THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TrHUSAY, JULY 1, 1948
Death of the Mark
AFTER A LONG ILLNESS, the German
Reichsmark died on June 21, 1948. She
was 24 years old.
Although no doctor's certificate has been
received as yet, death seems to have been
caused by overweight and overdue taxation
of the heart. At least inflation and excessive
circulation had been mentioned for a long
The deceased leaves two children, the
Deutsche Mark and the yet un-named
Eastern mark. Her earlier offspring, the
Saarmark, succumbed during infancy. A
younger half-sister, called occupation
mark, gone into oblivion some time ago,
seems also to have died.
It may be recalled that the Reichsmark.
issued forth in 1924, in the year after the
Rentenmark was established to stabilize the
currency. Inflation had caused different
cities to print their own emergency money,
where most of the space was taken up by
ciphers; postage stamps were printed in
denominations of 50 billion marks, and a
European billion is worth a thousand of the
American bank loans permitted the new
Reichsmark to be pegged at 40 cents, and
officially this relationship lasted until the
That was only part of the story. World-
wide depression caused a tightening of
currency restrictions. Countries went off
the gold standard. Illegal exchange dealers
Reichsbank president Dr. Hjalmar Horace
Greeley Schacht was called in on the case.
He succeeded in putting the foreign ex-
change currency on a gold standard, without
using gold, by means of an ingenious export-
import bank. Somehow or other, 17 or 18
kinds of marks existed at the same time,
side by side, serving different purposes.
In 1944 the Allied governments (including
the Soviet Union) issued occupation cur-
rency, funny little papers with German in-
scriptions, saying anything from half a
mark to one thousand marks.
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: CRAIG WILSON
American at one time could send home
unlimited amounts of this money, and
were willing to exchange two or more
German marks for one occupation mark.
Ten marks were equal to $1.
But soon the GI watch salesmen found
some difficulty in getting rid of Russian-
printed 1,000 mark notes and smaller notes
of Russian origin (different serial numbers).
Military government said that no distinc-
tion was to be made between the two kinds.
As different rumors spread, the relative
values of native and foreign marks fluc-
tuated. The usage of scrip for occupation
personnel plosed the issue.
United States Army payment certificates
issued to PW's for work done were highly
regarded because of their supposed sta-
bility, but when the Army announced that
PW's would be paid at the rate of one
mark for 30 cents, many people were dis-
Different rates of exchange kept being
used, the disparity between the low official
prices and the hundred-fold black market
prices making a uniform exchange rate im-
Leicas were exported at something like
43 cents . a mark. American greenbacks were
quoted much higher than the changeable
scrip, money orders and travelers checks
were to difficult for a German to convert,
stamps were generally used by small-timers.
Black market dollars brought anywhere
from 100 to 200 marks.
The most surprising thing was that the
old mark lasted as long as it did. Hitler
put an unspecified amount of unbacked
paper money in circuation. Air raid vic-
tims considered themselves well-paid and
did not inquire where the money they re-
ceived came from. No Nazi organization
was ever short of money.
One currency estimate for Germany was
100,000,000,000 RM, or ten times what it was
before Hitler's armament program. Other
officials do not even dare put forth the
Of course you have all heard the story of
G.I.'s capturing Nazi payrolls and building
bonfires with, the paper they considered
completely worthless, and .. .
Oh well, it's a long story .. .
THE OUTCOME of Russia's current bid for
Berlin is the most pressing item on the
State Department's scratch pad today. Vari-
ous observers are inclined to regard the sit-
uation in the German capital as one of the
most urgent international political and eco-
nomic crises since the war.
Briefly, the Soviets anticipate of course
that their blockade of Berlin will eventually
force France, Great Britain and the United
States to throw in their collective portfolios
and withdraw from the city. The possibility
of starvation circumstances for two million
residents in Berlin is expected by the Rus-
sian strategists to create a situation beyond
the management of the Western powers and
one which would leave the three nations no
alternative other than scuttling their efforts
at joint control of the prize metropolis.
