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July 30, 1948 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1948-07-30

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Latest Deadline in the State

VOL. LVIII, No. 196

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN FRIDAY, JULY 30, 1948

PRICE FIVE (

713

Farben Heads
Not Guilty of
Plotting War
Tribunal Finds 13
Are 'Plunderers'
NUERNBERG, Germany, July
29--(A')-The giant I. G. Farben
chemical combine was acquitted
today of conspiring with Hitler
to throw the world into war but
nine of its aging directors were
found guilty of war crimes after
the shooting started.
An American military tribunal
headed by Judge Curtis Shake of
Vincennes, Ind., found the nine
guilty of blueprinting a campaign
for spoilation and plunder of
Nazi-occupied countries after an
11-month trial.
The tribunal acquitted all 24 of
the defendants on two counts .of
plotting and waging aggressive
war.
Sentence 'Tomorrow
Tomorrow the court will make
its finding on the two remaining
counts involving crimes against
humanity. Sentences will be im-
S posed tomorrow afternoon.
Acuittal of the defendants on
the aggressive war counts marked
NUERNBERG, Germany, July
30-(P-Four more German in-
dustrialists of the giant LG.
Farben chemical combine were
convicted as war criminals to-
day.
Today's convictions were on
charges of misuse of slave la-
bor. One of those found guilty
on this count was Fritz Ter Meer
who was convicted yesterday of
plunder and spoliation of occu-
pied countries.
a third instance where American
war crimes prosecutors have failed
to make that charge stick. Several
months ago another court dis-
missed a similar charge against
the Krupp gunmaking firm. In
effect, the International Military
Tribunal also threw out the charge
against the civilian, Hjalmar
Schacht.
Hitler To Blame
Blame for plotting and waging
war lay with the politicians and
militarists of Hitler's Third Reich,
the court said in summing up the
evidence presented at the 11-
month trial of the Farben direc-
tors.
Preceded Army
The plunder charge, the trib-
unal said, was amply proved
. against directors Hermann
Schmitz, Georg von Schnitzler,
Fritz Ter Meer, Ernst Buergin,
Paul Harfliger, Max Ilgner, Fried-
rich, Jaehne, Heinrich Oster and
Hans Kuggler.
Under this count Farben offi-
cials were charged with preceding
the German Army and making
plans before the war to take over
and operate various industries in
France, Norway, Poland and Rus-
sia.
Village Voters
Will Register
Registration of voters will open
in Willow Village today as part of
a four day schedule.
Representatives of the Ypsilanti
and Superior Township clerks will
,, accept registration applications

from 1 to 5p.m. and 6 to 8p.m. to-
day and tomorrow, in the Univer-
sity Community Center and the
North Community Center Lounge
respectively.
The registration will be com-
pleted next Friday and Saturday
with the same office hours.
Residents north of Clark St.
are in Superior Township and
register at the North Center. New
voters, those that have not voted
since November 1946 and those
who have changed their address
since last voting will be required
to register if they intend to cast
a ballot in either the primary or
general elections.
Skorzeny Explains
Reason for Escape
FRANKFURT, Germany, July
29-P)-Otto Skorzeny, one of
Adolf Hitler's most famous lower-
ranking officers, wrote to Ger-
man officials today and told why
he escaped from them last Sun-

British May Halt Armed
Forces Demobilization.
Bevin Says Action Will Come in 'Few Days'
If Berlin Situation Is Not Fully Resolved
LONDON, July 29-(P)-The British Government may halt the
demobilization of its armed forces "in a few days" if the Berlin crisis
is not settled, Foreign Secretary Bevin said today.
At the same time the Foreign Secretary told the House of
Commons in a carefully worded statement that he had hoped the
crisis will be settled, and that steps are now being taken in Moscow
to determine whether there is a possibility of negotiations that would
end the entire cold war in Europe between East and West.
'Dispute Serious'
His announcement that the government is considering stopping
demobilization came after Winston Churchill, the Conservative leader,

