PA W Tr~tO'
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
The Warm War
THERE HAVEN'T BEEN any screaming
headlines about it, but the "Cold War"
is unofficially over. Taking its place is an
even more unofficial' "Warm War" which
will give way to a "Hot War" unless positive
steps are taken soon. Determining what to
do to end the "Warm War" which now cen-
ters around Berlin is the difficult and press-
Only by examining the day-by-day facts
cf the Russian squeeze on Berlin, which
began almost simultaneously with Con,-
gressional passage of ERP, April 2, can the
answer to the "Warm War" riddle be dis-
March 31-The Russians restricted the
Western Allies' Trail and highway supply
lines to Berlin, explaining the action as
a hunt for spies and "illegal" shipments
of Berlin industrial equipment to the
Western occupation zone. They began in-
specting all rail and highway passenger
and freight trains moving from the city.
The U.S. and British held their ground
and flew in supplies.
April 7-Russia refused to recognize the
British air corridor t6 the city.
April 14-Mongol troops and Stalin tanks
arrived in city.
April 20-The British announced that all
inland water transportation, including food
shipments, between the main British zone
and Berlin had been stopped. .
May 5-Russia tightened restrictions on
mailing of food and precious metals from
June 14-Russia held up 140 carloads of
coal bound from the British zone to Berlin
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: CRAIG WILSON
and closed the Elbe River bridge on the
main Berlin-Helmstedt highway for "re-
June 18-Russia banned all passenger
traffic (except by air) from the west to
Berlin to keep Reichsmarks, due to be
discarded as currency, from entering So-
June 24-Russia banned all shipments to
Berlin and cut electric power 50%, to west-
ern sectors of the city explaining the action
as due to "technical difficulties." Gen. Clay
admitted the possibility of a withdrawal.
June 29-Marshall Sokolovsky saw too
much extra food being flown into the city
by too many planes-and publicly regretted
the "necessity" of blockades.
July 13-Russians said planes flying food
into city were making "disorderly flights."
Each time a restriction has been imposed
it has been for some reason other than
pushing the Western Powers out of Berlin.
Clever, yet very obvious!
INow the "Warm War" stage is on. Sixty
B-29's and 75 jet fighters recently flew
to England for transfer to the Continent
for "Training." Russia said her YAK
fighters and other planes would "train"
,in the Berlin air corridor. A clash is ex-
The Russian plan seems to be to gain
control of all of Germany by ousting the
Western powers or actually provoking the
U.S. into starting a war. Apparently the
Soviets are challenging us to push ami
armed column along the closed autobahn to
the beleaguered city. They could then say
that the United States began the war. And
unfortunately, the world would have to b(
The only course to follow is to stay in
Berlin, at any cost, refuse to start a "Hot
War" and make it clear that if a war is
started by the Russians, we are prepared to
--Craig H. Wilson.
MATTER OF FACT:
Fear in the Kremlin
By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP
WASHINGTON-It is too soon to say that
the great imposing structure of Soviet
power in Europe has really begun to crack.
Yet as the secret reports drift in from Eu-
rope, the evidence mounts daily that the
rulers in the Kremlin are desperately afraid
that the structure which they have so
painfully erected will one day come crash-
ing about their heads. This fear is clearly
reflected in the frantic manner in which
the screws are being tightened wherever
the Kremlin has the power to tighten them.
A case in point is Czechoslovakia. There
the first victim of an impending purge is
General Svoboda, always regarded as one
of the Kremlin's most willing tools. Sent to
Moscow by the government-in-exile during
the war, he transformed the Czech army
into a Kremlin instrumentality. He was re-
warded after the Moscow-engineered coup
last winter with the Ministry of Defense in
the new cabinet.
But somewhere along the line he must
have blundered-perhaps he did not deal
harshlJy enough with the anti-Russian
demonstrators during the recent Sokol
celebrations. At any rate, he is now on a
"protracted leave .of absence," and he is
"not available for correspondence." It is
considered exceedingly doubtful that his
leave of absence will soon end.