Berlin, symbolic of derman union, could
then become the center of the East German
The circumvention bf such an outcome
is the immediate concern of those who
shape that nebulous and elusive body of
strategy known as our foreign policy. To
date, no clear-cut stand on the Soviet
blockade has been made, although the
need for such action is generally recog-
nized. Earlier in the season, diplomatic
hesitancy brought about the quick-change
artistry in the Palestine dilemma which
left observers bewildered and pointed to a
fundamental lack of consistency on our
policy-formulating level. If this experience
indicated anything at all, it was the need
for consistent policies to employ in crises
such as the one existing in Berlin today.
It would seem then that a unified course
of action, agreed upon and adopted by the
United States, Great Britain and France,
would be prerequisite to the establishment
of such a policy. But if these three powers
have recognized a common problem in the
Berlin situation, they have as yet given no
indication of it by joint proclamation..
Nor has the State Department yet issued
any formal statement of policy. Up to this
writing, the "official" sentiments of the
United States have come solely from one
man, Gen. Lucius D. Clay, American com-
mander in Germany, who is after all. not
the person to reflect the official position on
an international crisis. That, whether they
like it or not, is the business of the Pres-
ident, the State Department and our na-
It may well be that these latter are none
too certain themselves about their respective
attitudes toward the Potsdam Agreement
and its ramifications. Or it may be that they
hope, somehow, that no stand will ever have
to be taken, that the clouds will one day
roll by, leaving Berlin flooded with sunshine
THE POrT THI+CKENSa~
ey: ' 11 44 t. ,-
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3 , f, - ._ _ _ _
t , .........
Michigan Union Pool on Tues. and
Thurs. evenings from 7:;30-9:;30
and Sat. mornings from 9-11.
Bring a bathing cap. A small fee
is charged. A check-up at the
Health Service is required of all
University Community, Willow
Run Village, Thurs., July 1, 8 p.m.
Art Group. Subject: Figure Com-
position, or Still Life. Instructor:
ment," James W.
July 1, 4:10 p.m.,
DAILY OFFICIAL, BULLETIN
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
Summr S uggestion
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
THE MORE I think about it, the more I
am convinced that a long special session
of Congress would be a splendid addition to
the coming Presidential campaign. The Re-
publicans control Congress, the Democrats
have the White House; let both parties cook
up legislative programs, and go to work on
them. Why have a mock debate this
summer, when we can have a real one? Let's
play for keeps.
Ordinarily, it couldn't be done, but the
circumstance that the legislative and execu-
tive branches are in the hands of opposite
parties makes it possible to have this kind of
test. We have become wearily accustomed to
candidates who ramble along pretty much
as they please; it would be a thrilling de-
parture to have a situation in which any-
thing 'Mr. Dewey said might be adopted into
law by a Republican Congress before he
came to his next train stop.
I realize this suggestion sounds a little
bit like putting pressure on the Repub-
lican Congress to come through with hous-
Ing, civil rights legislation, a better dis-
placed persons bill, etc. What of it? Pres-
sure is, quite properly, mechanism number
one for getting public business done in a
democracy, and the Republican Congress
is going to be in an extremely sensitive
condition for the next four months, or
until Election Day. It would be a pity not
to take advantage, not to squeeze a little.
After all, politicians have been figuring
their chances cagily ever since the birth of
the republic; it would not be so outrageous
for the public, in its turn, to have one little
cagy interlude: of its own, and to make
use of it with glad cries, shrill whistlings,
and other manifestations of delight.
The other points its that the Republicans
have been campaigning as if they are the
outs, anxious to become the ins, eager to get
their hands on the controls of government
so that they can give us more relief, faster.
