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July 17, 1948 - Image 2

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Coercion in Berlin

hovering on the brink of armed war-
fare in the streets of Berlin the parallel
between the present situation and the Mu-
nich era becomes more and more striking.
At that time Hitler was making his "last
territorial claim," the Sudetenland. With
this territory, he said, the Nazi state could
be successfully consolidated. Despite the
warnings of such men as Winston Church-
ill, English Prime Minister Neville Cham-
berlain buckled under to Hitler's demands.
A year later the Nazis marched into Poland
ani the world was at war.
Today Soviet authorities are demanding
that the Western occupational powers
hand Berlin over to them because they say
that the German situation can be solved
only "by Berlin's close connection with
the eastern part of Germany."
On the surface their demands are based
on the present currency dilemma in Ber-
lin. The Russians claim that the issuing of
a devaluated mark by the Western powers
on June 18 has placed Berlin's economy and
her working population in an untenable
situation which can be remedied only by
Soviet control.
From previous experiences, however, it
seems rather obvious that, having once
gained control of Berlin, the Russians would
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.

focus their attention on the rich Ruhr valley
on which the success of the Marshall Plan
It is true that Soviet Foreign Minister
Molotov recently issued a new offer to
the Western Powers to set up a "demo-
cratic" German government. The offer,
however, contained the stipulation that
Russia would still have a hand in running
the Ruhr. Moreover, past experience has
shown that the Russians are skilled mas-
ters in undermining these newly formed
democratic states.
Since the Western powers finally refused
to buckle down under their demands, the
Russians have resorted to one of the oldest
and cruelest formks of human coercion-
starvation. In doing so they have almost
admitted to the world that they have no
faith in cooperation and that they must
resort to a primitive expedient employed by
The Western powers would not be in the
present situation were it not for the short-
sighted foreign policy of the late President
Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference. At that
time it was decided, despite the warnings of
Winston Churchill, to split the control of
Germany and Berlin to appease the Rus-
sians. As a result Berlin was left as a po-
tential powder keg-with a short fuse.
Now it can only be hoped that the
valiant efforts of the American and British
air forces can continue to supply Berlin's
2,500,000 citizens. The small American gar-
rison of 4,000 troops is the symbol of the
United States' promises to millions of anx-
ious Europeans. It must hold.
We have tried appeasement before.
-Jim Brown.

He's Being Truman Now

PHILADELPHIA-"He's stopped trying to
be President. He's being Truman now."
A close observer of the President made the
remark a little sadly, in the ghastly early
hours of the morning, while the President
was shouting his defiance of the Republicans
before the sweating delegates to the Demo-
cratic Cnovention. The most striking thing
about the President's speech was his final
abandonment of the rather stilted, elevated
tone which he has thought suitable to his
The drama and interest of the whole epi-
sode were more genuinely intense than is
usual in politics. There was, first of all,
the inescapable feeling that the President
Was venting on the Republicans some of the
resentment which he feels against the Dem-
ocrats who opposed his renomination.
Thee were, secondly, the circumstances,
of the stirring decision to call a special
session of Congress, which was being
Usborne Plan
TODAY, WHILE the world waits hopefully
for a stronger UN to emerge from, the
Palestine conflict, another movement is
evolving which may eventually assure world
government and security for all peoples. Al-
though many call it "Utopian," the Us-
borne Plan for World Government may be
the solution to a problem that appears too
large at present for the UN.
The plan, which is named for Henry C.
Usborne, Labor MP, one of the group in
England that worked out the idea, favors
a People's World Constitutional Conven-
tion in the fall of '1950 to draft a World
Government Charter. The entire plan
would operate on an unofficial basis to
avoid the conflicts and diplomatic pres-
sure that pervade international relations
between nations.
Delegates to the Convention would be
elected in as many nations as possible with
one representative for each million constit-
The Charter written by the Convention
would have to provide for several "minimum
requirements," according to Usborne, who
outlined his plan in a speech last year at
Oak Ridge, Tenn.
A monopoly of armed forces would be
established to give the new government a
world poice force. Participating states
would disarm to the level of their own po-
licing committments. The government
would also monopolize all the processes
involving atomic development and other
scientific discoveries capable of mass de-
A world bank would have to be created to
establish a common link currency which
could be utilized in every country of the
world and which would hold funds for the
Central Authority in order that it may in-
itiate and finance economic planning on a
large scale such as TVA.
The last requirement would be the estab-
lishment of a world food board.
Formulated on that basis, the charter
can be presented as an amendment to the
UN Charter or for ratification by individual
nations. e
The protlem of making the Usborne
Plan work presents itself now-not after
the convention. Once a Charter is formed,
Usborne feels that ratification by one
method or another will follow shortly.
One-fourth of the populations of the
Uinited t Rate andBriain mut vott- f.r

