See FIELD & SCREAM,
VOL. LV, No. 29S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SUNDAY, AUGUST 12, 1945
PRICE FIVE CENTS
Prepares People for Surrender
NavyNeeds Drop;_Cutbacks Start AlliedOfferWouldHave
y Hirohito Puppet Ruler
Construction of 95 Ships Halts;
Deluge of Army Cancellations Due
Officials Anticipate 98 to 100 Per Cent Cut
In Munitions Purchases When Japs Surrender
TO MEET SEPTEMBER 4:
Truman Reconvenes Congress
For Action on Reconversion
Declaration of Terms ReceiVed in Bern;
V.J Announcement May Come Today
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11-The Allies told quavering Japan today they
would dictate orders to her Emperor "from the moment of surrender" and
tossed back to Tokyo the bitter decision on immediate peace or more war.
But to Washington, London, Moscow and Chungking the hour of final
victory appeared near. in history's most horrible war. The latest declara-
tion of Allied terms was transmitted through neutral Switzerland. Bern
- handed it over late today to Japan's
< > i
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11-Lessen-
ing Navy needs brought a halt today
to the building of 95 ships costing
$1,200,000,000 and Army officers told
of plans to cut war purchases by an
Of Five Million
War Department Quiet
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11-Five mil-
lion or more men may be released
from the Army within 12 months
after V-J Day.
This is the estimate of military'
experts familiar with problems con-
fronting the Army; the War Depart-
ment is saying nothing officially.
The first to get out, it is believed,
will be the 550,000 soldiers who al-
ready had a score of 85 points for
combat, service and dependency and
are eligible now for release.
The critical point score or dis-
charge is expected to be cut promptly
after Japanese surrender and there
was some speculation that the older
men in the Army might be given
earlier discharges. This would mean,
informed sources, estimated,. the re-
lease of an additional 1,000,000 or
1,500,000 within three or four months.
By that time, the Japanese terri-
tory should be fully occupied and the
Army then in a position to release
an additional three million or more
men in the ensuing 8 or 9 months.
This would leave a force of 3,000,-
000 or less. The occupation of Japan
is expected td require perhaps 1,000,-
000 men. The German occupation
force is now fixed at 400,000. Garri-.
s.ons such as Alaska would take ap-
)roximately 500,000 and the remaind-
er presumably would be assigned to
Army centers in this country to oper-
ate the supply system, hospitals, ports
and similar installations.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11 -(R)-
Secretary Harold L. Ickes has ap-
proved statehood for Alaska as part
of the InteriordDepartment'sterri-
torial policy, acting Secretary Abe
Fortas announced today.
"The Department of the Interior
favors statehood for Alaska," said a
statement of the department policy
formulated for the transmission to
Ernest H, Gruening, Governor of
Alaska, by Secretary Ickes following
legthy discussions with officials of
the Division of Territories and Island
Any action to admt Alaska to the
Union would have to be authorized
Fortas' announcement came while
Secretary Ickes was on a vacation.
Army To Follow 'U'
Lead on V-J Day
The Army will suspend its training
program at the same time and for
the same period as the University
suspends classes on V-J Day, Col.
Reginald C. Miller, commandant of
U. S. Army forces in Ann Arbor, an-
Capt. Woodson Michaux, comman-
dant of Navy units training at the
University, announced Friday that
the Navy, also, will go along with
University V-J Day plans.
Today A program honoring Far
Estrn stdnt will he
amount exceeding $25,000,000,000 on
a yearly basis.
Fifty-six combatant ships are in-
cluded in the Navy 'cutback, which
War Mobilizer John W. Snyder at-
tributed to a review of what was re-
quired to whip Japan. There was no
formal announcement of the Army
program but Snyder made it clear
that the real V-J deluge of cutbacks
was yet to come.
98 to 100% Munitions Cut
Army officials talked of a cut of 98
to 100 per cent in the purchase of
munitions, tractors and other heavy
equipment once the Japanese surren-
der is final. They made these other
Service force requirements, now
running at $1,800,000,000 a month,
will be cut 80 per cent or about
Air service requirements, now about
$750,000,000 a month, will be cut 90
per cent, or $675,000,000.
These estimated cuts total $2,115,-
000,000 a month-$25,380,000,000 over
a 12-month period.
Food Purchase to Remain Same
Food purchasing is expected to re-
main at about the same heavy vol-
ume for a time at least.
In announcing the Navy cutback,
Snyder took oyer for the White House
the issuance of official news on re-
conversion. Other government agen-
cies were told to keep their war-to
peace plans private until President
Truman gives the signal.
The purpose of this taboo, it was
explained, is to allow coordination of
plans of various agencies and to pre-
vent disclosure before peace is an
Army To Reduce Buying
Snyder, in announcing the Navy
cutback, said only that "The Army
also will make immediately a sharp
reduction in its buying program.''
