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August 13, 1950 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1950-08-13

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IR

qw PAGO TWO

Y TUGAN ' iLY

-1 -, "llGAS' -5 0

L.

-n

U.S. & Russian Propaganda

ONCE AGAIN Russia has given the world
a demonstration of her ability to spout
off about nothing in particular. Her latest
venture in this field has been to declare that
football in the United States is a warmonger
device used to condition the people to accept
brutality and murder, so that when the time
comes they wil be "'-'kadv" War. A Mos-
cow broadct w&t .-made this statement
also went on to say that University of Mich-
igan foo'b 'i yryers are often carried
straight from tn t rtball field to the ceme-
tery, the game is so tough.
Russia, of course, is waging a campaign
to top the United States in convincing the
rest of the world who is right. Using tac-
tics which recall those employed by Hitler,
the Russians no doubt feel that if they
keep reiterating the same falsifications
long enough those countries on the bor-,
derline politically might eventually swing
over to the Communists. That the Russians
do color their facts at every opportunity
is clear.
And in this campaign the Russians, one
must admit, do a creditable job. Further-
more, even those people in Europe and Asia
that support the United States rarely hear
us present our side of the picture. Russia
has a virtual monopoly in the field of at-
tempting to convince the people of the
world that she is the champion of peace
and not us. According to a State Department
estimate, one-third of all the people in the
world believe that the United States started
the war in Korea.
Such a condition is indeed pitiful for a
nation that has the technical know-how to
equal and even surpass Russia's achieve-
ments in this sphere. For more than two
years now, Drew Pearson and others have
espoused a plan to have the government
send over leaflets to Russia in balloons
which could be calculated to drop over the
big Russian cities. These leaflets could be
of immeasurable value in disseminating the
truth. Even if they did nothing more than
to tell the Russian people the difference be-
tween life in a democratic state and a to-
talitarian state it would be well worth the
effort.
Another glaring inefficacy is the "Voice of
America" program, which is now hardly
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: PHILIP DAWSON

more than a faint whisper. Even if it pre-
sented the type of material which it should,
the "Voice" program is heard by relatively
few people, compared to the amount that
hear Russia's broadcasts.
Russia, for example, has 250 transmitters
throughout the world; the United States
and Britain combined have only 70. Russia
seldom uses the same material on her pro-
grams twice; our programs repeat the same
script throughout the day. Russia has 832
program hours per week; the United States
192. Nearly all of Russia's stations operate
24 hours per day; only two of ours do.
But aside from these physical differences
there is a great deal that can be done to
improve the content of the "Voice" program.
Instead of repeating over and over, as we
have been prone to do in the past, that we
are against Communism and that the Rus-
sians are wrong, we should emphasize the
positive aspects of democracy. We can con-
vince the peoples of the world that Com-
munism is bad by stressing the virtues of
life in a democracy far more effectively than
if we merely criticize the Russians them-
selves.
And to accomplish this all we need do is
speak th-e truth. We do not have to color
the facts to make our side appear the more
desirable. We need only to portray Amer-
ican life as it is, illustrating the many
freedoms that we have which are taboo
under the Communist way of life. Let us
leave the choice up to the people. When
they have the facts before them, it is al-
most a certainty that they will not choose
to become another addition to the string
of Russian satellites.
Though we are waging a physical war in
Korea, that is no reason to relent in pro-
paganda efforts of our own. The success
that the Russians have been having in their
propaganda campaign is more serious than
many of us think. It is imperative that we
do not let the Russians continue to make
fools of us, and begin in earnest to present
our side of the picture.
Unless we do this, the Russians will have
added considerably to the success of any.
plan they might have to dominate the
world. For if they convert enough coun-
tries to their side merely by propaganda, it
will be but a simple task for Russia to
march into them and take command.
As John Foster Dulles has commented,
"the question of whether we have a general
war or not may depend . . . upon the rela-'
tive effectiveness of the Communist propa-
ganda and the free world propaganda."
--Larry Rothman