bruited about hours before the President
at length spoke. The decision was taken
at the White House, without consulta-
tion with any of the Congressional lead-
Then there were also the decision's mo-
tives. The President beyond question sin-
cerely believes in th social and economic
objectives which he set forth in his speech.
It is also important to note that he and
his advisers have sincerely convinced them-
selves, as threatened politicians so often can,
that the victory of their opponents still
inevitably usher in a total triumph of reac-
tion and perhaps of fascism. These two be-
liefs provided the atmosphere of the de-
In this connection, it is vitally important
to distinguish between the effects- of the
call for a special session and the motives
for the call. The Republicans in Congress
richly deserve what they are getting. The
President was entirely correct in almost
every word he said about their handling
of social and economic measures, no matter
what you may think of the tone in which
he said it.
It will be incredibly costly and dangerous
to have the whole country set by the ears,
and all the dirty linen of our politics pub-
licly washed, in a time of dreadful danger
abroad. But it will also be useful to have
the wide difference between the Republi-
can candidates and the Republican con-
gress aired during the campaign. And
certain badly needed legislation may even
be passed before the special session ends.
As for the motives, the real reasons for
the decision were obviously political. First,
a special session provides the President with
an inexpensive form of electoral campaign.
Second and more important, holding the
session, which is helpful in view of the
present state of Democratic party finances,
will be a much more effective way to cam-
paign than a straight debating match
against such a powerful adversary as Gov-
ernor Dewey.
(Copyright, 1948, New York Herald Tribune, line)
" Progress Report
WE READ with interest some very inter-
esting facts as reported in what our
predecessors used to call The Other local
paper. According to The Other paper, "The
University, since it was founded in 1917,
has contributed 182 members to the United
States Congress, 72 to the Federal bench,
including the United States Supreme Court
and 101 judges to the state courts of
Who knows what heights will be scaled
in the next 31 years?
*4, * *
THIS OFFICE was recently puzzled over
the location of the village of Frankfort,
Michigan. When the question was put to one
of Prof. Slosson's more ardent student sup-
porters, he knitted his brow reflectively for
a moment and then said, "I'm not sure just
where it is, but I'm certain that it's not in
the Second Congressional District."
* * *

Liberal Defeat
P IILADELPH1IA - The conservative re-
volt outlasted the liberal revolt. Toward
the end the Northern and Western liberals,
who had come here with just as firm an
intention of unseating Truman as the
Southerners, were defending him. Not. only
were they defending him, they were defend-
iwg him angrily, while the Southern rebels
were carrying their own passion against the
President unchanged to the floor, and into
the voting record.
You could almost plot on a chart what
happened to many of the liberals here. On
Sunday afternoon they were against Tru-
man. By Tuesday afternoon they had given
up, and were being attacked bitterly for
having hurt Truman's chances. By Wednes-
day night they were angry themselves, show-
ing high and conspicuous peeves toward
those few who were still insisting that they
should oppose the President's nomination.
The liberals did win a remarkable vic-
tory on the civil rights plank, which moll-
ified them and further inflamed the
Southerners, thus helping to produce the
dip of the seesaw described above. But
the liberals hadnt come down here for
a plank, they had come down for a Pres-
ident, and, actually, they were pretty well
mollified before they had won the civil
rights victory.
In fact mollification set in very early;
some of the old tmers feel this has been
one of the biggest years for mollification
they have ever seen. I suppose the desire
for party harmony played a part, which is
not altogether an item to be joked about,
but observers are left with the feeling that
the change from passionate protest to far-
seeing party statesmanship has in some
cases been a bit abrupt.
I think basically the trouble with the lib-
erals was they didn't know what they want-
ed. They knew what they didn't want, but
that is not the same. They did not want
Truman, and in pursuit of their program
of not wanting Truman they went from
Eisenhower to Douglas to Pepper, in vary-
ing permutations and with less support each
time. But from Eisenhower to Pepper is quite
a hop.
They never really faced the question of
whether they were willing to vote for a
man who couldn't win, and let the vote
stand; in other words they never really
faced the question of whether they were
willing to engage in a fight they could
It had to be a fight they could win, or
no fight; in other words they never really
decided whether they were willing, in an
ultimate sense, to put a strain on party
harmony, or on their positions within the
And when the Southern revolt against the
President flared up, the liberals moved in,
for, in a substitute kind of way, it gave
them something they could be against, some-
thing they could handle. With the Southern-
ers fighting from the far right, the liberals
wound up fighting with Truman, from the
center I don't altogether blame them; it is
not always easy to know what to be for.
But when you don't know it is kind of good
to know that you don't know, and, well in
advance, if possible, to shape strategy and
tactics accordingly.
(Copyright, 1948, New York Post Corp.)
Russia's Record
operation with Soviet Russia and the
denunciation of the United States' foreign
policy has become louder and louder as the
Wallace Progressives have sought to shift
the blame for all that's wrong with the
world on the Republicans and Democrats.
Is it possible that this noisy bunch of

