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July 16, 1944 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1944-07-16

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- - w


Fair and Cooler

I iT wi T T /"T AT wr- i -aw -- _




Racial Prejudice in War
Found As Explanation

Reds Begin New Offensive in South



Poland, Near



Plant Labor Lack

Special to The Daily
SOUTH LYON, July 15-Two racial prejudices-one against
Negroes and the other against Nisei Japanese-have divided this
Michigan community into two hostile camps and have tied war produc-
tion at the Michigan Seamless Tube Co. into a knot for the past
William McHattie, president of the company, reported production
off more than 35 per cent and attributed it directly to a shortage of
more than 150 laborers.
The War Manpower Commission (WMC) offered to send 150
Nisei-American citizens of Japanese descent-to alleviate the situation
and the announcement brouiht hostile reaction from the United Steel-
workers Union Local 1900 (CIO).'
Cries of "I wouldn't work with any kind of Jap" and "we'll walk out
the minute a Jap comes in" sent the management into hurried consulta-
tion with the Union grievance committee which voted solidly against any
such move.
This crisis occurred about a month or more ago and a substitute
program involving the importation of Negro workers into the plant sent
the townspeople of this otherwise peaceful community into a furor of
Cracker barrel groups were seen in every barber shop, tavern, and
drug store in town and the 1,500 citizens of this "wartown" took sides.
The townspeople-retired farmers and merchants for the most part,
took a stand when plant officials impressed upon them the urgency of
maintaining production as favoring Nisei while they refused to consider
Negro workers.
Union Takes Stand Against Nisei
The men in the plant-all union members-consist of local citizens
who have made this their home for many years with a strong element of
Southern whites from Kentucky and Arkansas. They made it clear that
they would "walk off the job if squint eyes" were brought in.
After the WMC sent a directive to the plant to abide by govern-
ment regulations prohibiting discrimination in war plants and after
officials of the War Relocation Authority, the U. S. Employment
Service and the Army Air Forces emphasized in a general plant
meeting the necessity of continuing full production, the union-with
misgivings-only last week agreed to "tolerate" Negroes.
The management of the Michigan Seemless Tube-winner of three1
Army-Navy E's for production achievements in the past-found itselfi
pressed by the War Production Board to meet production quotas whilet
at the same time they faced the seemingly impossible task of placatingt
all interests here in an attempt to recruit workers.
Mayor J. B. Calhoun said he thought the community would accet
Nisei for they feel that they won't remain here after the war, but thats
they wouldn't consider Negroes because of what they called "the perma-
nacy of their settlement".t
One irate citizen aired his opinions in the local drug store yesterday
for all who would listen:t
"What do we want niggers here for? They will only make trouble
and want to go everywhere us white folks go. They will stay aroundc
and just think of my kid sittin' next to one of those **! ! !" in the school-a
house. No sir, no niggers for this town.t
One union member, hot and tired perhaps from working tenc
hours in the rolling department because of the shortage, beliger-
ently asked, "Aren't we fighting those yellow Japs? We don't want1
to work with any of them."v
Aware of the opposition of the union to the importation of Nisei, theS
WRA investigated the situation on the spot last week, pronounced "it preg-c
nant with possible violence", and withdrew its approval for settlement
Plant Strives for Increased Production
"We aren't interested one way or another who works in the plant",
McHattie stated, "all we want to do is produce at full capacity and get
on with the war."
The only thing that we can do is bring negroes into the plant and
that will be done as soon as the U. S. Employment Service can recruit
them, he said.
Last week one Negro signed up in Ann Arbor to work in the plant
but when he arrived in South Lyon Friday and saw that he would be1
the only Negro in the entire city he turned around and came home. 1
The weekly newspaper here, The South Lyon Herald, reported a
statement this week by Robert M. Cullom, area supervisor for WRA,'
discussing the withdrawal of approval for Nisei here.
"We found the officers and grievance committee of the local steel
workers union solidly opposed - and when William Miller, president of
the union, said that while he would oppose it, the possibility of violence
was very serious. We had no alternative but to withdraw approval."
Cullum's statement did not entirely remove the possibility thatP
Nisei may not apply and be employed by Michigan Seamless, but het
said efforts to recruit them from relocation centers would be stopped.T
It was reported that more than 50 who were on their way to Souths
Lyon had to be headed off.t
"This hostility to the Nisei is hard to understand inasmuch as theren
are around 50 of them working on nearby farms and there hasn't been
any noticeable difficulty with them in town," McHattie stated.f
Future Violence Seen Improbables
Another aspect of the situation was reported by the Herald which
stated that its investigations made it quite certain that no violence woulds
develop if the Nisei arrived, but that the citizenry would feel quite strongly
if Negroes were imported and that the Nisei would be preferred.