Murray Asks
Congressional
Price Curbs
Urges Investigation
Of Business Profits
WASHINGTON, July 29-(_)-
CIO President Philip Murray to-
day called on the special session
of Congress to roll back prices "to
reasonable levels."
Murray, in a speech prepared for
delivery over the American Broad-
casting Company network, also
urged that Congress and the Jus-
tice Department investigate the
price and profit policies of big
business since the end of OPA in
mid-1946.
Basic Necessities
"We must see to it that the
basic necessities of life are avail-
able to all of our people at prices
they can pay," Murray said. "We
must re-enact the excess profits
tax law to recapture speculative
and exorbitant profits."
Unless the price rise is checked,
the CIO leader paid, "our economy
is in danger of serious disloca-
tion."
People Insecure
"Today, in the midst of eco-
nomic abundance, our people are
troubled and insecure. Throughout
our country 61,000,000 men and
women are fully employed. Pro-
duction is at a record peak. A
bumper croptis in prospect. Yet,
inflation is robbing us of the fruits
of our hard work and productive
skills. The cost of living rises
every month. It now stands at an
all-time high.
Black Called
BeforeJudge
FLINT, July 29-(1)-Circuit
Court Judge Philip Elliott, who is
at odds with Attorney General
Eugene F. Black over handling of
material collected by the Flint
Auto Rackets Grand Jury, today
issued a subpoena ordering Black
to appear before him.
Elliott, who is winding up the
affairs of his one-man grand jury
probe of the auto rackets, turned
the subpoena over to state police
late today.
At the same time, he issued a
strongly - worded statement in
which he expressed regret at the
necessity for taking such action
against Black.
"It is regrettable that ordinary
means of communication have
failed to elicit any response from
the attorney general's office and
that the court is forced to use
judicial prerogatives in this man-
ner," the Judge said.

warned that the dispute with Rus-
sia "is very serious and might
easily become one of life and
death."
Speaking a few hours after
American and British envoys had
arrived in Moscow to explore the
possibilities of negotiation-with
the lifting of the Berlin blockade
as a preliminary condition-Bevin
said he hoped the new diplomatic
steps "will lead to peace and se-
curity in Europe for us all."
He said the decision as to East-
West negotiations will "probably
be taken on the highest levels," a
possible indication that it might
be put up to Premier Stalin.
Ban Under Review
Britain now is demobilizing its
armed forces at a rate of 20,000
men a month. Bevin confirmed
the figure when Churchill asked
if demobilization could not be
stopped "until at least the Berlin
position is satisfactorily solved."
Bevin replied that the ban on
demobilization was under review
and "must be determined in a few
days."
"It may be we shall have so to
determine it," he added.
Britain had 940,000 men under
arms on March 3. The schedule
called for these to be reducedto
716,000 by March 31, 1949. Pre-
sumablymshe has about 860,000
armed men this month.
Choose Stassen
As President
Of Universty
PHILADELPHIA, July 29-(jP)-
Harold E. Stassen was chosen
president of the University of
Pennsylvania today but promptly
announced he will "continue a
vigorous interest in public ques-
tions."
Disclosing nomination of the 41-
year-old former Minnesota gov-
ernor to the Pennsylvania post,
the University's board of trustees
said he was chosen "above all"
for "his inspirational appeal to the
youth of America."
Subject to Approval
Final appointment of Stassen
is subject to approval of the Uni-
versity executive board at its
meeting in September but this is
considered a formality.
He said in a telegram of accept-
ance to the trustees that he will
continue his interest in public
questions "particularly those
which affect the future freedom,
well-being and peace of men."
Stassen will take over as pres-
ident at the beginning of the fall
term in September subject, he
said, "to the fulfillment of my
speaking schedule on behalf of
Governor Dewey (GOP presiden-
tial standard bearer) ." His salary
was not disclosed.
Stassen, who will be the young-
est president of the university in
its history, succeeds Dr. George
McClelland, 68, who the University
said will be elected to chairman-
ship of the school.