rdite/ 0 /e te
By PHILIP DAWSON
THE CUSTOM has always been for re-
tiring editors of The Daily to let go with
what is known as a Last Blast before dis-
appearing into the oblivion of relatively pri-
vate life. This year, however, there doesn't
seem to be anything available to blast. Most
of the traditional targets either have suf-
fered from heavy bombardment or have
proved so impregnable that it would be
useless to waste verbal ammunition on them.
Nevertheless, I have a coup?-w of things
-blank cartridges, perhaps-to unload.
They relate to the purposes of The Daily,
not as a student activity, though it is that,
but as a newspaper, which it is primarily.
THE FIRST PURPOSE of a newspaper is
to present the news in its complete
essentials, in order that people may intelli-
gently make the decisions that are necessary
to the proper conduct of their public and
private affairs. This cannot be repeated too
often.'
Newspapers often fail to do this job. More
often, probably, than most of their readers
suspect. This purpose should be held before
the eyes of readers as well as of editors, as
an ideal which is valid no matter how many
times it is not fulfilled.
Beyond this, however, a newspaper must
have an editorial policy. It cannot operates
simply on a combination of the profit motive
and the desire to give its readers the news.
There is something that a man puts first,
when he stands up to endure the buffetings
of the world. And a newspaper, as an or-
ganization of men and women, has the
same need for an ideal to give it integrity.
In this respect, The Daily is unusual. Other
newspapers are for or against a variety of
ideas and personalities. The Daily, as a
newspaper, takes no stand on these issue.
It is neutral.
But there is one thing for which I think
The Daily does stand: free and responsible
expression of all opinions.
This policy is not only presented in the
opinions of individual staff members, who
may sometimes be wrong, in discussing such
things as censorship; it, is carried out in the
very operations of The Daily itself. Every
member of the staff is entitled to his view
-and entitled to express it fairly and intel-
ligently in print.
For the staff of The Daily, freedom of
thought ought always to be an article Q
faith, as befits a newspaper in a university
community.

CURR ENT BOOKS

Purpose
In Korea
IN A recent letter to the editor
James M. Lawler asked two
questions regarding the Korean
crisis:
"What would we gain were we
successful in pushing the North
Koreans back across the now fam-
ous thirty-eighth parallel? and
what would we lose were we at last
totally pushed from the diminui-
tive peninsula-extension of Asia?"
His comments, although high
sounding, have little practical val-
ue.
The fact is that the UN police
force is at present attempting to
push the North Korean aggressors
back across the arbitrary thirty-
eighth parallel, and to my mind,
there are two reasons for the UN
police force to continue to do so.
First, the Western world must
show that we aren't afraid of
the Communist threat, for if we
don't, it will be an open invita-
tion for more trouble.
India, Pakistan, Burma, the
Dutch East Indies, and other pos-
sible "powder-kegs" could fall easy
victim.
To avert realization of this
threat, the UN police force must
show, with force if necessary, that
it will not stand for any nonsense
when the peace of the world is at
stake.
Aggression anywhere, whether it
be civil or international war, must
be met with firm resistance.
Secondly, and most important,
the UN has a certain prestige it
must maintain in order to suc-
ceed as a world government.
If the people of the world lose
faith in its ability to "keep the
peace," it will die the same hor-
rible death the League of Nations
died, and freedom-loving people
will find themselves again inhabit-
ing a planet torn by hate and
strife.
It is imperative then that the
UN police force should push the
North Koreans back across the
thirty-eighth parallel and show
the people of the world that it is
a powerful peace-making organi-
zation worthy of their complete
faith and co-operation.
If we don't push the North Kor-
eans back and retreat from the
Korean peninsula, the UN will lose
face which could very easily ini-
tiate its down-fall.
Hostilities could spread from
Korea over the entire world like
a forest-fire.
If the UN police force does suc-
ceed in pushing the North Koreans
to the thirty-eighth parallel, I be-
lieve the world will more easily
embark towards its goal of a last-
ing peace wfth a strong world gov-
ernment which all can look to for
protection in times of trouble.
-Gerald Camiener
Profits Tax
By THOMAS L. STOKES
W ASHINGTON-There is much
lip service to "taking the pro-
fit out of war."
Why, then, all the reluctance,
the hemming and hawing, about
enactment now of an excess pro-
fits tax which is the surest way
to take the profit out of the pro-
duction of military necessities
for which Congress is appropri-
ating?
Secretary, of Treasury Snyder
and Senator George, Senate Fi-
nance Committee chairman, insist
ienijclmnt of n excess profits tax
> mist b4 Vostpned muntil the next
session of Congress beginning next
January.;
aB0th usually reflect the views of2