Since October part of the deficiency in manpower has been made
up by importing Kentucky and Arkansas "hillbillies" and they are f
being housed in a Federal Housing Project a quarter of a mile from d
the plant.5
These Southerners lined up solidly with the Union and rumors in the=
project indicated that half of them would move out if either Nisei ors
Negroes were brought in.t
John Horton, president of the tenant's council, opposed the pro-
posil, but said he spoke only for himself.v
As matters now stand, the Union is solidly opposed to importationa
of Nisei, would walk out if they came, and reluctantly agreed to Negron
workers; the townspeople oppose entrance of both racial groups into the
community, would prefer the Nisei, and would have to stretch their toler-o
ance a long way to admit negroes.S

FDR's Mate
Still Uncertain
Democrat Leaders
See Open Fight
By The Associated Press
CHICAGO, July 15-New contin-
gents marched onto the Democratic
convention scene today ready for
what their leaders said would be a
wide-open" battle for the vice presi-
dential nomination before a decision
is reached next Friday.
Fresh arrivals included Democratic
chairman Robert E. Hannegan and
two of President Rocsevelt's Admin-
istrative assistants-James M. Barnes
and Jonathan Daniels-and reserva-
tions were made for six cabinet offi-
cers tomorrow. But a much-adver-
tised expression of a White House at-
titude on second place still had not
made its appearance.
No News Yet
Supposedly bringing an expression
of the President's views, Hannegan
went into seclusion on his arrival
from Washington. His assistants
said he was "not ready to talk."
There still were indications he had
with him a letter from President
Roosevelt to the convention, which
opens Wednesday and is expected to,
renominate the chief executive for
a fourth term Thursday.
Convention delegates expect the
letter to voice a preference for Vice
President Henry A. Wallace as a run-
ning-mate but to leave it to them
to make the final selection.
While. there was no confirmation
that the national chairman carried a
rough draft of the party platform,
resolutions sub-committee members
said he might have some suggestions
on its content and brevity.
Connally Is Advisor
Hannegan aides announced that
Senator Tom Connally of Texas,
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
chairman, had agreed to serve as an
advisor to the platform sub-commit-
tee because of his "long experience
and expert knowledge in the field
of foreign affairs."
Hannegan put up at the Blackstone
hotel where the manager said reser-
vations had been made tomorrow for
six members of the president's offi-
cial family.
Allies Strike at
Scattered Points
I Pacific Area I
By the Associated Press
Flaming rivers of oil were sent
gushing down on Japanese in the
Boela petroleum center of Ceram
Island in a blazing answer by Allied
fliers to an enemy broadcast hinting
that Superfortress airmen had been
executed for bombing Japan.
Guam. is bomnbed
American warships and planes yes-
terday shelled and bombed Guam
Island, former American naval base
south of newly-conquered Saipan in
the Marianas, the Navy reported to-
Gun emplacements and the air-
field at Orote were hit during the
two-way attack.
Four Japanese planes were de-
stroyed on the ground, the Pacific
fleet headquarters announcement
said, adding that our planes ran into
"moderate" anti-aircraft fire.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur announc-
ed today attack planes flying in
force from recently captured air-
dromes off New Guinea split open
storage tanks in the hills of the
Dutch East Indies island and the
streams of oil enveloped "the whole
target in flames."
MacArthur's bombers came out
victoriously in air battles over Yap
and Palau, and joined cruisers and
destroyers bombarding 45,000 Nippo-
niese foot soldiers regrouping for an-
other smash at American lines on
the northern New Guinea coast. A
spokesman said the intense bom-