The program, announced and indi-
cated, threw into sharp focus the pre-
diction of Government officials that
around 5,000,000 munitions workers
will lose their jobs in 60 days after
the Japanese quit.
More than half of these-approxi-
mately 3,400,000 persons--are engag-
ed in shipbuilding and in the aircraft
and ordnance industries.
Half May Retire
Of the 5,000,000 due to be released,
expectations are that perhaps half
will retire from the labor market.
The others will become job-seekers
along with about 1,400,000 currently
unemployed to bring the total to ap-
About 3,000,000 of those now in war
production are expected to stay on
with present employers, but they will
shift from munitions to civilian pro-
Government officials could make no
estimate of how long it may take for
4,000,000 persons who will be out of
jobs to find work in civilian produc-
Snyder asked cooperation from lab-
or and management,and urged man-
ufacturers whose contracts are trim-
med to cancel immediately their or-
ders for scarce materials, so these
may go to provide civilian goods and
After V4J Day
Capt. Woodson Michaux, com-
manding officer of the Navy college
training program at the University
indicated last night that the war's
end would have little effect on the
status of men in Navy training here
for "some months."
"I don't see any immediate effects
as far as status is concerned," Capt.
Michaux said. "Legally, men in the
naval reserve may continue in service
for six months after the President de-
clares the cessation of hostilities."
It was indicated that the NROTC,
a neace as wella a wartime noaramI
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11-Congress
will cut short its vacation and recon-
vene probably on Sept. 4 to act on
five major issues involved in a sud-
den change from war to peace.
The date was decided on today at a
conference of President Truman and
Senate Majority Leader Barkley of
Kentucky. House Majority Leader
McCormack, in Massachusetts, agreed
by telephone. -8
Barkley told reporters at the White
House these subjects are to be taken
1. A bill to provide a maximum of
$25 a week unemployment compensa-
tion up to 26 weeks on a nationwide
basis, the Federal government to sup-
plement funds where states do not
provide such a scale.
2. Renoving the surplus war prop-
erty disposal task from the present
3-man board to a single administrat-
3. The so-called full employment
bill designed to link management,
labor and government into a vast ef-
fort to provide perhaps as many as
60,000,000 jobs in peacetime.
4. Decisions on what legislation
might be needed to keep alive for a
T oBe Released
At War's End
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11 -(P)-
Surrender of Japan would mean lib-
eration for approximately 16,700
Americans presently interned in the
home islands or enemy-occupied ter-
ritory, a check of War, Navy and
State Department records disclosed
These and internees of other Allied
nations would be transported by the
Japanese government to "places of
safety, as directed, where they can
quickly be placed aboard Allied
transports," under terms of today's
four-power reply to the Jap sur-
Internee Figures Incorplete
American figures on interned na-
tionals are incomplete because it has
been impossible for the International
Red Cross or neutral power repre-
sentatives to visit some Japanese-
occupied areas, the State Department
Japan presently has 13,330 Ameri-
can war prisoners - 9,605 from the
Army; 2,036 from the Navy, and 1,689
from the Marine Corps - according
to latest figures.
American civilian internees in Jap-
held' territory total 3,339, but only
176 of these are held in Japan proper,
the State Department said. Approx-
imately 1,200 of the total are in
Japanese-held parts of China, most
of them around Shanghai.
Among the 3,339 are 689 women,
according to War Department sta-
The War Deparement said most
U. S. Army prisoners are held in the
home islands. Most of the 176 Amer-
ican civilians presently in Japan
were construction workers on Guam
and Wake Islands at the time of their
capture by the Japanese early in the
For some unknown reason, the
Japanese government never has per-
mitted repatriation of the Guam and
Wake groups, the State Department
while those war agencies which still
might have a job to do.
5. Reorganization of the govern-
ment set-up, merging a number of
agencies within regular departments
and setting up others as independent.
This was one of President Truman's
principal proposals soon after he took
Barkley said he is getting in touch
immediately with committee chair-
man to get to work on the legislation
involved, complete hearings and
"have something ready" for the cal-
endar by the Sept. 4 date, which he
did not describe as definite, but
There is no need for Congress to re-
turn before then, Barkley pointed out,
for the very reason that this spade
work has yet to be done.
Asked whether the President had
recommended or requested the return
of the law makers, Barkley said mere-
ly that the action is being taken with
Mr. Truman's "full approval and co-
-terms to Japs
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11-(P)-
This is what the reply of the Big
Four powers-to the Japanese of-
fer to surrender-means in effect
so far as the royal house is con-
1. Because the Emperor is the
key figure in Japan, the Allies will
use him in ruling Japan.
2. But this doesn't mean the
Emperor can keep his job indefi-
nitely. He can keep it until some
future time when the Japanese
people can decide whether they
want to have an Emperor at all.