This is not quite an accurate picture. The
Republicans have had control of half the
gov~rnment for a year and a half. They've
been around; their Congressional majority
is now negotiating its third set of apart-
ment leases, and the only real issue is
whether they are to be given a little more
power than they already have. A special ses-
sion of Congress during the election cam-
paign would correct these perspectives, and
frame these matters up right. Mr. Dewey
doesn't have to tell us what his party would
do, if it had the power; it has the power.
Republican Congressional aspirants need
not boast of how they would sing, if they
had a piano; they have a piano.
It would, of course, become a curious
kind of campaign; one imagines that at
different moments the bulk of Mr. Dewey's
speeches would really be addressed to his
own party confreres in Congress, and per-
haps with a special kind of quiet, mean-
ingful intensity. But it would have the
breath of life in it; there would be sudden
new meaning in the four months of clamor
that lie ahead.
The flat, rather dazed quality which
seemed to me last week in Philadelphia to be
creeping over our political life would be
gone; it would all be terribly real. Instead
of speaking in abstractions, Mr. Dewey
could actually tell the special session what
he thought of pending bills and how to
change them; no doubt he would welcome
the opportunity, his duties as governor hav-
ing quite often kept him in the past from
declaring himself on major issues while they
were still hot. All in all, the conditions seem
right for an interesting experiment in prac-
(Copyright, 1948, New York Post Corporation)
THE ST. LOUIS STAR-TIMES announced
to a somnolent male world which .does
not read the latest fashion edicts, that the
New Look in women's clothing is going to be
scrapped in favor of something else-they
don't know what.
They intimate that the cause of it all.
was that the women couldn't take the male
guffaws and snide remarks. They claim a
great triumph for mankind.
But a closer examination reveals that the
fabric of the male victory is not all that it
is tailored up to be.
Designers, in all their artistry, may have
measured up the male for this reaction and
used it to put over the new New Look.
The final result will h that fifty millionn
Publications in The Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University. Notices for
the Bulletin should be sent in type-
written form to the Office of the Sum-
mer Session, Room 1213 Angell Hall, by
3:00 p.m. on the day preceding publi-
cation (11:00 pm. Saturdays)
THURSDAY, JULY 1, 1945
VOL. LVIII, No. 175
Graduate Students expecting to
receive the Master's Degree at
the end of the Summer Session
must have their diploma applica-
tions filed with the Recorder of
the Graduate School by Fri., July
Regents' Meeting -- Change' of
Date: The meeting of the Regents
originally scheduled for July 30
has been advanced to July 16 at 2
p.m. All communications to the
Board should be in the hands of
the Provost not later than Thurs.,.
Herbert G. Watkins
Students: College of Litcraturc,
Science and the Arts.
Except under extraordinary cir-
cumstances, courses dropped after
July 2 will be recorded with the
grade of "E."
Closing hours over holiday week-
end: Fri., Sat. and Sun., July 2, 3
and 4, 12:30 a.m., Mon., July 5,
Bureau of Appointments and
Job Registration material may
be obtained at the Bureau of Ap-
pointments, 201 Mason Hall, dur-
ing affice hours (9-12; and 2-4)
this week. This applies to August
graduates as well as to graduate
students or staff members who
wish to register and who will be
available for positions next year.
The Bureau has two placement
divisions: Teacher Placement and
General Placement. General
Placement includes service to
people seeking positions in busi-
ness, industry and professions oth-
er than education.
It is important to register now
because there will be only one reg-
istration during the summer ses-
During the summer session the
rules regarding the use of auto-
mobiles by students at theUniver -
sity will be practically the same
as in the previous summer session.
Certain individuals have been
designated as exempt from the
regular regulations to whom these
rules do not apply. These persons
include : students who are over 26
years of age, those who in the pre-
vious year have been engaged in
professional pursuits such as law-
yers, doctors, dentists, teachers,
nurses and those holding faculty
rank of instructor or above.