Yet the unfortunate Svoboda is only the
first and smallest of the Czech Communis
fish to be caught in the Moscow net. Re-
ports from sources heretofore completely
reliable indicate that a full-scale purge of
Czech Communist leaders has been ordered
by Moscow, to take place within the next
six weeks. Tough Communist President
Klement Gottwald is reported to be a marked
man. So are Foreign Minister Vlado Klem-
entis and Premier Anton Zapotocki.
Gottwald, Klementis and Zapotocki have
been good Communists and obedient ser-
vants of the Kremlin. But they have been
politicians, and as politicians must, have
been guilty of appealing to the national
feeling of the Czech electorate. They have
been known as "moderates," tainted with
Western ideas-Klementis has even been
known to make jokes. The terror which
they have imposed since they seized power
with Moscow's help has been a moderate,
almost a polite, terror.
Clearly, this purge, like others which are
getting under way in other satellite coun-
tries, is motivated by fear in the Kremlin
-fear that the cancer of Tito may spread.
Indeed, the fear has already been justified,
for the cancer has already spread.
Tito's defection has threatened the guer-
rilla movement in Greece, heretofore sup-
plied largely by Yugoslavia, with collapse.
Greek guerrilla leader Markos has already
secretly approached the Athens government
with a truce proposal aird has been sharply
rebuked by Cominform emissary Zachariades
for his pains. The exact status of Markos is
not known, but there is no doubt that al-
ready Tito's defection has made the Amer-
ican job in Greece much easier. A similar
split has occurred in crucial Trieste, with a
pro- and anti-Tito group at daggers drawn.
Before Italian Communist leader Pal-
miro Togliatti was shot, measures were
taken to make sure that the Tito cancer
did not also spread to Italy. In a scene
which closely paralleled the disciplining
of Maurice Thorez, first reported in this
space, Togliatti was brought to heel. Early
this month at a secret meeting of the
top Italian Communist leadership, and
in the presence of Russian and Polish
emissaries, Togliatti was accused of "na-
tionalism," and a number of subsidiary
sins, including "bad reporting" and "over-
confidence." He was charged with having
failed to predict the Communist electoral
failure to the Kremlin and with being
himself responsible for that failure.
Togliatti's confession of sins, like that
of Thorez, was grovelling. Indeed, it was so
grovelling that some of his followers, pre-
sumably disgusted with the exhibition, loudly
booed his speech. Togliatti severely rebuked
them, asserting that his public submission
was an admirable example of "Marxist dem-
* Thus, all over Europe, the servants of the
Kremlin are feeling the sting of the Krem-
lin's lash. Among experienced observers,
there is no longer any doubt that the frantic
steps which the Kremlin is taking to insure
the continued obedience of its servants are
simply a measure of the Kremlin's fear.
Although this fear undoubtedly exists in
Moscow, it provides no reason for complac-
ency in the West. For again and again in
history, fear within a dictatorship has led
to desperate external adventures. And the
rulers of the Kremlin must now be wholly
aware that their ruthless blockade of Berlin.
involves the risk of the unimaginable catas-
trophe of war.
(Copyright, 1948, New York Herald Tribune, Inc)
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
IT LOOKS AS IF we are heading, at least
for the moment, into a rough kind of
On the far right we have the dissident
Southerners, who take the conservative posi-
tion in domestic and foreign affairs, and
oppose the civil liberties program. Of the
four parties now shaping up, this is the only
one which has a sectional base. To put it
another way, this is the only one which can
never have anything but a sectional base,
for the reason that the anti-civil liberties
position is too much freight for any national
party to carry.
The great story of the Democratic con-
vention is that it showed no major party
will again try to lug this load. The dissident
Southerners were horrified at Philadelphia,
not because they found that the majority
differed with them--they've known that for
a long time-but because they found that
the majority no longer could afford to deal
with them, or play ball with them. What
they discovered at Philadelphia was that
their position is unhistoric, that it no longer
even affords them trading opportunities.
And what was heard at the states' rights'
convention in Birmingham was not the
first note of something new, but the last
gasp of something very old.