They'll be given a chance to
vote on it.
Three Driving Russian Armies
Cross Mountains, Peril Hingan
LONDON, Aug. 11 -(A)- Russian
armored spearheads, in lightning 50-
mile advances, burst across the great
Khingan Mountain range in western
Manchuria today and broke into the
river-cut valleys leading down to the
Japanese war arsenal city of Harbin,
The pile-driving Soviet smashes
that have covered 155 miles in two
days tore through natural Japanese
defenses in western Manchuria in
disregard of the exchange of peace
notes between Japan and the Allied
Moscow's third Japanese war bul-
letin revealed three Soviet Far East-
ern armies had been thrown into the
great battle for Manchuria. Veteran
commanders of the European eastern
front led the assault under supreme
command of Marshal Alexander M.
Vasilevsky, former Rad Army chief
The three tank-tipped armies,
breaking into Manchuria at least at
five points along the mountainous
2,000-mile frontier, were converging
on Harbin from the west, north and
SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 11-The
Japanese people were kept in ignor-
ance that their leaders were suing
for peace, but Tokyo newspapers ap-
peared to be paving the way for sur-
render announcement and Nippon's
boy Crown Prince suddenly was ush-
ered into prominence.
Suggestnig the possibility that
Hirohito's only son, 11-year-old Ak-
ihito, is being groomed to succeed
his father at some -date not too dis-
tant, a program of publicity seemed
to have been launched in his behalf.
The Tokyo radio announced to
the world that Saturday morning
newspapers carried pictures of the
Crown Prince and told of his inter-
est - and anxiety over the air raids
-in the war.
east in drives that threatened to cut
off Japanese armies in northern
The Soviet advances brought hope
of quick liberation to many American
prisoner of war camps in Manchuria.
Some 480 to 500 miles separated
the tips of a giant pincer moving
into Manchuria from the west and
east along the axis of the Chinese
Eastern Railroad. Moscow dispatch-
es said the encirclement of tens of
thousands of crack Japanese troops
in northern Manchuria was a dis-
Strike at Japan
GUAM, Sunday, Aug. 12 -()-
While American and British fleets
presumably stood idle off Japan for
the second day, Admiral Nimitz an-
nounced today that their carrier
planes Thursday and Friday de-
stroyed or damaged 711 enemy planes
and 94 ships in what may have been
the last big air strike of the war.
Failure of powerful forces under
Admiral Halsey to attack during the
recent negotiations over Japan's ex-
pressed willingness were declared to
be still according to previous plans
and not influenced by the peace re-
Nimitz issued a communique mak-
ing a final report of the air strikes
of Thursday and Friday against nor-
thern Honshu from Yokohama to
the northern tip of the island.
Smishing into such hitherto un-
damaged air bases as Mamurogawa
and Obanazawa, the ports of Ona-
gawa and Okachi Bay, and the in-
land cities of Masuda, Iwaki, Kori-
yama, Matsushima and Shiogama,
planes of the combined fleets found'
Nimitz' communique increased the
previously announced bag of planes
by 188 and placed the two-day toll
of ships at 35 sunk and 59 damaged.
These included seven destroyers or
destroyer-escorts sunk and seven
ministertin the Swiss capital, for re-
lay to Tokyo. It was the answer to
Japan's offer yesterday to surrender
-provided she could keep her Em-
peror and his sovereign prerogatives.
Staff Sent Homne ,
Then, at 6 p. m. (EWT) the White
House sent its staff home and said
"There will be no announcements to-
Tomorrow (Sunday) it may be a
Tomorrow may be V-J Day.
For most diplomatic experts held
the opinion that Japan would realize
that by battling hopelessly on she
merely would postpone, at the cost of
more destruction and slaughter, im-
position of the same stern terms
which now confront her.
Supreme Commander Would Control
The four great powers told the
Japanese that a still unnamed Allied
supreme commander would control
them through their Emperor. They
withheld any assurances that Hiro-
hito or any successor could remain
indefinitely on his throne.
The Japanese people eventually
will decide for themselves, they said,
whether there is to be an Emperor
The fate of the man the Nipponese
consider a combination of God and
Emperor-and the question whether
he or others can guarantee surrender
compliance-were the only obstacles
to peace. Otherwise both sides were
willing to abide by surrender terms
laid down in the proclamation, of
Potsdam. Under the declaration
Japan would lose her stolen empire
and shrink to peaceful existence in
the home islands.
Statement Sent by Radio
From the Swiss legation here, where
it was delivered by a State Depart-
ment official, the Allied statement
of intentions to the Emperor went by
radio to Bern.
There the chief of the Political De-
partment's foreign division called in.
Japanese Minister Shuminshi Kase
and handed it over at 3:25 p. m.