Kremlin-followers is right in damning Amer-
ican "non-cooperation?" Let's look at the
After entering the war against Japan (the
Japs having sent out peace feelers) Russia
moved into Manchuria, a former province
of China, which was at that time an ally
of Russia's and had suffered far more cas-
ualties and destruction than any of the
other warring nations.
Russia ignored this and immediately began
stripping Manchurian industry and destroy-
ing what could not be removed.
Thus, the USSR was taking as reparations
what was rightfully China's, after a war
(lusso-Japanese) that was hardly more
than maneuvers. However, at that time we
were still co-operating.
Then, contrary to Big Three agreements,
Russia tried to remain in Iran after both
the United States and Great Britain had
Again, contrary to agreement, the Rus-
sians refused to allow UN supervised free
elections in the Balkans. Instead, Poland
and the Balkans held Soviet-sponsored and
controlled elections and at the first chance
opposition leaders were killed, exiled or out-
In Czechoslovakia a minority Communist
party took power by force.
We, in our foolish idealistic way, held back
our troops so that Russia might capture
Berlin and then withdrew our troops back
to the zones set by co-operative agreements.
Russia today is attempting to make our
position in Berlin untenable; she has re-
fused to try to unify Germany as an eco-
nr~ir ollIA fli il"nnif-nw T~h ln11 a h _

Editorial Rounds

Truman Offensive
goes before the country on a
strong New Deal platform. It
starts under circumstances which
suggest that the burial of the
Democratic party may have been
predicted prematurely.
In its closing hours the Phila-
delphia convention showed that
the party, despite the splintering
off of small contingents left and
right, still has more vitality than
many people credited it with, and
still offers the most promising po-
tential instrument for progressive
President Truman made a
fighting acceptance speech in
which he dedicated himself
without reserve to a powerful
liberal program. It is now up to
him to prove that he can serve
this program better than he has
done since 1945; to prove that
he can summon to his side men
who really believe in it; to prove
that he fully understands and
can consistently pursue a liberal
policy not merely for the pur-
pose of winning votes or ap-
pealing to minorities, but for
the great aims of advaneing
America on the road to a more
secure economy and a broader
* * *
Congress which the President
is summoning for July 26 will pro-
vide an opportunity for the peo-
ple to decide whether this actually
is a "new" Truman, as his 2 a.m.
acceptance speech led most of his
listeners to believe.
Here will be an unprecedented
laboratory test of party promises
and campaign oratory. In full
view of voters alert to the issues
of a presidential campaign, both
parties will be compelled to make
a record of performance BEFORE
the election.
No doubt the session call will
be bitterly denounced as mere
politics by those who had hoped
to stay off the spot until after
election. Politics it is, mithout
question. But it is more. The
brutal cou'rse of inflation must
be dealt with. The acute housing
problem must be dealt with. The
need for action on education,
health, social security and civil
rights must be faced.
Mr. Truman's session call com-
pels the Republicans to show how
sincerely they meant their plat-
form declarations on these sub-
jects, which contrasted so sharply
with the record of the Republican
80th Congress.
But it is not only the Republi-
cans who are on the spot. The ses-
sion will give the voters full op-
portunity to decide also how sin-
cere Mr. Truman's own program
is, and how effectively he can
mobilize his own party behind it.
Such politics is good politics from
the public's point of view.
* * *
IN TERMS of the campaign, Mr.
Truman has shifted overnight
from the defensive to the offen-
sive. By exercising the vast powers
of initiative inherent in the presi-
dency, he has skilfully diverted
attention from foreign policy,
which some voters consider his
weakest point, and launched the
first phase of the campaign on is-
sues of his own selection.
More important than the
campaign, perhaps more im-
portant than the election, is the
historic repudiation of the