All other student drivers must
report to Mr. Gwin or Miss Mc-
Dowell in the Office of Student
Affairs where they may obtain
special permits which will enable
them to usedtheir cars for purposes
which are deemed necessary. Any
student may secure a summer per-
mit for recreational use in order
to participate in such outdoor ac-
tivities as golf, tennis, swimming,
It is to be remembered that
driving permits are not parking
permits and consequently do not
give students the privilege of
parking in restricted parking
areas. The following parking
areas may be used by students:
1. East of Univ. Hospital
2. S.E. Corner of Thayer and
E. Washington Sts.
3. East Hall on Church St.
4. Catherine St. North of
Vaughan Residence Hall
5. West Quad Area at Thomp-
son and Jefferson Sts.
6. Michigan Union Area
7. College St. between East
Med. and East Hall
8. General Service Building
9. Lot behind Univ. Museum ad-
jacent to Forest Avenue
10. Business Administration
Students violating parking or
driving regulations will be sub-
ject to disciplinary action and pos-
The first Fresh Air Camp Clinic
will be held on Fri., July 2, 1948.
Discussions begin at 8 p.m. in the
Main Lodge of the Fresh Air
Camp located on Patterson Lake.
Any University students interested
in problems of individual and
group therapy are invited to at-
tend. The discussant will be Dr.
J. N. P. Struthers, Director of the
Huron Valley Children's Center,
The Michigan League is offering
a Tutorial Service during the sum-
mer session. Students wishing to
be tutored may register in the Un-
dergraduate Office of the League.
Students wishing to do tutoring
must have an A in the subject in
which they wish to tutor, unless
the subject is their major, in
which case they must have an A or
B, and they may register in the
Undergraduat'e Office of the
League. The set University rate of
$.75 per hour is charged.
Former Students from Northern
Michigan College of Education
who would be interested in attend-
ing a dinner tentatively scheduled
for July 14 at 6:30, please contact
either Walter Davis or Dr. Hoppes
in the School of Education.
Recreational Swimming - Women
There will be recreational swim-
ming for women students at the
"Language and Personality," by
Professor J. R. Firth of the Uni-
versity of London, Thursday, July
1, 7:30, Rackham Amphitheatre.
A cademic Notices
College of Literature, Sciences,
and the Arts, Schools of Educa-
tionxForestry, Music, and Pub-
Students who received marks of
I, X, or "no report" at the close of
their last semester or summer ses-
sion of attendance will receive a
grade of E in the course or courses
unless this work is made up by
July 21. Students wishing an ex-
tension of time beyond this date
in order to make up this work
should file a petition addressed to
the appropriate official in their
school with Room 4, U.H. where it
will be transmitted.
Engineering Mechanics Sympo-
The second lecture, in the spe-
cial lecture series of the sympo-
sium on "Dynamic Stress and
Strain," will be given by J. Or-
mondroyd, Professor of Engineer-
ing Mechanics, University of
Michigan. Professor Ormondroyd
will speak on, "History of the De-
velopment of Vibration Analysis,"
Thursday, July 1, 3 p.m. Room 445
West Engineering Building.
Carillon Recitals by Percival
Price, University Carillonneur,
Thurs., July 1, 7:15 p.m., all-
Canadian program; Sun., July 4,
2:15 p.m., all-United States pro-
Graduate School Record Con-
certs: Thursdays at 7:45 p.m.,
East Lounge, Rackham Bldg. To-
right's program: SCARLATTI: 7
Sonatas; Yella Pessl, harpsichord.
MUSIC; Choir of the Cathedral
of Sai'n't"Bnigne of Dijon. STRA-
VINSKY: Scenes de Ballet (1944);
New York Philaharmonic, Stra-
vinsky conducting. MOZART:
Quartet in F Major, K. 370, for
oboe and strings; Leon Goossens,
oboe; Lener Quartet. All graduate
students invited; Silence request-
International Center Tea:
Thurs., July 1, 4:30-6 p.m., Inter-
national Center. Hostesses will be
Miss Germaine Baer and Mrs. 01-
Young Democrats: Organiza-
tional meeting, Thurs., 8 p.m.,
Room 302, Union. All interested
Wallace Progressives: Thurs.,
July 1, 7:30 p.m., Michigan Un-
ion. Organizational meeting.
