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VDL. LV, No. 26S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, AUGUST 9, 1945.
PRIICE FIVE CENTS
* * * * *
Crew Members Report Good -.es ults;
Spaatz Waits To Give Complete Details
By The Associated Press
GUAM, Thursday, Aug. 9-The world's second atomic
bomb, most destructive explosive invented by man, was dropped
on strategically important Nagasaki on western Kyushu Island
at noon today..
Crew members radioed that results were good, but General
Spaatz said additional details would not be disclosed until the
Spaatz' communique reporting the bombing did not say whether only
one or more than one "mighty atom" was dropped.
The first atomic bomb destroyed more than 60 per cent-4.1 square
miles-of Hiroshima, city of 343,000 population, Monday, and radio Tokyo
reported "practically every living thing" there was annihilated.
Nagasaki, which had 211,000 population 10 years ago, is an important
shipping and railway center. It was hit first by China-based B-29s a year
ago this month and was heavily attacked by Far East air force bombers
and fighters only last July 31 and on the following day.
Nagasaki, although only two-thirds as large as Hiroshima in population,
is considered more important industrially. With a population now esti-
mated at 255,000, its 12 square miles are jam-packed with eave to eave
buildings which won it the name "sea of roofs."
It was vitally. important as a port for. trans-shipment of military
supplies and the embarkation of troops in support of Japan's operations in
China, Formosa, Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific. It was highly
important as a major shipbuilding and repair center for both naval and
The city also included industrial suburbs of Inase and Akunoura on
the western side of the harbor and Urakami. The combined area is nearly
Top Nazi Chiefs To Be Tried
In luernberOthers in Berlin
Bi Four Sign Pact Establishing Court
For Speedy War Guilt Convictions
By The Associated Press
LONDON, Aug. 8-The four great western powers today signed a pact
to establish an international military tribunal for speedy mass trials of
Germany's war criminals to demonstrate that aggression leads "to the
prisoner's dock rather than the way to honors."
The legally-unprecedented document established the tribunal's seat
in Berlin, but provided specifically that the first major trial-one expected
to bring more than 25 Nazi chief-> - -
Math Aid for Vets
Meeting Is Friday
All veterans who require assist-
ance in mathematics are requested
to meet at 5 p. m. EWT tomorrow
in Room 3010, Angell Hall, to
make arrangements for hours,aand
types of assistance needed, Clark
Hopkins, associate director of
VeteransService Bureau announc-
Ask For Probe
Motion was made and passed last
night at the Veterans Organization
meeting that the group work for an
exchange service with foreign uni-
. Under the plan, members of the
University VO would study overseas
in leading Universities throughout the
world while foreign students would
attend the University of Michigan in
exchange. Under the GI bill of rights,
veterans may attend any accepted
university in the world.
In addition, the VO passed a reso-
lution stating that the executive com-
mittee would send a letter to Con-
gressmen requesting a, Congressional
investigation of the Veterans Admini-
stration office in Michigan. This fol-
lowed reported discontent on the part
of the veteran with alleged inade-
quacies of the VA.
The group set up a committee to
study the housing problem in Ann
Arbor. The committee will attempt
to find an empty house in which the
vets can live, cooperatively.
The VO set a definite date for its
picnic, Aug. 18.
UNRRA Is Now
LONDON, Aug. 8 -(A)- Told by
Director General Herbert H. Lehman
that unless it makes good this win-
ter the "name of the United Nations
will be a mockery in Europe," the
UNRRA's council set to work to-
night to exact an additional $1,516,-
906,150 from contributing member
nations to finance 1946 operations.
The amount sought roughly would
double the present pledged quotas
of the 43 member nations.
Lehman gravely told conference
delegates that UNRRA's funds would
be nearly exhausted at the end of
1945, when it expected to be in the
midst of "one of the grimmest win-
ters in history."
He warned the United Nations
that they must make good quickly
on their current pledges and dig
down deeper to meet next year's
needs in Europe and the Far East.
Huntley, Gale, Slosson,
Others Give Opinions
"Russia's declaration of war
against Japan means not so much
that Russia has come in to fight a
long, drawn out war but more as a
broad hint to the rest of the world
that the war is.. practically over," Dr.
Frank L. Huntley of the Civil Af-
fairs Training School said yester-
day in response to the news of Rus-
sia's entry into .the Pacfic war.
"Russia seems to be fighting a po-
litical war in the Far' East as it
will strengthen her hand with us and
will legitimize her place at the con-
ference table," Prof. Huntley ex-
He went on to say that we have
recognized her political power in
Europe and maybe now, by making
this gesture, she will recognize our
political power in Pacific affairs.
Prof. Amos Hawley of the sociol-
ogy department, in answer to the
question, "When do you think the
war will be over?" said. "It seems
to me that the war may be over
before the winter."