the business and financial com-
munity.
President Truman, acquiescing
in delay, explains that an excess
profits tax is "highly controver-
sial"-as what isn't?-and that it
would take a great deal of time for
Congress to consider.-
He then adds, in his whimsically
frank manner, that it would be
better to wait until members of
Congress get over "election jitters."
It is risky to challenge Harry
Truman on matters of political
psychology, but just why should
"election jitters" be agitated by an
excess profitstax?
Unless, perhaps, the inference
intended is that members of Con-
gress are afraid before an election
to tax big corporate interests.
There are not many votes in
the big industrial fraternity,
though it is powerful politically
and is the source, so one hears,
of campaign contributions.
Is this what the President was
getting at?
In these latter days, the Demo-
cratic Party has been enjoying
handsome financial support from
big interests that are always ready
to court the party in power, and
the Republican Party still gets
such support, too.
It would seem that "election jit-
ters" should develop more logical-
ly from increasing individual in-
come taxes - which Congress is
preparing to do now.
As for time to consider an ex-
cess profits tax, there is all the
time needed. Congress is paid by

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

Publication in The Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University. Notices
for the Bulletin should be sent in
typewritten form to the Office of the
Administration Building, by 3:00 p.m.
on the day preceding publication
(11:00 a.m. Saturdays).
SUNDAY, AUGUST 13, 1950
VOL. LX, No. 35-S
Notices
Recommendations for Depart-
mental Honors: Teaching depart-
ments wishing to recommend ten-
tative August graduates from the
College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, and the School of Educa-
tion for departmental honors
should recommend such students
in a letter to be sent to the Regis-
trar's Office, Room 1513 Adminis-
tration Building before August 24.
Library Hours
After Summer Session
The General Library will close
at 6 p.m. daily, beginning Friday,
August 18. Evening service will be
resumed on September 25. ,
The Library will be open daily
from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Mondays
through Fridays, except during the
period from August 28 through
September 4, when the Library
Building will be completely closed
for repairs.
The Divisional Libraries will be
closed from August 19 through
September 16, with the exception
of Engineering, East Engineering,
Hospital, and Physics, which will
be open on shortened scheduled.
Information as to hours will be
posted on the library doors or may
be obtained by calling University
Extension 653. Requests for ma-
terial from the closed libraries will
be taken care of at the Circulation
desk in the General Library.
Students having in their posses-
sion books borrowed from the Gen-
eral Library or its branches are
notified that such books are due
Monday, August 14.
Students having special need for
certain books between August 14
and August 19 may retain such
books for that period by renewing
them at the Charging Desk.
The names of all students who
have not cleared their records at
the Library by Friday, August 18,
will be sent to the Cashier's Office
and their credits and grades will
be withheld until such time as said
records are cleared In compliance
with the regulations of the Re-
gents.
Thursday, August 17 and Friday,
August 18: Examinations for Uni-
versity Credit. All students who
desire credit for work done in the
summer session will be required to
take examinations at the close of
the session. The examination sche-
dule for the schools and colleges
on the eight-week basis is as fol-
lows:
Hour of Time of
Recitation Examination
8:00 .............Thursday, 8-10
9:00 ................ Friday, 8-10
10:00............Thursday, 2-4
11:00 ................ Friday, 2-4
1:00 .............. Thursday, 4-6
2:00 ............ Thursday, 10-12,
3:00 ..............Friday, 10-12
All other hours......Friday, 4-6
A representative of The Sinclair
Research Laboratories will be at
the Bureau of Appointments on
Wednesday, August 16th to inter-
view August;graduates taking de-
grees in chemistry and chenfic'al
engineering. They are interested
in B.S. candidates in chemistry for
beginning research jobs and chem--
ical engineers for junior engineers
for pilot plant work. For further
information and appointments for
interviews call the Bureau of Ap-
pointments Ext. 371.