-Daily Photo by George Shideman
DISPLAYING THE FRUIT OF THEIR LABORS--These three Michigan coeds exhibit proudly part of
the results of their cherry picking activities. They are left to right, Nora MacLaughlan, Dottie Leonard,
and Ruth Dworman.

Yanks Advance
To Outskirts
Of Axis Lessay
Big Drive Imminent
In Sector Near Caen
Sunday, July 16-(AP)-U. S. troops
rolling up the German western flank
in an unspectacular but relentless
advance yesterday smashed into the
outskirts of Lessay and the fall of
that Axis coastal anchor town was
expected soon.
German broadcasts said a big drive
was imminent in the British-Cana-
dian sector around Caen on the east-
ern end of the Normandy front, and
a field dispatch from that area said
German demolition crews had begun
blowing up smokestacks in the facto-
ries of Colombelles, three miles
northeast of Caen. Such wrecking
usually precedes a German with-
drawal, but this dispatch said there
were no other signs that the Ger-
mans were pulling out.
The capture of Lessay on the west
coast of the Cherbourg Peninsula
probably would force a German with-
drawal of several miles on a broad

155 Army Men Harvest
59000 Quarts of Cherries

_ russia
Nazi Grodno
Is Outflanked
Success All Along
Front Announced
By the Associated Press
LONDON, July 15.The Russians
onight announced sweeping gains
on the north central Niemen River
front, outfianking the German for-
tress of Grodno and reaching within
eight miles of the Suwalki border of
East Prussia, and the German com-
mand announced that a tremendous
new Soviet offensive had begun in
the south of old Poland.
The Russian midnight communique
announced successes all down the
Baltic-White Russian front, begin-
ning with the capture of Opochka,
24 miles east of the Latvian border.
The Russians announced Friday
night they had taken the railway
station and were fighting in the
Moscow Silent
Moscow was silent on the southern
Polish front.
Westward in the big bulge- that
reaches along the lower Latvian bo-
ler and deep into eastern Lithuania,
the Russians announced extension of
their outfianking maneuver against
Daugavpils with capture of Onikshty
and Pichany, railway towns 60 miles
west of Daugavpils.
West and southwest of Wilno the
Red Army moved less than 199 miles
from Kaunas, reporting the seizure'
Af the railway junction town of Kai-
siadorys and Alytus, 32 miles south
f Kaunas. The Germans said three
days previously that the Russians
had taken Alytus, but the Soviets
remained silent until their broadcast
communique tonight.
River Line Reached
In possibly the most significant
development of the day announced
by Moscow, the communique said
Soviet troops had reached the Nie-
ren River line on a 75-mile front
north and south of Alytus and had
rossed that historic water barrier at
many points.
This put them less than eight miles
from the Suwalki triangle that was
annexed to East Prussia in Septem-
er, 1939, and placed Russian soldiers
well northwest of Grodno, which al-
eady was in the process of being out-
lanked from the southwest.
Allies Occupy
Hleights Along
25 Mile Front
ROME, July 15.-(U)-Doughboys
brought the great prt of Liorn
into artillery range from the moun-
tain positions three and one-half
miles away today and in a sweep
along a 25-mile front occupied all
important heights nine miles from
the Arno River guarding Florence
and Pisa.
It appeared that Livorno, potential
base for a grand assault on the
Gothic line above Florence and Pisa,
could not be held much longer by
the battered German fourteenth
army, now in full retreat.
Advances were general along the
160-mile front except in the center,
where British Eighth Army artillery
was banging away at the bottleneck
Dlmo Pass, barring the way to Arez-
:o. This highway center on the road
to Florence was in sight of advance
German positions south of the