End
SED
Communists
Widen Rift in
Government
Angered by Failur
To DelayResolutic
BERLIN, July 29-()-Re
sentatives of the Russian-si
sored Socialist Unity Party (S
walked out of the Berlin city cc
cil today, spreading the rup
of local government in this
viet-blockaded city which alre
has two police chiefs.
The SED councilmen 1
adopted the tactics of the R
sians who previously quit .
four-power governmental bodi
the Allied Control Councili
the Kommandatura.
Mass Walkout
The mass walkout took p
when the SED failed to dela
vote on a resolution branding
five-week-old Soviet blockad
Berlin "a crime against hun
ity." The resolution, introduce
the Socialists, was approved 8
1.
Immediately there was spec
tion whether the walkout sign
the final splitting of the city
two rival political regimes. Su
break long has been predicted
SED Spokesman
However, Karl Luedke, an8
spokesman, said his party w
;ontinue to take part in the p
ent predominantly anti-Coin
nist city government, Party l
ers met for a special meeting
Luedke said the SED had
warning the Socialist resolu
was in the wind. The resolu
said the blockade of Berlin
condemned by all people reg
less of their political views."
The city council met in an
mosphere of tension. Thec
began with charges in the C
munist press that the anti-C
munist majority in the city g
ernment planned to pack
council chamber with plainclot]
men from the western sector:
order to touch off a "bloody p:
ocation." No incidents mate:
ized, however.
Western Tool
The Russians often have
cused the city government of b
a "tool of the West." There
been talk in German polit
quarters that the SED event
might force events to a p
where separate Eastern and W
ern Berlin city governments w
have to be set up.
Many American, British a
German officials expressed
opinionathat the SED walkout
not final.
Political Club
Back SL MoV4
To HoldRaly
The student political clubs,
Young Democrats and the Wal
Progressives, last night votec
support the Student Legislat.
drive to get political speakers

campus.
"Present policies tend to si
the political growth of those v
will, in the future, be our adn
istrators and politicians," Jac]
Jordan, temporary chairman
the Young Democrats, said.
The organization also passel
unanimous resolution support
the President's special session
Congress as an act beneficial
the country as a whole.
Jordan said that the extra
sion will give the 80th Congress
opportunity to redeem itself
the issues of housing, civil ri
and inflation.
At the same time, the Wa]
Progressives at a regular meet
agreed to support the Stud
Legislature's request for pern
sion to hold an all-campus rall
political candidates from the
ond Congressional district.
Lores LaVita, Seymour G
stein and chairman James Tei
recently returned from Phila
phia, reported on the Progress

Segregation

Quits

Berlin

City

Counci

opes for Eventual
Mixed Army Units
President Says Senate Must Assum
Responsibility for Actions in Sessior
WASHINGTON, July 29-(/P)-President Truman said today th
"equality of treatment and opportunity" order for the armed service
is aimed at the eventual end of race segregation in the Army.
Negroes are now kept in separate units in the Army. A reporte
at Mr. Truman's weekly news conference said that Gen. Omar Brad
ley has been quoted as saying he favors segregation among the lowe
echelons.
Is that consistent with the President's "equality" order of las
Monday? he was asked.
Mr. Truman responded that he was informed by the Secre-
tary of the Army Royall that Bradley, the Army Chief of Staff,
had made no such statement. t * * *

Truman

Am

SMOKE TOWERS FROM SHATTERED PLANT-A gigantic
tower of thick smoke rises from the explosion-devastated chemical
plant of the I. G. Farben Co. in Ludwigshafen, Germany. Shortly
after the blast a resulting fire destroyed or damaged an estimated
18 buildings. Hundreds were killed and thousands injured.
Shipping moves along waterway near the plant.
* * * 'I'
Americans Quit Farben Ruins;
140 Bodies Still Unrecovered