The United States Civil Service
Commission announces an examin-
ation for Engineers with options in
architectural, civil, construction,
electrical, hydraulic (general), hy-
draulic (hydrologic investigations),
material, safety, and surveying
and cartographic. For further in-
formation call at the Bureau of
Appointments 3528 Administration
Building.
Summer Employment: Men with
cars wanted for sales positions. For
further information call at Bureau
of Appointments, 3528 Administra-
tion Building.
The Wayne County Civil Service
Commission announces August 15
as the closing date for the filing
of applications for examination for
Psychologist I. Applications for
this examination must be post-
marked or received at the office
of the Wayne County Civil Service
Commission no later than that
date in order to be considered.
Bureau of Appointments
Papers written for Contemporary
Arts and> Society may be picked up
now at the following offices: Col-
lege of Architecture, 207 Architec-
ture Bldg.; English Department,
3223 Angell Hall; Fine Arts De-
partment, 206 Tappan Hall; School

dents unable to pay, in full, loans
which are now due should see Miss
McKenzie, 1020 Administration
Building, immediately.
Lectures
Survey Research Institute. "Mo-
dified Techniques of Area Samp-
ling." Raymond J. Jessen, Director
of the Statistical Laboratory, Iowa
State College. 4 p.m. Tuesday, Rm.
131, Business Administration Bldg.
Institute on the Near East. "Art1
and Environment in Iran." Don-
ald Wilber, Area Specialist on the
Near East. 4:15 p.m. Tuesday
Rackham Amphitheatre. ay
Linguistic Institute. "Prosodic
Systems of the Pomo Languages."
A. M. Halpern, Rand Corporation.1
7:30 p.m. Tuesday, Rackham Am-
phitheatre
Academic Notices ,
Doctoral Examination for Char-
les Alvin Dailey, Psychology; the-
sis: "Some Factors Influencing
the Accuracy of Understanding
Personality," Monday, August 14,
East Council Room, Rackham
Bldg., at 1 p.m. Chairman, MaxI
Hutt.
Doctoral Examination for Fred
Brafman, Mathematics; thesis:'
"Generating Functions of Jacobi'
and Related Polynomials," Tues-
day, August 15, 272 West Engi-
neering Bldg., at 3:30 p.m. Chair-
man, E. D. Rainville.'
Doctoral Examination for John
J. Brownfain, Psychology; thesis:
"Stability of the Self-Concept as
a Dimension of Personality," Tues-
day, August 15, 1027 East Huron
Street, Room No 4, at 10 a.m.
Chairman, E. L. Kelly.
Doctoral Examination for Helen'
Mar Churchill, Zoology; thesis:
"Germ Cell Cycle of Echinostoma
revolutum (Froelich, 1802) (Echi-'
nostomatidae: Trematoda)", Sat-
day, Augst 26, 3091 Natural Sci-
ence Bldg., at 9 a.m. Chairman, G.
R. LaRue.
Doctoral Examination for Ro-
bert Theodore Amos, Education;;
t h e si s : "Comparative Accuracy
with which Negro and White Chil-
dren Can Predict Teachers' Atti-
tudes Toward Negro Students",
Tuesday, August 15, East Council
Room, Rackham Bldg., at 3 p.m.
Chairman, H. C. Koch.
' Doctoral Examination for Ray-
mond Ernest Nadeau, Speeh;'
thesis: "The Index rhetoricus of
Thomas Farnaby", Monday, Aug-
ust 14, West Council Room, Rack-
ham Bldg., at 3 p.m. Chairman, W.
M. Sattler.
Doctoral Examination for Mar-
vin Lucius Aronson, Psychology;
thesis: "An Exploatory Study of
the Freudian Theory of Paranoia
with a Group of Psychological
Tests," Monday, August 14, West
Council Room, Rackham Bldg., at
7:45 p.m. Chairman, Abraham
Carp.
Doctoral Examination for Fran-
cis Chester Seaman, Philosophy;
thesis: "Some Philosophic Impli-
cations of the Theory of Relativ-
ity," Wednesday, August 16, East
Alcove, Aseinbly .Ral1. acklan
Bldg., at'2 p.m,-Chdirutan;,. "tW
Burks. '-V
'Doctoral Fxaniiation. ,or Ger-
ard M. Mertens, German; thesis:
"S t e f a n Zweig's Biographical
Writings as, Studies of Human
Types," Tuesday, August 15, 102D
Tappan, at 2 p.m. Chairman, F. B.
Wahr.