Arno appeared hopeless, and it was
possible the enemy's retreat would
not halt until he had drawn back as
much as 15 miles at some points to
the heights northeast of Pisa- across
the Arno.
Doughboys following the withdraw-
al moved up to the coast to within
three and one-half miles of Livorno
at one, point last night.
Executive Council
Chosen For Union
Aimed t o w a r d "strengthening
VMichigan spirit and further serving
he student body", a new Union ex-
ecutive council was selected for the
New members are: Dick Freeman,
administration; Glenn White. ubli-

In a response to a volunteer call,
termed unprecedented in campus
history, more than 155 Army men
from units stationed on campus har-
Bomber .plant
Shut as Crane
Men Lheave Jobs
Special to The Daily
YPSILANTI, July 15.a- Charges
and countercharges were in the air
last night issued by both union and
company officials as more than 18,-
000 workers were idle yesterday at
the Ford Willow Run Bomber Plant
here. ,
In a statenent to The Daily last
night Walter Quillico, president of
Bomber Local 50, United Automobile
Workers (CIO) charged the Ford
Motor Company with forcing produc-
tion workers to sweep floors when
there is a special clean-up depart-
ment and also with flagrantly violat-
ing seniority rights as provided for
in an agreement with the union.
"It seems queer to me that the
See BOMBER PLANT, page 8

vested cherries yesterday afternoon-
liked their work-and some are go-
ing back today to continue the work.
In five hours work yesterday after-
noon, the Army men harvested more
than 300 crates of cherries--5,000
quarts and the orchard manager said
he thought they set "some kind of
speed record."
"I don't know what we would have
done without them," Herman Franz-
blau, proprietor of the orchard,
beamed. "If they hadn't offered to
help out in this emergency, we would
have lost that much of our crop,''
he added.
"We can be doubly proud of these
boys," one of the officers comment-
ed," they are not only in the Army.
but they gave up their only free time
to further aid the war effort."
The Army boys' participation in
the harvest yesterday was the climax
of a five recruiting campaign di-
rected by the Daily and the Wo-
men's War Council-a campaign that
resulted in 13 coeds volunteering for
Thursday and 12 more students for
To finish the day, the men re-
turned to the Quad to find cherries
for dinner.
'Conference on
China Planned
Outstanding Guests To
Appear Here in August
A picture of China's present and
future will be presented in a con-
ference on China, scheduled to be
held at the University Aug. 2 through
Aug. 5 when outstanding speakers,
including State Department guests
from China will lecture.
Sponsored jointly by the Institute
of Pacific Relations and the Sum-
mer Sessions of the University, the
conference sessions are planned es-
pecially forheducational and other
leaders of the country, and will be
open to the public.
Dr. George Shepherd, advisor to
Chiang Kai-Shek; Dr. Arthur Hum-

By The Associated Press
Nazis' French Rail Lines Disrupted .. .
IRUN, SPAIN, July 15-Germans admitted today that because of
badly disrupted rail lines in France they may be unable to bring three
trainloads of British refugees to the French-Spanish frontier for a British-
German exchange of interned nationals.
* * * *
Flying Bombs Hit London Again.. .
LONDON, July 15-A fresh flurry of flying bombs looped into the
London area and southern England today, one of them smashing several
buildings, burying a number of people in the wreckage and inflicting
* * 4 *
Poland Fears Encroachment on Lands.,..
LONDON, July 15-With the Red Army steamrolling across old Polish
territory, the Polish government-in-exile called tonight for United Nation's
support against any arbitrary incorporation of those lands into the Soviet


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