nominating party candidates is being
given wide publicity.
In spite of all this criticism the party
convention can be defended as beneficial
to the working of American Democracy.
The two major American political par-
ties are both composed of many diverse
elements. At the party convention all these
elements are represented. The man select-
ed at the convention will not be an ex-
tremist since he must appeal to these
many shades of opinion. The candidate
so nominated can expect the support of
most of his party during the campaign
and once elected. This makes for intensi-
fied political campaigning before election,
and executives with sufficient support to
accomplish most of their objectives when
in office. Both these ends are desirable.
In our impatience we sometimes neglect
the fact that progress through compromise
is part of the essence of democratic gov-
ernment. It is only through the political
convention, where all different shades of
party opinion convene and may bargain
freely with one another, that compromise
support during the campaign or when elec-
What is needed is compromise and agree-
ment within the parties and legitimate areas
of disagreement between them. By using
the primary method this would not come
about. If the method was presently in use it
is possible that General Eisenhower, a man
with great popular appeal as a result of his
failure to get involved in any controversial
issues, might have received the nomination
of both parties even though no one was quite
sure what he stood for. This would have
made the election meaningless. If the pri-
mary system was in operation in 1944 the
Democratic Party probably would have nom-
inated Henry Wallace who was the logical
'candidate to succeed himself as vice-presi-
dent. At the convention it became apparent
that such a nomination would endanger par-
ty unity, hence the disgarding of Wallace
and the nomination of Truman, who was a
short time later called upon to provide the
courageous, competent leadership which he
has given the nation for the past seven
If any of the criticisms leveled at
nominating conventins are valid, and
some undoubtedly are, they arise not from
the basic nature of the institutions but
from flaws in the organization. It is true
for example that they are not truly repre-
sentative. The size of the delegations
from the Southern States at the Republi-
n7 n~o~fn fw ~r. -. .
gratulate - Commissioner John'
Dunlap on the careful way he is
picking the new collectors under
A five-man board is selecting
them entirely on the basis of
merit. Politics are completely
out. The board is looking over
the entire field, and may even
select candidates outside Civil
Service, if the candidates already
in Internal Revenue aren't ade-
BILL PAWLEY, close friend of
the late Bob Hannegan, and
rewarded with an Ambassador-
ship by President Truman, is
working secretly for Eisenhower,
while still serving as Ambassador
.... Governor Fine of Pennsyl-
vania is raising the bidding ev-
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
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Ivan Kaye and Bob Margolin
.. ......Co-Sports Editors
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virginia voss........ .Night Editor
Mike Wolff.................Night Editor
Tom Treeger.......Business Manager
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