Doctoral Examination for Jacob
Myer Geist, Chemical Engineering.
Thesis: "An Electronic Spray Ana-
lyzer for Electrically Conducting
particles." Monday, August 14, 32-
01 East Engineering Building, at
2 p.m. Chairman, G. G. Brown.
Doctoral Examination for Jacob
Eichhorn, Chemical Engineering.
Thesis: "Heat Transfer and Pres-
sure Drop in Systems of Gasses
and Solids in Fixed and Fluidized
Beds." Thursday, August 17. East
Council Room, Rackham Building,
at 7 p.m. Chairman, R. R. White.
Doctoral Examination for Sey-
mour Lewin, Chemistry, thesis:
"The Diethyl Bromoethylmalon-
ates as Evidence of the Existance
of Alternate Polarities in Satur-
ated Carbon Change." Tuesday,
August 15, West Council room,
Rackham Building, 2 p.m. Chair-
man, K. Fajans.
Concerts
University Summer S e s s i o n
Choir, Henry Veld, Conductor, will
be heard in its annual concert at
4:15 Sunday afternoon, August 13,
in Hill Auditorium. It will be as-
sisted by a string quartet consist-
ing of Alfred Boyington and James

I

Xette4
TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications
from its readers on mttrs of gen-
eral interest,aand will publish all let-
ters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding
300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which
for any reason are not in.good taste
will be condensed, edited or withheld
from publication at the discretion of
the editors.
Peace' Petition .
To the Editor:
FORMER associate editor Mc-
Neil's letter stating that he
had been duped into signing the
Stockholm Peace Appeal is very
interesting. "I took it at face val-
ue and signed," he explained. But
after examination, "I think it an
injustice to put all -the blame on
the U.S. for the status of proposals
to internationalize 'the atomic
bomb. The petition is being used
as an instrument of Soviet foreign
policy to disc'redit the U.S."
I don't know where Mr. McNeil
got his information. It s.urely was-
n't from the Stockholm Appeal.
Perhaps he has confused the vari-
ous petitions that are always cir-
culated in an academic commun-
ity.
The Stockholm Appeal does not
place all or any blame on either
Russia or the United 'States. It
recognizes that nations have
reach an impasse on atomic con-
trol and therefore attempts to ral-
ly common sentiment in favor of
outlawing atomic weapons as a
mode of aggression, control to en-
force this, and branding that
country which plunges the world
into an atomic war as an enemy
of all.
How this is aninstrument of So-
viet policy is likewise a mystery to
me. If to speak out :fo peace and
back an atomic propc sal which
both the U.S. and U."S.R. have
agreed to in principle is consider-
ed a Communist plot, then we had
all better admit that our govern-
ment is hell-bent fore *ar and go
underground now. Wbrld peace
should be neither Communist nor
Capitalist-despite the Un-Ameri-
can Activities Committe.
Now is the timeto mbilize for
peace. Tomorrow may be too late.
Perhaps McNeil would best view
the Stockholm petition as ob-
jectively as possible. I realize that
It is difficult in days when pow-
erful groups seem bent on war.
-Gordon MacDougall
To the Editor:
SDIDNOT sign the Stockholm
SPeace Petition, but if I had, I
would now want tV withdraw my
signature.
-Al Blumrosen
Hill Auditorium. It will be ope
to the general public.
Carillon Recital. Professor Per-
cival Price, Universitj :Carillon-
neur. 7:15-8 p.m. Thurday.
Exhibitions
General Library, main lobby
cases. "Trochiledae, Family of-
Humming Birds," by John Gould,
supplement, 1887. (July 27-August
18).
Museum of Archaeology. From
Tombs and Towns of Ancient
'Egypt.
Musem s-Buildinig. R itunda ex-
-a~t Fhibiflon' 1- xdr
'Develnment.
Law Library. Legal cartoons