LUDWIGSHAFEN, Germany,
July 29-( P)-Weary American
troops ploughed a path to a death
trap building at the explosion-
torn I. G. Farben chemical plant
tonight and then withdrew when
French soldiers said their "gallant
services" no longer were needed.
The building, one of the moot
badly wrecked in yesterday's blast
in this French Zone city, was be
lieved to contain from 60 to 140
bodies.
Floating Bodies
A German policeman said scores
of bodies could be seen floating
in several feet of water and am-
monia in the basement. He ex-
pressed the belief it might take
two weeks to recover all the bodies
strewn about in the plant's
wreckage.
The list of the known dead
grew. German police said 89 bod-
ies had been brought out and an-
other 20 persons had died in hos-
pitals. Two hundred persons are
missing and believed dead and
about 2,000 are injured, they said.
Communists Charges
Communist newspapers in
Berlin claimed, without offering
proof, that the huge factory in
the French Occupation Zone was
making war materials illegally.
Germans investigating Europe's
greetest disaster since the war
brushed aside the charges. They
said preliminary findings indi-
cated the blast was touched off by
ethyl chloride, an industrial chem-
ical. A chemist who worked at
the plant said only industrial
products were turned out there.
Cause Undetermined
A French communique said
cause of the blast still was unde-
termined and damage could not

be estimated. French officials
were making a separate inquiry.
No Americans were believed
killed in the explosion. Many of
the 600 U. S. soldiers who rushed
to the scene risked their lives in
rescue and fire-fighting work.
Wallace Calls
Extra Session
Just aPhony
NEW YORK, July 29 - (AP) -
Henry A. Wallace said tonight
President Truman sought to
"hoodwink millions of Americans"
in calling a special session of the
"talk big-do little Congress."
"The Republicans talk big about
ending the poll tax and lynch law,
but they don't mean it," he de-
clared in a speech over the NBC'
network.
"The Democrats talk big about
ending inflation and building
houses. They don't mean it either.
"It is all shadow boxing. They
have notalandedoa single solid
blow. Only the Progressive Party
packs a real wallop."
The newly-nominated Progres-
sive Party Presidential candidate
said Mr. Truman called the ses-
sion "in the mistaken belief that
he could make Congress the scape-
goat for his own inadequate and
often dangerous leadership."
Wallace said Mr. Truman could
give evidence of "genuine leader-
ship" by asking "the resignation of
his own lieutenants, who are so
largely responsible for milk at 24
cents a quart and meat at $1.30 a
pound.

The President responded with
a prompt and flat yes, when
asked if his Monday order aims
at an eventual end of segrega-
tion.
That order stated a presidential
policy of equality of treatment and
opportunity to be put into effect
as soon as possible, "having due
regard to the time required to ef-
fectuate any necessary changes
without impairing efficiency or
morale.".
(Bradley said at Ft. Knox, Ky.,
Tuesday, that "the Army is not out
to make any social reforms. The
Army will put men of different
races in different companies. It
will change that policy when the
nation as a whole changes it.")
Neither Bradley nor the Army
Department had any comment on
today's statement by President
Truman on segregation.
A reporter inquired of the
President :
"Do you think that the Sen-
ate has acted in good faith in, .
starting its work on the civil
rights controversy?"
Mr. Truman replied first that
he had no comment. Then he
added that the Senate stands
before the country just the same
as he does. The Senators, he
went on, will have to take the
consequences of their actions.
The Senate has taken up the
Anti-Poll Tax Bill, with the like-
lihood it will be some time, if ever,
before it gets around to any other
legislation.
A reporter asked Mr. Truman
if he would have any preference
for a Constitutional amendment,
rather than a bill, to handle the
poll tax issue.
That is a matter that the Senate
will have to act on, and the House,
he replied.
The questioning got around to
Mr. Truman's anti-inflation pro-
posals. Asked whether wages would
be frozen under the plan, the.
.President said not necessarily.
Jews Seek More
Territory---Shertok
TEL AVIV, Israel, July 29-(VP)
-Moshe Shertok, foreign minister
of Israel, said tonight the Jews
would seek additional territory in
Palestine as a result of Israeli
victories over the Arab armies.
He demanded a reconsideration
of all the boundaries set last Nov.
29 under the United Nations par-
tition plan and said this was made
necessary "because of the course
of events since then."
"The Arabs are responsible,"
Shertok told the Israeli State
Council, "that the boundaries
fixed by the United Nations no
longer are practical and we must
insist on changing them by adding
territories and not by diminishing
them."