Open to the public.
La p'tite causette today at 4:30,
The French Club will hold its
second meeting Thurs., July 1, 8
p.m., 2nd floor Terrace Room,
Michigan Union. Professor Rene
Talamon, of the Romance Lan-
guage Department, will offer a
"Lecture Dramatique" aroup
singing of French songs and
games. Everybody interested in
hearing and speaking French can
join the French Club.
, -r ®
THE MUSEUM OF ART is to be com-
mended for finishing their 1947-48 cal-
endar of exhibitions with the show which
opens today. This exhibition, the Brooklyn
Museum 1st Print Annual, had its original
opening in March of last year. The partici-
pating artists were from all sections of the
The present show of one hundred prints
was selected from the original two hundred
and ten prints which made up the Brooklyn
Exhibition. In these selections' one is able
to discern most clearly the many cross cur-
rents and conflicting ideologies that char-
acterize American art today. Happily, the
newer, more vital realities of contemporary
esthetics have managed to dominate the
exhibition, at least in spirit if not in num-
ber. The older currents of discursive and
representational works such as "Rejected"
by Blanche McVeigh and the Joseph Hirsch
"Banquet" give clear proof of the sterility
of "idea" that runs through a rather large
segment of our creative endeavors. The ac-
ademic moderns are also represented with
their already stilted forms and borrowed
mannerisms. Such works as Steve Wheeler's
"a Pica of T," the Gwathmey "Singing and
Mending" and Ernest Hacker's "Interior
Landscape" fail to impress with their ob-
vious "me, too" espousal of contemporary
If we can manage to slide over 'hese
prints without too much wear and tear
on our cerebral powers there are some
jewels to be had. In the opinion of the
reviewer the powerful, sensitively designed
exposition of brutality in. general to be
found in the Iowan Mauricio Lasansky's
"For an Eye, an Eye" is an experience to
be remembered. Likewise, (and another
Iowan), the Malcolm Myers "Saint An-
thony," with its magnificently dramatic
conception coupled with a rich textural
treatment presents an enigma that will
not be forgotten. Such lesser jewels as A.
P. Hankins "Promenade," Edward Lan-
don's "Nocturnal Adversary" and the caco-
phonously exuberant "Chickens" of Wil-
liam Rose are well worth the looking.
Noteworthy among the more traditional
works are Frederico Castellon's "Kunming
Bus" and Armin Landeck's "Rooftops, 14th
Viewing the exhibition as a whole, one is
struck by the unusually high standards of
excellence which these artists have set far
15 YEARS AGO TODAY
E. Stern Rubarth, noted German editor,
delivered a lecture in the Natural Science
Auditorium on "Mistakes About Germany."
Jews in Germany, Dr. Rubarth said, have
not been subjected to any physical cruelties
by the Hitler government.
Elsewhere on campus, students were pur-
chasing tickets to see coed Martha Scott in
"The Roniantic Young Lady" at the Lydia
And in Detroit, Michigan's All-American
quarterback, Harry Newman, had reported
the theft of numerous gold and silver tro-
phies which had been awarded him for his
outstanding gridiron performances.
* * *
I'll explain to your impoverished
parents my plan to double their
$5,000 income. Then they won't
have to foist you onto relatives-
I WANT to go-
fyear Theory is righf and
Think of yourself, m'boy! Alone
up there in the middle of--1°tow
big is your grandmother s farm?
A hundred acres.,
c; + lP
A hundred-!.. . .SAY! f1 I
can double your Dad's income
by cultivating this little acre
part time, as the ad for the
book says I can, that's $5,000.
Barnaby is eager now to go1