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VOL. LIX, No. 295 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JULY 30, 1949
PRICE FIVE CENTS
Airlift To Be
BERLIN - (P) - The Berlin
airlift, biggest western weapon of
the. cold war, will go into cold
storage starting Monday.
American and British officials
announced yesterday the greatest
air freight operation in history
will be reduced gradually until it
is cut out entirely Oct. 31.
* a r
FOR NEARLY a year - from
June 26, 1948, until the Russians
lifted the Berlin blockade May 14
-the thundering stream of planes
was the only means of keeping
2,000,000 West Berliners supplied
with food, fuel and raw materials.
The airlift surprised the Russians
and heartened the Germans.
The decision to retire the air
cargo operation was taken be-
cause adequate supplies have
been stockpiled since the Rus-
sians have permitted rail, high-
way and water traffic to be re-
sumed from the western zones.
But the Western Allies made it
clear they will be prepared to re-
start the airlift on short notice
if the Russians adopt new block-
ade tactics against the four-power
city, 100 miles inside the Soviet
* * * .
THE GRADUAL reduction in
operations, which starts Monday,
will permit some of the airlift
fliers to head back to the United
States in September.
The cutback program calls for
a daily schedule of 3,700 tons
for August, 2,100 for September
and 1,000 for October.
This will be a breeze for Amer-
ican and British pilots who have
averaged 8,000 tons of supplies
daily since the airlift got into
full swing. The peak was reached
last Easter weekend when the
transport planes flew nearly 13,-
000 tons into Berlin.
THE AIRLIFT was expensive in
lives and money. Seventy airmen
-31 Americans and 39 Britons-
were killed. In addition seven Ger-
man civilians were killed in plane
Official figures were not avail-
able, but it was estimated the op-
eration cost the United States
about $12,500,000 or more a month.
The British reported June 15 their
share had cost 8,600,000 pounds
Informed sources said the U:S.
plans to maintain airlift installa-
tions at Wiesbaden and Rhine-
Main. An Air Force official said
he assumed that even though the
lift ended, training flights will
WASHINGTON - (P - Gen.
Omar N. Bradley warned Congress
yesterday that Russia is "bent
upon absorbing the exhausted vic-
tors" of the last war and he out-
lined the broad defense strategy
behind the European arms pro-
The Army Chief of Staff said
that the program is based on the
assumption that the United States,
which is able "to deliver the atom
bomb," would handle strategic
bombing, while the European part-
ners would be ready with ground
TESTIFYING before the House
Foreign Affairs Committee, Brad-
ley endorsed the Administration's
plan to spend $1,450,000,000 on
arms aid for non-Communist na-
tions. And he pictured the need
with these words:
"In the place of the van-
quished foe has arisen this new
aggressor, bent upon absorbing
the exhausted victors.
"The spectre of another would-
be master attempting to enslave
our presently allied peoples has
given a sense of urgency to our
* * *
BRADLEY, who testified just
before he planned to fly to Eu-
rope to consult on the plans, said
Survey Studies Different Attitudes
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third of seven articles on the Survey
Research minority group report. Clip them-they will serve as the basis
for student and administrative action in the fall.)
By CRAIG WILSON
The third section of the University Survey Research Center's
report on "Campus Attitudes Toward Minority Groups," compares
different group's attitudes towards minorities.
Each student interviewed was given an overall "social distance"
score on each minority group he was asked about.
* * * *
THE SCORE WOULD be a composite based on his rated willing-
ness to room with, date, and live in the same house with, members
of the particular minority group.
A high score means more reluctance to have social contacts
of this kind with members of the minority in question.
A high score is 10 to 12. A less high score is 8 to 9.
A low score means a relatively more favorable attitude toward
contacts of this kind with the minority in question.
A low score is 3 to 5. A less favorable score is 6 to 7.
Arc de Triomphe
Post i.n Shanghai*
Former Navy Employees Demand
Back Pay for Two Month Period
WASHINGTON-WP-More than 100 Chinese seized control of
the American consulate general offices in Shanghai yesterday to
enforce back pay demands against the U.S. Navy, the State Depart-
About 20 Chinese and other local non-American former employees
of the U.S. Navy in Shanghai occupied the consulate offices at 7:30
(Shanghai time) yesterday morning, seizing the gate keys and pre-
venting the gates from being shut, the report said.