South on the issue of civil rights
-both by the party in its plat-
form, and by Mr. Truman in his
reiterated backing of the legisla-
tive program, which caused the
South to desert him.
By an ample majority the con-
vention refused to stand pat on
the 1944 platform, whose tooth-
less generalities the resolutions
committee had rephrased for 1948.
Anm Arbor News
UN Policy
( RAVE disappointment is felt
. by peace-lovers-and that in-
cludes most of us in the United
States-over the failure of the
United Nations to bring about
peace in the Holy Land. This is
accentuated by the renewal of
hostilities after the month-long
truce during which the UN media-
tor worked for a permanent solu-
tion of the differences between the
warring Jews and Arabs.
The United Nations was estab-
lished in 1945 with the definite
purpose of preventing just such
conflicts, which might be a threat
to world peace. Yet, three years
later the United Nations is faced
with a real test, one which may
well spell its success or failure,
and it is apparently unable to do
Many persons blame the
Soviet Union for making the
UN ineffective in solving the
world's problems. With its end-
less vetoes the Russian govern-
ment has stymied constructive
and preventive action by the Se-
curity Council.
But the existing Palestine situ-
ation is one which cannot be at-
tributed to the Russians. They
have consistently called for action
by the UN to force the warring
factions to settle their differences.
As a matter of fact, at the end of
May the United States and the
Soviet Union submitted a proposal
before the Security Council call-
ing for strong measures by the
United Nations to stop the war. It
was Great Britain that objected to
this proposal and instead offered
its own plan, one much milder
than that which the United States
and the Soviets had agreed upon.
The fault lies not in the ma-
chinery of the United Nations,
but rather in the willingness of
the large powers to get togeth-
er in joint action. No organiza-
tion, no matter how large or
small, can function successfully
if its members will not work to-
If we hope to bring peace to the
Holy Land through the United
Nations and thus avoid' the pos-
sibility of another world war grow-
ing out of this area, there must
be positive action taken by the UN
to bring a halt to the present hos-
tilities. The imposition of eco-
nomic sanctions against both sides
might be enough. If not, then
stronger measures seem called for.
Palestine is a powder box which
may at any time explode into a
struggle between the great powers.
If the nations wish to avoid such
a possibility, it is about time that
they use the machinery set up for
just such a purpose. If they con-
tinue to drift along without a defi-
nite policy, then the world is li-
able to find itself confronted with
the same situation as existed back
in 1935 when the League of Na-
tions was incapable of stopping
Mussolini from overrunning Ethi-

Pulilcatlous in The Daily Official
Bulletin isconstrutive notice to all
xiembers of the University. Notices for
th Bulletin should be sent in type-
Writt en form to the Office of the Sum-
mer Session, Room' 1213 Angel Hal, by
3:.0 Tn the day preceding publi-
catitcat (11:00 pmn. Saturdays)
VOL. LVII, No. 187
Bureau of Appointments & Occu-
pational Infornation, 201 Mason
The Ansco Corporation, Bing-
hampton, New York, is again re-
cruiting men for the Ansco Cadet
Training program. They are in-
terested in men receiving Bachelor
of Science degrees in Chemistry,
Chemical Engineering, or Electri-
cal Engineering. Men should be
under twenty-six years of age.
Complete details about the train-
ing piogram are on file at tihe Bu-
reau. Men who arce interested
should, contact the Bureau imme-
Survey Research Techniques:
There will be a conference for
students and instructors attend-
ing the special summer session in
Survey Research Techniques at
4 p.m. Mon., July 19, in the West
Conference Room of the Rackhan
English Teachers' Summer As-
sembly (No. 4)-Tues., July 20,
1948, at 4 p.m., in 318 Michigan
Union. A panel of teachers expe-
rienced in secondary school will
discuss problems raised by the
pamphlet Preparation for College
English (1945). Moderator of the
panel will be the general editor of
the pamphlet, 1 ofessor C. D.
Music Forum: Tues., July 20, 8
p.m., Hussey Room of the Michi-
gan League. The subject, "Con-
temporary Music," will be ap-
proached from the standpoint of
the performer and the listener.
Raymond Kendall will act as
chairman of the panel. Partici-
pating are Webster Aitken, pian-
ist, Ross Lee Finney, composer,
Erik Leidzen, conductor and ar-
ranger, and Curt Sachs, musicolo-
gist, members of the School of
Music Summer Session staff.
Sponsored by the Phi Mu Alpha
music fraternity, is open to the
Summer Session Lecture Series:
Clair Wilcox, Professor of Eco-
nomics Swarthmore College, "Re-
construction and World Trade."
July 20, 8:10 p.m., Rackham Lec-
ture Hall. The International Trade
Organization Charte'r, Thurs.,
July 20, 8:10 p.m., Rackham Lec-
ture Hall. The International
Trade Organization Charter,
Thurs., July 22, 4:10 p.m., Rack-
ham Amphitheatre.
Symposium on Theoretical and
Nuclear Physics
Program for the week begin-
nitmg July 19th. Lecture schedule:
Room 150 Hutchins Hall
Professor H. B. G. Casimir will
continue his discussion of "Low
Temperature Physics" at 10
o'clock on Monday, Wednesday,
and Friday.
Professor Julian Schwinger, of
Harvard University, will begin a
series of lectures on "Recent De-