Kase dashed from the Parliament
building to a waiting automobile,
promising to transmit the document
to Tokyo at once. He had no com-
ment beyond this:
"I'm in a hurry."
Preparation for Surrender
Radio Tokyo appeared to be pre-
paring the Japanese people for sur-
render. Here in Washington, gov-
ernment authorities toiled on recon-
version plans, and Senate Majority
Leader Barkley said Congress prob-
ably would cut short its vacation on
As if to give the Japs a taste of
what peace would be.like, the Japa-
nese got a temporary respite from the
terror of Superforts, from the rav-
ages of atomic bombs. Land fight-
ing went on.
Presidential Secretary Charles G.
Ross disclosed that the supreme com-
mander "will be an American."
Ross could not say at the time who
the man would be. Speculation cen-
tered at once on General Douglas
MacArthur. There was mention also
of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz and
General George C. Marshall.
The terms sent to Tokyo today re-
affirmed that surrender must be in
accordance with the Allied proclama-
tion issued at Potsdam July 26. Under
that declaration the enemy would be
stripped of her power to make war,
wouldsbe bottled up in four principal
From a practical standpoint, dip-
lomatic authorities suggested the new
Allied proposal had merit. The Em-
peror is the constitutional head of
the government and it would be eas-
ier for the Allies to work through him
than anyone else.
In addition, he is chief of the
(See JAPAN, Page 6)
,11 17> - r.
Face Reality with
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK, Aug. 11-The Tokyo
newspaper Asahi in an article in its
Sunday, Aug. 12, edition, called up-
on all Japanese "to do his or her part
as his majesty's subjects in fullest
obedienceof the august wish of his
majesty" and to maintain national
unity "if worse comes to worse," the
Domei agency reported tonight in
a wireless dispatch recorded by the
The English language dispatch,
beamed to the United States, quoted
Asahi's "top column feature article"
as saying that since the beginning
of Japanese history "the Japanese
nation has gone through many an
ordeal and kept growing by courage-
ously overcoming such ordeals."
A Thorny Path
"The path through which our peo-
ple trod in national growth," Asahi
added, "has been an extremely thorny
one. In the numerous national crises
which our ancestors have calmly and
courageously gone through our na-
tional destiny was placed in gravest
danger, either internally or extern-
"Even in the worst chaotic stage
in each national crisis our people
always been gratified to find a rally-
ing point of their souls and action.
The western term, 'wandering soul,'
has no place in our language.
"Always Found a Way"
"By faithfully obeying his majes-
ty's august wish our people have al-
ways found a way out of suichcrises.
Our ancestors have thus overcome
many a national crisis and handed
down' 1:- their posterity Japan as
she is now with her spirit and blood."
"The Soviet Union's abrupt decla-
ration of war on Japan, coupled with
the United States' resort to atomic
bombs, entailing the most atrocious
mass slaughter of civilians, on a scale
unprecedented in human history, has
greatly intensified the gravest na-
tional crisis. She stands at the cross
road whether or not she is able to
maintain her unique national policy
and uphold the honor of the Japa-
With "Courage-Absolute Calmness"
The newspaper said that all Japa-
nese must "face reality squarely with
absolute calmness and with the great-
"Closest compliance with the aug-
ust wish of his majesty, in complete
disregard for one's own private sel-
fish interest is the only source from
which the nation can derive strength
to live and revive, carrying on their
undying national tradition.
"Whether or not we are able to
uphold the national honor handed
down by our ancestors, whether or
not we are able to prove ourselves
worthy of the name of the Japanese
nation in this worst crisis, solely de-
pends on whether or not we will do
our part as his majesty's subjects,"
"If we leave nothing undone in
performing our duty as his majesty's
subjects, which is most fundamental,
the Japanese people will remain im-
mutable even if we were to be con-
fronted with still greater difficulties,
multiplying the present difficulties."
Local Stores at
6 p.m. Saturdays
The Retail Merchants division of
the Chamber of Commerce has voted
to adopt a recommendation that gen-
eral merchandise stores in Ann Ar-
bor be closed Saturday evenings after
6 p. m. EWT beginning Aug. 18 .
The action was taken after a sur-
vey sponsored by the retail merchants
revealed that a majority of merchants
considered open hours on Saturday
night to be unprofitable because of
the small amount of trade.
Any changes because of seasonal
occasion, such as Christmas, will be
determined in advance at a regular
'ROUND THE WORLD REACTIONS:
'Kill the Emperor' Returning Troops Cry
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK-The man in the
street kept an eye on the newspaper
headlines and an ear attuned to the
of "Kill the Emperor!" and "To Hell
with Hirohito!" broke out.
* * *
SAN FRANCISCO'-As though to
ington announcement of the four
big powers' reply to Japan's surrender
offer, which said that the authority of
the Emperor would have to be sub-