BY MID AFTERNOON the numbers had been increased to about
100 inside the building with more outside at 3:30 p.m.
The beseigers locked the gates, imprisoning the AmerIcan
SOCIAL DISTANCE TOWARDS NEGROES:
Family Income: 3-5
Under $5,000 .................13%
Over $10,000... ...........12
Size of Home Town:
Country, small town ..........14
City, 10,000-50,000 ........... 7
City, 50,000-Million ..........13
Metropolitan area ............15
Sophomore ................... 7
Membership in Fraternity, Sorority:
Member or Pledge............11
Neither Member or Pledge .....13
Protestant .................... 8
* * * *
STUDENTS WERE ALSO given composi
ingness to room with, date, and live in the s
* * * *
SOCIAL DISTANCE TOWARDS JEWS:
Family Income: 3-5
Under $5,000 .................33%
Over $10,000 ..................31
Size of Home Town:
Country, small town ..........38
City, 10,000-50,000 ...........24
City 50,000-Million ..........40
Metropolitan area ............30
Sophomore ........ ..........36
Membership in Fraternity, Sorority:
Member or Pledge ............30
Neither Member or Pledge ....34
ARCH OF TRIUMPH-Standing at the head, of the beautiful Champs Elysees, the famous French
monument is lit up for the second time since t he beginning of the war on Bastille night, July 14.
A tricolor beam of light pierces through the arch lighting up the sky overhead with the colors of
A rnbassador Welcomes
Students to Netherlands
te scores on their will-
ame house with, Jewish
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
third in a series of articles on the
National Student Association sum-
iner tour of Europe by Barnett and
Delores Laschaver, D~aily staff mem-
bers. Mrs. Laschever is the former
Delores Palanker, a Daily night
ROTTERDAM (Delayed) -Call-
ing them "young diplomats" and,
"ambassadors of goodwill," Her-
man Baruch, American ambassa-
dor to The Hague, officially wel-
comed the 1,500 American and
Canadian students who arrived
here this morning aboard the S.S.
The central figure in a welcom-'
ing committee consisting of the
mayor of Rotterdam, Dutch and
American officials and members
of the N.B.B.$.-the Dutch stu-
dent organization which together
with the USNSA helped arrange
for the sailing of the Volendam-
Baruch told the students they were
on a special mission bringing with
them "the spirit of America" and
"the spirit of freedom."
FOLLOWING the ambassador's
greeting, a Dutch military band
Fatal to 72
By The Associated Press
A mid - summer heat wave
steamed the eastern seaboard in
record temperatures anddhumidity
yesterday, pushing its death toll
In the West, a chill night-time
34 sent the citizens of Big Piney,
Wyo., scurrying for blankets. Cool
air from Canada brought relief to
* * *
THE PHILADELPHIA, Pa., area
counted 37 deaths at least partly
due to heat during the current hot
spell. Deputy coroner Matthew A.
Roth said it was the highest total
for any heat wave there in 10
Newark, N.J., sizzled at 100
degrees, a record for the date
and the fourth time this year
the thermometer has gone into
The mercury reached 97.8 de-
grees in New York City, topping
all earlier marks this summer and
setting a new record for July 29
of any year.
struck up the "Star-Spangled
Banner" and the Dutch national
Coffee was served to the sleepy
students who had walked the
decks while the Volendam lay
for 12 hours yesterday off the
coast of Holland.
Most of them had stayed awake
to see the ship weigh anchor at
10 p.m. yesterday and slip quietly
up the Maas River to dock at 1:04
a.m. today at the Holland-Amer-
ica Lines' new glass-enclosed pier.
TO MAKE the landing complete,
at approximately 1:10 a.m. one of
the last of the 13,000 bottles of
beer consumed by students during
the voyage sailed through the air
to break two huge panes of glass
in the new dock.
The handful of Dutch students
and officials on the dock to greet
the students were well aware
that the Americans had arrived.
Passengers wandered off to catch
40 winks and be up again at 5 a.m.
to make breakfast and go through
Dutch customs in time for de-
barkation at 8:30 a.m.
Each student was provided with
a box lunch.
Debarkation was by groups, de-
pending up on the destination.