For the Southern dissidents cannot hope
to grow along normal lines of development,
as a party; the only power they can hope to
obtain is some form of veto. They exercised
such a veto for years within the Democratic
party through. the old rule requiring the
two- thirds vote for Presidential nomina-
tions; they found another veto in their hold
on committee chairmanships in Congress;
they hope they have still another in the
filibuster; and they feel they have a fourth
in their presumed power to hold back elec-
toral votes from Truman, and keep any can-
didate from getting a majority, thus throw-
ing the election into the House of Repre-
The second of our parties is the Repub-
lican, which is also conservative on home
and foreign affairs, but does not oppose
the civil liberties program. It cnnot. Un-
like the southern conservatives, the Re-
publicans still think in terms of a national
futiure, they still dream of becoming and
remaining the majority party. Since no
major party, as shown above, will again
try to carry the load of an anti-civil
liberties position, talk of the Republicans
winning the South, or of the South turn-
ing delightedly to the Republicans, is
rather futile; the dissident Southerners
feel the same puzzled, historic sense of re-
jection at Republican hands as at Demo-
Yet the Republicans do agree profoundly
with the conservative Southerners on most
domestic and foreign issues, and they are
almost as states-rightsy on questions of fed-
eral control of economic trends. But it is
not easy for a conservative party to win
majorities in an advanced western industrial
nation, and the Republicans find themselves
obliged, as election day approaches, to look
away from their voting partners in the bi-
partisan conservative bloc, and to make little
And while the Republican position is not
quite as unhistorical as that of the Southern
dissidents, there is something of that flavor
in the way they are compelled to back away
from their friends, to talk their own ideas
down, to sound, sometimes, like the very
liberals they detest. For this reason, strains
have been showing up in the Republican
party, not as sharp as those which divide
the Democrats, but not superficial, either.
And where the Southern dissidents are
compelled to search for ingenious veto"
metlods, the Republicans are compelled to
seeld gloomily for minor issues, and for issues
that really aim at no bull's eye, such as
"time for a change of faces," "efficiency in
, We come now to the Northern and West-
ern wing of the Democratic party. This
grouping is, as of now, the Democratic
Farty, in capitals, because it wrote the plat-
form at the recent convention, even if it
did not quite name the candidates. It is a
party which agrees with the Republicans
and the dissident Southerners on most
tthough not all) questions of foreign policy
and disagrees with them on most (though
not all) questions of domestic policy. It is
an anti-socialist party of mild, slow, liberal
reform, the kind of party which has been
most badly damaged and hurt in our post-
war world; it has almost disappeared, for
example, in Britain, except insofar as the
pieces have been picked up by the Conserva-
tive Party. It is a strange and disquieting
thought that the troubles of the New Deal
wing of the Democratic party may reflect a
global trend and may not be entirely local,
or due altogether to accidental factors.
This party moves in an empirical, not
a doctrinaire, way toward a goal of social
progress without fundamental change. Such
a party probably must, in practice, become"
a party of emergency, a party of opportunity.
It is not so far to the left that independent
voters, or even conservative ones, are afraid'
to join it in a time of crisis; but its appeal
is so diffuse and mixed that they are not
afraid to leave it, either, when the crisis
has passed. In fact, it sometimes leaves it-
self; uneasily aware that its shifting sup-q
port comes from a number of quarters on
the political horizon, it can sometimes go
rapidly rightward for a period, as, recent1,,
unmirTirla,Tn Ruiih moods, it tri._ vain-.
Ann Arbor News
REGARDLESS of what may be
the merits of Attorney Gen-
eral Eugene F. Black's accusations
of corruption in the state Repub-
lican leadership, it is impossible
to see any justification for the
news blackout imposed by him.
Angered by a Detroit newspaper
editorial commenting on Black's
accusations and suggesting
strongly that he "put up or shut-
up," the attorney general yester-
day made an announcement that
no further news would be forth-
coming concerning the activities
of the public office he occupies.