(basement, July 24-August 18).
Michigan Hkstorical Collections.
160 Rackham Building. "Tourists
in Michigan-Yesterday: and To-
day."
Museum of Art. Oriental ceram-
ics (June 26-August 15). Modern
graphic art. (July 2-August 15).
Clements Library. Michigan rar-
ities. (August 1-18).
(Continued on Page 3)
e *a

'I
'4
4

STAR OF EMPIRE, A Study of Britain
as a World Power, 1485-1945. William B.
Willcox.
By DAVID P. LEONARD
FOR THOSE STUDENTS who have enjoyed
a course in English history with Prof.
Willcox, no review of his new book, "Star of
. Empire," is needed to arouse enthusiasm. It
is enough to announce it for them to know
:N the high intellectual adventure that is theirs
for the reading. But to the many who, as a
result of numbing experience in high school
or college, have set down history as a dreary
catalogue of facts and dates, a veritable for-
est of Roman numerals, Mr. Willcox's book is
recommended as an antidote. For those who
have stigmatized history as not merely dead
but deadly, this book will come as a happy
surprise.
In a field as old and noted for distinguish-
ed scholars as English history, a writer must
be both bold and gifted with original in-
sights to produce an account of modern
Britain that is both fresh in treatment and
unhackneyed in interpretation. Yet this is
just what Mr. Willcox has done in a single
volume. In some 400 pages he has inter-
woven all the essential threads of British
developments from the dawn of empire with
the advent of the Tudors, through the apogee
of empire in the 19thcentury, to the twilight
of empire in the present. To a clean, swift-
moving account of the major stages and
themes of British history since 1500 he com-
bines a concomitantly illuminating interpre-
tation which is as lucid as it is provocative
-for those who believe that the past lives on
to infuse in the mind of living men. a sense
of continuity and direction. The result is a
near masterpiece of historical literature.
TO THE EXTENT that history is one of
the liberal arts, it must, if it is not to
remain the insulated domain of a scholarly
elect, appeal to a wide audience. This means
that to realize its function of providing per-
spective and larger purpose for action in the
present, it must delight as well as instruct-.
in short, it must be readable. Mr. Willcox
is keenly aware of this. For him history is
in one sense a branch of literature. And he
writes superbly.
He does so in part because he avoids
both the formidable argot of the scholar
and the condescension of the popularizer.
But more importantly, his writing excites 2
because he is a master of metaphor and
the precise phrase. His forte is the extend-
ed metaphor that compares, contrasts,
sui-mets fires the imagination, and links