NSA TRI-NATION and South-
ern Tours headed for Paris, the
Italy-Switzerland group for Rome,
the International Tour for Brus-
sels, the Columbia World Study
Tours for London, another group
for Switzerland, while others went
to Scandinavia, Germany, Finland,
Czechoslovakia and Austria.
Each NSA tour was officially
greeted by representatives of the
N.B.B.S. who advised the group
leaders about transportation and
plans which had been made for
them by student organizations
of each country they were to
Our tour, the General Tri-Nation
group, will go first to France for
two weeks. A week and a half
will be spent in Paris and the re-
mainder of the time in Grenoble
with side trips to Chambery, An-
necy and also to Geneva, Switzer-
* * *
THE TOUR will then take in
Holland with most of the allotted
two weeks spent in the resort re-
gion of Friesland.
WASHINGTON - fAP)- A huge
foreign aid bill, center of a dis-
pute which threatens to hold up
$26,000,000,000 in appropriations
for various government agencies,
was revamped in a Senate Conp,
But amendments which caused
the row remained largely intact.
It was anyone's guess whether
the revised bill would prove ac-
ceptable to enough Senators to
end the big logjam.
* * *
THE COMMITTEE will formal-
ly send the bill to the Senate floor
One big point of argument in
the original measure was an
amendment, backed by some
farm state senators, stipulating
that $2,000,000,000 in foreign aid
funds must be used for the pur-
chase of surplus U.S. farm com-
modities, or not used at all.
The Senate appropriations com-
ihittee, working over the bill yes-
terday cut these required pur-
chases by 10 per cent--to $1,-
* * *
THE COMMITTEE stuck by an-
other controversial amendment,
earmarking $50,000,000 of econ-
omic cooperation funds for Spain.
In its new version the bills
total $5,647,724,000, which in-
cludes money to carry on the
Marshall Plan of European re-
covery, and aid to occupied
The Senate had sent the bill
back to the Appropriations Com-
mittee Wednesday after a tangled
dispute centering around conten-
tions that the amendments violat-
ed the Senate rules by writing
"new legislation" into an appro-
* * .*
THE COMMITTEE reworded
the amendments yesterday to try
to get around that objection.
One of several other changes in
the bill today eliminated $150,000,-
000 in lending authority for the
ECA, the agency which adminis-
ters the Marshall Plan.
staff of 13 people and 35 Chinese
They were described as former
Shanghai employes of the Navy
which pulled out of that port be-
fore the Communists occupied the
city late in May. They are de-
manding pay for the period since
their jobs ended, plus separation
and other bonuses.
THE NEW INCIDENT closely
followed the siege of two officials
of the American-owned newspaper
Shanghai Evening Post, by for-
mer employes demanding back pay
The Department was advised
that the police flatly refused to
intervene and that the Commu-
nist military control commis-
sion's alien affairs bureau also
failed to take action to restore
The report came from the con-
sulate general. John M. Cabot is
the consul general at Shanghai
but officials said they did not
know whether he was present per-
sonally. He has been trying to
return to the United States by
plane with Ambassador J. Leigh-
EARLIER IN THE week the
State Department spoke of "dif-
ficulties" the Communists were
putting in the way of Stuart's ar-
rangements to leave.
The State Department was ad-
vised that American officials,
under authority from Washing-
ton, have proposed a settlement
known to be acceptable to more
than half the claimants. But
they had been requested by the
Communist Alien Affairs Bu-
reau to defer the proposal.
The consulate report put re-
sponsibility on "the lack of ef-
fective action" by the Communist
Alien Affairs Bureau.
NEW YORK-(P)-A CIO steel-
workers' spokesman charged yes-
terday that the steel industry is
rolling up "phenomenal" profits
at the expense of employes and
Robert R. Nathan, former New
Deal economist, told President
Truman's fact-finding board that
the industry's policies are hurting
the national economy.
* * *
NATHAN SAID STEEL profits
are the highest in history and that
the industry can well afford to
grant the 30 cents an hour in-
crease the union is asking in a
wage - pension - social insurance
This demand includes a fourth
round wage increase of 121%
cents an hour. a
The three-member board is
hearing evidence in a dispute that
led to a strike threat by the 900,-
000 union members earlier this
Back toBig Six
LAKE SUCCESS -- (P) - The
United Nations Atomic Energy
Commission gave up yesterday a
three-year struggle to agree on
international atomic control.