I have been ordered this
morning (by the Detroit paper)
to shut up," said the attorney
general. "Such an order of
course applies to the entire staff
of the attorney general's office.
Accordingly, and since we al-
ways are anxious to please, it is
requested that no member of
the staff talk to any reporter
about anything pertaining to
the work or duties of this office.
The attorney general will lead
the way in obedience to this or-
der from the press."
The statement indicates that,
because one Detroit newspaper of-
fended Mr. Black with editorial
comment, all 50 of Michigan's
daily papers, and consequently the
people of Michigan, are to be pun-
ished by being denied news from,
the attorney general's office. One
newspaper was "guilty" of ex-
pressing an opinion which Mr.
Black did not like; therefore, all
must be punished.
Even if all 50 of Michigan's
dailies had been "guilty," there
could be no constitutional warrant
for Mr. Black's press censorship.
There is no warrant, indeed, for
such a censorship, or news em-
bargo, on even one periodical by
any public official be he ever so
much incensed by something that
periodical has printed. Moreover,
there are constitutional safe-
guards for freedom of the press,
and especially must news of public
officials and their offices be made
available for publication. The
public is entitled to know in de-
tail how its own business is being
conducted by its employes.
Once before, early in his term,
of office, thin-skinned Mr.
Black sought to impose a similar
blackout on news by barring re-
porters from his office. Then his
action was ascribed to a degree
of ignorance of the conduct of
state affairs. At thattime he
was sharply set right by Gov-
ernor Sigler, who correctly took
the stand that news affecting
the public belonged to the pub-
lic. Now Mr. Black is at outs
with the governor as well as with
many others, and so sensible
advice from the chief executive
might be expected to fall upon
stubbornly closed ears.
Mr. Black in this case, as in
MORATILAS TAKES 1415 STAND
various others, shows a puerility
not at all in keeping with the
dignity and importance of the
office of attorney general of
* * *
BEFORE the Democratic nation-
al convention, this column ad-
vised the delegates to have a
showdown with the reactionary
politicians of the South. We said
if they wanted to start a party
of their own, the Democrats would
be better off without them ...
The, Dixiecrats took their walk.
Already they are finding it a
lonesome world. Their anger at
the Democratic party for taking a
decent, liberal, Christian attitude
toward minorities, especially Ne-
groes, is nauseating to all who
believe in American fair play and
justice. It puts them in the same
category as Gerald L. K. Smith,
the obnoxious peddler of anti-
Semitism and Ku Kluxism, whoi
actually attended the state's
righters confab as a delegate from
Responsible newspapers of the
South that reflect the true
thinking of their communities
have not gone along with the
revolt. Even Gov. Laney of Ar-
kansas, seems to be cooling off.
The machine politicians are not
going along. The Crumps, the
Longs, the Talmadges and the
like are in sympathy with the
white supremacy creed, but they
are practical enough to realize
any program founded almost
solely on race prejudice will not
pay off in the long run.
THESE SMART politicos know
there was more to the or-
iginal hullabaloo than the civil
rights issue. There was pressure
by the usual utility interests and
other absentee business elements
which have been trying to atomize
the Democratic party by splitting
off the South ..
In Mississippi and Alabama, the
Democratic electors for whom the
people will vote are pledged
against President Truman. Thus,
any person wishing to vote for
Truman in those states will not
be able to do so.
Public opinion, however, can
exert great influence. In 1944 Mis-
sissippi electors were pledged
against Roosevelt. Four days be-
fore the election, a special session
of the legislature was called and
a slate of unpledged electors was
named. If Gov. Thurmond of
South Carolina and Gov. Wright
of Mississippi receive the kind of
reception they deserve when they
begin their campaign to stir up
race hate, the Dixiecrats may yet
be forced to return to the Amer-
ican system which guarantees the
right to a free choice for Presi-
Publication in The Daily Official
"ltet"i s constructive notice to all
members of the University. Notices
for tie Bulletin should be sent in
typewritten form to the office of the.
Assistant to the President, Roon
1021 Angell Hal, by 3:00 p.m. on
the day preceding publieption (11:0
a m. Saturdays).