velopments in Quantum Electro-
dynamics." Meetings are at 11
o'clock Monday, Wednesday, and
Professor Edwin M. McMillan,
University of California, will pre-
sent the first three lectures of a
series on "Recent Experiments in
High Energy Physics" at 10 and 11
o'clock on Tuesday and 11 o'clock
on Thursday.
Physics Colloquia: 8 p.m. East
Conference Room, Rackham.
Professor F. J. Belinfante, Pur-
due University, will discuss "An
Introduction to 'Subtraction
Physics'" on Tuesday evening.
Professor H. B. G. Casimir will
speak on "Symmetry Relations for
Irreversible Processes and Elec-
trical Networks" on Thursday eve-
Academic Notices
Preliminary Examinations for
the doctorate in English will be
given from 9-12 in 3217 Angell
Hall on this schedule:
July 21, American Literature
July 24, English Literature 1700-
July 28, English Literature
July 31, English Literature Be-
ginning -1500

The Daily accords its readers the
privilege of submitting letters for
publication in this column. subject
to space limitations, the general pol-
icy is to pubish in the order in which
they are received all letters bearing
the writer's signiture and address.
Letters exceeding 300 words, repeti-
tious letters and letters of a defania-
tory character or such letters which
for any other reason are not in good
taste will not be published. The
editors reserve the privilege of coma-
densing letters.

Politics on (Campus
To the Editor:
We should express pride in the
Phoenix Project and spread the
news of it far and wide. What
shall we do when an (A') dispatch
informs us that the Student Af-
fairs Committee has denied recog-
nition to a group formed to sup-
port Professor Slosson's cam- 4
paign? It has become such a
commonplace to remark that po-
litical action of every shade must
be permitted in a democracy, one
would think the rumors had
reached the ears of commi tte
members. But it seems that they
feel much safer when they do
what vested interests desire, when
they tape the mouths and limit
the steps of students. What a piti-
fully small number of politically
conscious students there is! Prob-
ably this has caused many signs
of relief. What a pitiful lack of
responsibility the University shows
by stunting the political growth
of students! Instead of preventing
involvement in life, it should urge
wide and more intelligent'partici-
pation. How silly it is to fear that
the fair name of the institution
will be besmutted by political
mudslinging: the University could
do its share to lift politics out of
mudslinging and make it an in-
telligent endeavor. It must build
independent thought and new so-
cial forces.
It does not matter to me thatI
would probably be in disagreement
with some of the ideas expressed
by the Slosson group. It does mat-
ter that the University is not edu-
cating students for real life. The
Phoenix cannot rise on stunted
wings. Must our committees al-
ways grovel in the ashes?
Jack A. Lucas
Flint, Mich,
History Language Examination
for the M.A. degree: Fri., July 30,
4 p.m., Room B, Haven Hall. Each
student is responsible for his own
dictionary. Please register at the
History Department Office before
taking the examination.
Doctoral Examination for Don-
ald J. Bogue, Sociology; thesis:
"The Structure of the Metropoli-
tal Community: A Study of Domi-
nance and Subdominance," Mon.,
July 19, East Council Room, Rack-
ham Building, at 7:30 p.m. Chair-
rman, A. H. Hawley.
Doctoral Examination for Ya-
kira Hagalili Frank, Linguistics;
thesis: "The Speech of New York
City," Mon., July 19, 2208 Angell
(Continued on Page 3)
Fifty-Eighth Year




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