It put the deadlock squarely up
to the big five powers and Canada,
who are beginning top secret talks
* * *
THE COMMISSION voted 9 to
2 to stop work until the six coun-
tries can find some basis for
agreement. But the delegates
themselves say there is at present
io sign of a break in the East-
The Soviet Union and the So-
viet Ukraine voted against the
majority. Their delegates de-
manded to know why the major-
ity wanted to "kill" the com-
mission, stop its work, "lock the
door and throw away the key."
Dr. H. R. Wei, Chinese scientist
and commission chairman for
"Time . is running out. The
atomic armaments race is on. It
is the duty of this commission to
tell the world that the work can-
not be done now."
* * - *
HE THEN informed the com-
mission that his government had
started the wheels rolling for the
"I hope the Permanent mem-
bers of the commission (the six
countries involved in the con-
sultations, the United States,
France, Britain, China, Russia
and Canada) will give away
their pride and prejudice and
work for agreement," he sad.
The majority members of the
commission want an international
control authority checking and
supervising the atom from the
mine ore stage to final use. They
insist this authority must not be
subject to the Security Council
The Soviet Union wants an in-
ternational control authority with
powers of periodic inspection, but
with its work coming under the
In Ann Arbor
More than 2,500 people are out
of work in Ann Arbor.
The Michigan Unemployment
Commission reported that unem-
ployment in Washtenaw County
this week was between 7,000 and
OFFICIALS of the commission
predicted that the number of job-
less people would continue at that
level for the rest of the summer.
However, they expressed hope that
manufacturing in the county may
rise after the summer.
Commission spokesman said
an indication of the present eco-
nomic situation may be foundin
the large number of persons who
are returning to their nrwr
Jewish students interviewed were excluded from
of social distance towards Jews.
NEXT: Discrepancies between self an'd friends on attitudes
toward minority groups is studied in "Campus Attitudes Toward
'GRASS ROOTS' PARLEY:
Dissident Republicans Adopt
Program, Plan Convention
CHICAGO-(P)-A group of Republicans from 25 states, discon-
tended with their party's policies, adopted a program yesterday and
laid the groundwork for a later "grass-roots" convention.
Fred A. Virkus of Chicago called the conference, contending the
GOP needs revitalizing. The 105 attending all were either delegates
or alternate delegates to the 1948 Republican National Convention.
AFTER TWO DAYS of closed committee sessions, the dissident
Recommended a labor policy
based on the Taft-Hartley law.
Urged a farm policy based on
government purchases in the
Called for a Republican round-
up, or grass-roots convention, be-
fore the next elections. Represen-
tatives of county GOP organiza-
tions would be invited.
* * *
IN THEIR POLICY statement,
the Republican group asserted,
"There must be returned to
the states the rights, privileges,
and duties which have been
MISSESS, MIZZES, MISS, MIZZ-MRS.:
Expert Finds Ten Ways To Pronounce Madam
Good morning, Mrs. Cooper. based on the Field Records of
"We don't care whether you~ the Linguistic Society's Atlas."
pronounce that name 'Cawper,'
'Kuper,' or 'Kaaper.' In the pronunciation, the S and
"What we're interested in is the Z forms are the most outstanding,
pronunciation of 'Mrs.,'" Bagby and are different almost anywhere
Atwood of the University of Texas you go, he said.
1A zailvet Af h TLngis tiI New England generally uses the
the shortened form, used during
speedy conversations, he added.
The mixed usage, so apparent in
the South, may come from tw .o
persons using different usages or
the same person alternating, he
Another survey found that
Brooklyn is a virtual hotbed of the
Z form, but we didn't find a single
Z in either Brooklyn or the city of
New York, he added.
* * *
THE FINAL STEP in a survey
of Chi +%,nn11QQtoA fa mi HI
BUT IN THE South Atlantic
States "Mizz" shows no signs of
receding. In fact, Atwood said,
more than 90 percent of the na-
tives were adopting the Z form.
The Virginia Piedmont seems
to be the spreader of the Z forms
,hr-no ue far nresctig h 211