THURSDAY, JULY 22, 1948
VOL. LVIII, No. 190
Notice of Regents' Meeting: The
next meeting of the Regents will
be on September 24, 1948, 2 p.m.
Communications for consideration
at this meeting must be in the
President's hands not later than
Herbert G. Watkins
Bureau of Appointments & Ocu-
pational Information, 201 Mason
The Boeing Aircraft Company,
Seattle, Washington, has openings
for aeronautical, mechanical,
electrical, and civil engineers. Men
who are interested in this com-
pany may pick up an application
form at the Bureau of Appoint-
August Industrial - Mechanical
Mr. David Thomas of GOOD-
YEAR TIRE & RUBBER COM-
PANY, Akron, Ohio, will, inter-
view for positions in production
supervision with that organiza-
tion, Thursday, July 22, in Room
218 West Engineering Building.
Students may sign the interview
schedule posted on the bulletin
board at 225 W. Engineering Bldg.
Teacher's Certificate Candi-
dates: All August candidates for
the teacher's certificate may take
the Teacher's Oath on July 21 and
22 between the hours of 8-12 and
1-5 in Room 1437 U.E.S. This is a
requirement for the teacher's cer-
Golf for Beginners
Women students are invited to
attend a beginning golf class at
the Women's Athletic Building on
Fri. afternoon, 2:30. Bring balls.
University Community Center
Thurs., July 22, 8 p.m., Arts and
Crafts Workshop. Lesson: De-
signing For A Craft. Instructor,
Sat., July 24, 9-12 p.m., Orches-
tra Dance sponsored by the Wives
of Student Veterans. Dorothy
Tues., July 27, 8 p.m., Student
Wives Club. Frank L. Huntley,
Summer Session Lecture Series:
Clair Wilcox, Professor of Eco-
nomics Swarthmore College, "Re-
construction and World Trade."
The International Trade Organi-
zation Charter, Thurs., July 22,
4:10 p.m., Rackham Amphithea-
Linguistic Institute Forum Lec-
ture. "A Re-examination of the
English Juncture Phonemes," by
Dr. Bernard Bloch, Associate Pro-
fessor of Linguistics, Yale Univer-
sity. Thurs., July 22, 7:30, Rack-
Phycics Symposium, change of
lecture hours for Thurs., July 22.
Dr. McMillan will lecture at 10
a.m., instead of at 11 as an-
Dr. Schwinger will lecture at 11
a.m. Room 150 Hutchins Hall.
The fifth lecture in the special
series of lectures sponsored by the
Department of Engineering Me-
chanics will be given by C. R. So-
derberg, Professor of Mechanical
Engineering, Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology. Prof. Soder-
berg will discuss "Yielding and
Fracture of Metals" on Fri., July
23, 3 p.m., Rm. 445 West Engineer-
ing Building, and Sat., July 24, 11
a.m., Room 445, West Engineering
(Continued on Page 4)
_ - '
IT SO -HAPPENS .. .
" More About the Doctor
f I9y 'i . Yo 6
Really,O'Malley, ldidn't get that
theater group. To act in your play-
Modest old Barnaby!
Gus. .. Havq rn Grandma's
some pears. colling me.
THE CURRENT women's magazine carry-
ing Dr. Kinsey's preliminary report on
the fair sex is causing quite a stir. But one
coed, philosophically explaining the world
to herself as she gazed at the cover, had a
"I guess that's the safest place for Dr.
Xinsey," she declared.
Burnaby, this is Mr. Green, the C.
director of our barn theater-
Mr. O'Molley, my
is glad you came.
WE ALMOST missed our eight o'clock yes-
terday morning when we overheard a
shocked young man on the diagonal inquire
of his friend, "Do you know what THAT
girl asked me last night?"
To the natural negative, the young man
faltered, "She asked me . . . she asked ME
if I would join the Wallace Progressives!"
Yes, he's very imaginative, Mr. Green.
He even imagines his dog talks to him-
Mr. Green seems quite smart
Why didn't you speak to him?