sons he believes indispensable to fixing the
significance of a period or problem. Each
character is fixed sharply in a few deft, or-
iginal twists of phrase. James I, for example,
is no longer pigeon-holed as "the wisest fool
in Christendom." Instead: "He was no fool,
not even a wise one, and in many ways he
was more intelligent than most of his sub-
jects . . . at bottom he was an obstinate
little man wandering in dignified bewilder-
ment through an earthquake."
His prose is as esthetically pleasing as his
argument is intellectually compelling.
* * *
MR. WILLCOX has not attempted to write
the whole of British history. This would
not only entail many volumes and duplicate
already extant works, but would defeat his
-purpose of an integration designed'to appeal'
to the large audience of intelligent laymen.-
Besides, as he says himself, English history
does not need telling again so much -as
digestion and summary, the extraction of
vital issues and solutions from the bulk of
events, and forceful presentation for what-
ever value they may have for the present.
As the stuff of history accumulates there is
a danger that the sheer volume and com-
plexity of the human past will overwhelm
its meaning and utility for the living present.
It is the dual role of the historian first to
piece out what happened in the past and
then to extract the relevant core which can
enhance the experience of the present age.
The critical skill here is selectivity. By
rigorous selection and the ability to recog-
nize and exclude what is unessential to
understanding, Mr. Willcox has stated the
nub of each period of English history and
linked the successive stages to produce an
amazingly clear picture of the whole devel-
opment. To omit so many details, yet show
precisely how and why the elements retained
are of the essence; to compress exposition to
the limit yet state the meaning of each
component; to write leanly yet avoid the
distortions of bias - this marks the gifted
historian.
SELECTION and the handling of material
imply a criterion of values, or philosophy
of history. Whatever may be its ultimate
meaning, history is not a random chaos,
full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.
But it is nothing if not complex. No single,
simple cause or logic accounts for the
whole. In his study of modern Britain, Mr.
Willcox has emphasized one pattern and

dinate to the civil government. This fact
has permitted England to experiment with
a system of government that minimizes co-
ercive force. The tragic exception is Ireland,
where England, basing her rule on sheer
military power, never achieved either a justj
or stable regime. When the American revo-
lution revealed as bluntly for the empire asj
Cromwell's army had for England the futil-
ity of bonds based on military force, Britain
slowly developed the dominion to replace the
colony, and the Commonwealth of Nations
with its great paradox of unity in indepen-
dence. British history is a mounting series
of variations on the profound theme that
no human society can long endure except it
rest on the ties of voluntary collaboration,
the ties which, as Edmund Burke said in
1776, are light as air but strong as links of
iron. The failures and th eih il i ' ti4
history-as indeed with all atdhns; past an !
present-lie precisely in those areas and
times when in exasperatioi. or ,blindness, the-
bonds of goodwill and combr ohise were set'
aside for the shackles of military coercion.
It is true that in the past fifty years
Britain has dleclined as a world power.
But the empire, instead of crumbling like
the empires in Europe and Asia, has ma-
tured spiritually into a larger society of
free yet united nations. Britain in her
decline has become greater than she was
at her height. Now American power, grown
to maturity through British naval protec-
tion in the 19th century, has replaced her
waning sea power, and the two nations
have entered into voluntary collaboration.
It began with the crisis of 1939, as the
spirit of partnership replaced the former
isolation and mutual jealousy which were
the unhappy legacies of 1776 and 1812.
Mr. Willcox concludes that the hope of free
men everywhere rests on the continuance
of, this partnership and its expansion
through the United Nations to include,
eventually, if war can be averted, all
nations. The acute danger to America
and the Commonwealth, to the free United
Nations forces fighting today to contain
Soviet expansion, is that fear and military
coercion will corrupt the basis of free
society and replace the spirit of compro-
mise and law with the cult of force. If
this occurs, and there are alarming signs
at hand that the process is far advanced
here, then it will matter little what, ifj
anything, emerges from the terminal wars1
of the 20th century.
No one can any longer deny that the
Communists have utilized with supreme

"I

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