Prof. Preston Slosson pf the his-
tory department, commenting on the
situation, stated, "What with the
atomic bombs on one side and Rus-
sia's declaration on the other, the
war will be shortened by many
"I hope no Chinese territory will
have to be given to Russia as the
price of Russian assistance," he
Lila Pargment of the Russian
department declared, "I expected
it all the time. I knew that if
Russia didn't declare war earlier
.it was only because she had toset-
tle with Germany and couldnit
fight as effectively on two fronts."
"As far back as 1931 when I was
in Russia, the feeling existed there
that they would have to fight Ja-
pan," she added. "Russia -has built
up industries in Siberia which are
meant for the war with Japan."
Dr. Esson M. Gale, director of the
International Center, who resided
in Manchuria for some years and
is well acquainted with the Far East,
stated, "The declaration of war by
Russia upon Japan, together with
the threat of further atomic bomb-
ing by the United States, will have
a cumulative effect upon Japan's de-
cision to continue the war."
"Russia's entry is of particular
significance as it will threaten vir-
tually unimpaired land forces of
Japan in Manchuria," he asserted.
"This force in Manchuria has thus
far not suffered impairment in the
war by direct attack by any of the
Allies. It is the element among the
Japanese which is most likely to op-
pose unconditional surrender," he ex-
plained. "Therefore, the entry of
Russia may now bring about the
See FACULTY, page 4
Is Dead From
Amherst Grad Taught
Prof. Joseph Newhall Lincoln, 52,
member of the Romance Languages
department since 1919, died suddenly'
of a heart attack yesterday morning.
Born in Quincy, Mass, and a grad-
uate of Amherst College, he received
his A. M and Ph. D. degree from
Prof. Lincolntravelledabroad and
did graduate work at the Universite
de Clermont-Ferrand, the Centro de
Estudios Historicos in Madrid and
the Sorbonne in Paris. During World
War I, he was in the United States
After serving as a French instruct-
or at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and for three years as in-
structor and tutor in French at Har-
vard, he returned to Michigan in
1927 after a five-year absence.
Associate Professor of Spanish and
Portugese at the University, and sec-
retary to the Faculty of College of
L. S. and A., Prof. Lincoln was a
member of the Modern Language As-
sociation of America and author of
a number of articles on Spanish lit-
erature, bibliography and folklore.
"Seemed in Perfect Health"
"He seemed to be in perfect health,"
said his father-in-law, William H.
Hobbs, Professor Emeritus of Geology
who was with him the night before
Prof. Lincoln's unexpected death.
Mrs. Lincoln, a patient at the Uni-
versity Hospital and two children
Richard, 16, and Deborah, 14, sur-
Ligon To Speak
At Kellogg And.
Dr. Ernest Ligon, director of the
Religious Education Workshop now
being conducted on campus, will give
a special lecture on "Character Build-
ing" at 7:30 p. m. EWT tomorrow-in
KelloggAuditorium, it was announced
This lecture will be free and open
to the public. The Kellogg Auditori-
um is located in the Kellogg Dental
Building on North University.
A psychologist from Union College,
See LIGON, page 4
Myus ovites Cheer
Emperor Hirohito Had Asked Russian
Mediation in Pacific War, Molotov Says
By The Associated Press
The Tokyo Radio said tonight that Soviet ground forces
had launched an attack against the Japanese on the eastern
Manchukuo border early Thursday morning, Japanese time.
The broadcast, recorded by the Associated Press in New York,
was a communique released by Kwantung Army headquarters.
Soviet air forces also participated, the broadcast said.
MOSCOW, Aug. 8-(AP)-Long col-G
umns of singing Red Army men
tramped through the heart of Mos-
cow tonight, 45 minutes after the
Soviet radio announced to the peo-
ple of Russia that the nation would
be at war with Japan at one second
People piled out of buildings and
apartments to cheer the marching
soldiers of the Red Army, whose
force was being turned against the
Japanese, the Soviet government
said, at the request of the Allies to
speed "universal peace."
Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav
Molotov disclosed Japan had asked
the Soviet Union to mediate the war
in the Pacific, but said Tokyo's re-
jection of the Potsdam ultimatum
to surrender made her proposals
"lose all significance."
Molotov revealed that the Jap-
anese request for mediation came
from Emperor Hirohito "about mid-
July", Molotov said President Tru-
man, Winston Churchill, then prime
minister, and Clement Attlee, who
succeeded Churchill, had been in-
formed, and also their respective
Russia gave the Japanese seven
hours warning she meant to strike.
MOSCOW, Aug. 8-0?)-Soviet
Foreign Commissar V. M. Molotov
was asked tonight about the reac-
tion of Japanese ambassador Nao-
take Sato when Mototov presented
him with the Russian declaration
of war against Japan.