Truman Asks
For Powers
To Cut Prices
Not Likely Congress
Will OKRollbacks
WASHINGTON, July 29-('P) -'
President Truman asked today for
power to cut prices of daily-bread
1947, when butter sold for 75 cents
a pound and you could buy a
pound of chuck roast for 10 to 13
cents less than now.
But the President's request was
drowned out by a cry of "police
state methods!" by Congress Re-
publicans and a flood ofSou thrn
oratory against an anti-poll tax
bill in the Senate. The chances
of Congress okaying the price roll-
back were practically nil.
'Bust Certain'
Marriner Eccles, a member of
the Federal Reserve Board, told
Congress that this country is "cer-
tainly going to have a bust."
Eccles was demoted from chair-
manship of the board by Mr. Tru-
man earlier this year.
Testifying before the Senate
Banking Committee, Eccles said it
is "too late" to control inflation.
"Are you sure of that?" Chair-
man Tobey (Rep., N.H.) asked.
"Positively," Eccles said.
He added that he likes the word
"deflation" better than "bust."
Price Ceilings
Mr. Truman sent his anti-infla-
tion bill to Capitol Hill by Paul
Porter, last administrator of the
wartime OPA and now a special
assistant to the President.
It proposed price ceilings on
meat, dairy products and clothing
as part of a program to bring
prices down "so far as practicable"
to what they were in November,
1947.
Porter gave the House Banking
Committee this price picture:
"Between June 1946 and June
1948, consumers' prices have, on
the average, risen 29 per cent, the
retail price of food is up 47 per
cent, the retail price of apparel
is up 25 per cent and rents are
up 8 per cent.
Highest Point
"Consumer prices are now at the
highest point in our history.
Wholesale prices have shown even
more substantial increases.
But Congress leaders made
abundantly plain that they didn't
regard Mr. Truman's plan as the
best way to beat the high cost of
living.
Sen. Taft (Rep., Ohio) declared
that the President is resorting to
"police state methods." Taft,
chairman of the GOP Senate Pol-
icy Committee, had ruled out price
control and rationing in a broad-
cast last night. He said the Re-
publicans would try to find some
way of their own to stop price
rises.
A number of Democrats ap-
plauded the President's program
but scores, including Rep. Mon-
roney (Dem., Okla.) said it does
not have "a ghost of a chance."
Rev. Blake Seeks Place

W orld News At A Glance
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina, July 29-A four-engined Argentine
flying boat crashed into the fog-bound river Platte today and 18 per-
sons were killed and four injured.
* * * *
WASHINGTON, July 29-The Interstate Commerce Com-
mission today granted long-term freight rate increases to the
railroads and water carriers at approximately the present tempo-
rary rate levels.
DETROIT, July 29-(AP)-A $10,000,000 municipally financed
housing program was proposed to the Detroit City Council today by
Council President George Edwards.
Edwards said the program would create 1,250 units in two projects
to be financed through municipal bond issues repayable through ren-
tals.
LAKE SUCCESS, July 29-Syria's Faris El Khouri urged the
Big Four Powers today to put the Berlin blockade before the Se-

EUROPEAN RECOVERY:-
Knapp Says Strings Attached to ERP

There are strings attached to
ERP aid now being given to Euro-
pean nations, according to J.
Burke Knapp, director of the Of-
fice of Financial and Develop-

the extent that the nation is inde- Knapp explained. "The remainder
pendent of outside assistance, he can be used by the nation within
indicated. limitations. It must not lead to a
"The U.S. does not propose to deepening of the internal infla-
dictateto Afreig~n ounriesinrde-..tionarvnpitre. Also. the TTS.

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