In one of the war's finest pieces
of understatement Molotov re-
plied: "He gave the text a careful
Molotov handed Russia's declaration-.
of war to Japanese Ambassador to
Russia, Naotake Sato, at 5 p. m.,
Russian time. Three hours later, the
Moscow radio broadcast the news to
the world, and at 8:30 p. m. Molotov
called in correspondents.
In a jovial mood, he leaned across
a birch table, lighted up a long Rus-
sian cigarette and made his an-
nouncement. He was perfectly in-
formal as he asked permission to
read the text of the declaration.
Russia went to war as her "loyal
Allied duty" after she was asked to
to so by the United States, Britain.
and China and had rejected Tokyo's
suggestions she mediate the war,
Molotov had summoned Japanese
envoy Sato to the Kremlin and read
him the declaration of war, which
Sato was to relay to Tokyo. The dec-
laration said Russia would consider
herself at war August 9, tomorrow.
Molotov reminded Japan that af-
ter the defeat and capitulation of
Germany, Japan was the only great
power "which still insisted on the
continuation of war."
He reminded the Japanese that
they had rejected the American-
British-Chinese surrender ultimatum
ssued at Potsdam, July 26.
"Thus a nrouoacl1 which the' Jan-.
..hands Sato his papers
tains together in the same dock-
shall be held in Nuernberg, shattered
citadel of the party's glory.
There will be no appeal from the
tribunal, and defendants apparently
will not be allowed to call defense
witnesses under the sweeping master
plan signed by the United States,
Britain, Russia and France.
The tribunal will have the power to
punish by death and to prevent "buck
passing" by Nazis who might attempt
to fasten responsibility for their acts
The tribunal itself will set the date
for the first trial at Nuernberg.
Based on Jackson Report
The 30-article plan for the trials is
based primarily upon proposals ad-
Today The Rev. George W.
Shepherd Will speak on
"Changing Attitudes in
China" at 8 p. m. EWT (7
p. m. CWT) in Kellogg
Today Mrs. Eugenia LeMat will
speak on "Souvenirs de
France" at 8 p. m. EWT
(7 p. m. CWT) at the
Today A chamber music con-
vanced by Supreme Court Justice
Robert H. Jackson in a report to the
president after he was named Chief
War Crimes Prosecutor for the Unit-
Primarily, a tri-pronged definition
of war crimes was established as the
basis. This specified "crimes against
the peace," involving planning and
waging aggresisve war and violating
international treaties; war crimes
which violate rules or customs of war,
and crimes against humanity, which
would include atrocities and use of
slave labor, as well as persecution on
political, religious and racial grounds.
Jackson declared "The definitions
under which we will try the Germans
are general definitions. They impose
liability upon war-making statesmen
of all countries alike. The actions of
masses of men are the result of their
The powers of the tribunal, be-
sides the right to punish by death and
deprive the convicted of stolen prop-
erty, also include the right to disre-
gard "technical rules of evidence" in
the interest of speed, to take "strict
measures" to prevent delays, and to
accept historical documents as record.
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Aug. 8-Fears that
deadly after-effects of the new atomic
bomb might linger for years were
calmed today by the man in the best
position to know.
The War Department quoted Dr. J.
R. Oppenheimer, head of this phase
of atomic research, in denying pub-
lished reports that blasted-out areas
might continue to emit killing radio-
active rays for years.
Dr. Harold Jacobson of Columbia
University, one of those who partici-
pated in the atomic research, had ex-
pressed the opinion that rays from
the atomic bomb dropped on Hiro-
shima might persist for 70 years.
In New York, Dr. Jacobson said in
a statement today that "I am sur-
prised and pleased to learn that the
results of the July experiment indi-
cate that only minor amounts of
radioactivity are present after the
explosion and that these quickly dis-
TU' Grand works
Dr. R. F. Bacher, son of Mrs. Byrl
Bacher, former assistant dean of
women here, was one of the scientists
who developed the atomic bomb.
He was called from his professorial
duties at Cornell University in De-
cember, 1940, to begin research on
the bomb. Dr. Bacher resides in
New Mexico with his wife, the for-
mer Jean Dow, daughter of Prof. and
Mrs. E. W. Dow, and their two chil-
Use of Atomic Energy May
Shift U. S. Postwar Economy
Although the atomic bomb has
thus far proved to be the war's most
effective weapon, "the peace-time
potential of atomic power must not
be overlooked," Prof. James M. Cork,
of the University physics department
"Conceivably, utilization of atomic
energy could change the face of the
ducing state if the power were
available," he declared.
"Atomic power, by no means a
new 'find' for physicists, might be
used for anything that is now pow-
er-driven," Prof. Cork said. "Of
course, practical methods would
have to be developed in order to
use atomic energy on lighter ma-
"CHANGING ATTITUDES IN
CHINA" will be discussed by the
Rev. GEORGE W. SHEPHERD,
former advisor to Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-Shek and director of