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August 15, 1943 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1943-08-15

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Weather.
No change

VOL. LIII, No. 36-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SUNDAY, AUG. 15, 1943

PRICE FIVE CENTS

Allies Sink
* * *
WMCIssui

90 Subs and Seven Jap Ships

es

* * *
Sweeping

* * *

* *

New

W-

Non-Essential1
Job Holders
To Be Taken
Wide Program Will
Use Selective Service
To Control Workers
WASHINGTON, Aug. 14. -(P)-
Thousands of pre-Pearl Harbor fa-
thers holding non-war jobs tonight
were laid open to possible induction
even before their class becomes vul-
nerable as a whole Oct. 1.
New Orders Listed
This was apparent in a sweeping
series of new orders aimed frankly
at using Selective Service as a pow-
erful instrument in the labor-mili-
tary manpower situation to:
1. Hold essential workers on war-
useful jobs if they are so employed
now,
2. Assure movement of other
workers from "unessential" tasks
to jobs considered important to the
war effort, and
3. Furnish men needed for the
armed services without cutting war
production.
'We must increase war production
and at the same time give our armed
forces the men they need," said
Chairman Paul V. McNutt of the
War Manpower Commission (WMC),
which embraces Selective Service.
Labor Draft Next
This program, bolstered by tight-
eing of WMC controls over move-
mentof women and men workers
outside the reach of Selective Serv-
ice, was described authoritatively as
about the ultimate manpower move
by the administration short of a
general labor draft.
(New WMC standards for per-
mitting transfers from job to job
are to be written into employment
stabilization plans by Oct. 15. Pri-
marily, these are intended to stim-
ulate transfer .from less essential
to more essential war jobs.)
Lawrence A. Appley, executive di-
rector of the WMC, said it could not
be guaranteed to make an outright
labor draft unnecessary, although he
hoped the new orders would have
that effect.
Draft Orders Given
The Selective Service part of the
program was embraced in orders:
1. Broadeningsthe list of non-de-
ferrable' activities and occupations,
making fathers who stay in these
jobs subject to possible reclassifica-
tion for induction before October un-
less drafting them would result in
"extreme hardship and privation" to
their families. Added were 23 ac-
tivities and 27 specific job-occupa-
tions.
2. Creating a list of 149 "critical
occupations," principally supervis-
ory or high-skill jobs in the most
vital war work, carrying super-
eligibility for deferment that likely
*wilt last for the duration.
Non-Deferrable Jobs Listed
Among the jobs newly designated
as non-deferrable to "insure that
the first fathers to be drafted will be
Turn to Page 2, Col. 5

ALLIES ASK DEMILITARIZATION:

Rome Declared Open City byItalians
(.>

By The Associated PressV
LOWDON, Aug. 14-The Italian
government announced tonight it
had decided to declare bomb-bat-
tered Rome an open city, but initial
British official reaction made it clear
that the declaration would have to
be accompanied by demilitarization
steps before the Italian capital is
removed from the list of Allied mili-
tary targets.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio's gov-
ernment announced that its de-
cision with regard to Rome
was communicated through the
Vatican two weeks ago and that
the Allied reaction had been
awaited. The announcement said
that in view of the repetition of
the air attacks on Rome it had
been decided to make the declara-
tion immediately and take the nec-
essary steps under international
law.
There was no disclosure up to a
late hour tonight that any overtures
on the subject had been received by
Great Britain. The Algiers radio flat-
ly declared that no official informa-
tion making Rome an open city had
reached the Allies.
An official British statement
said the Italian government's uni-
lateral declaration cannot "affect
the full liberty" of Gen. Dwight D.
Eisenhower, Allied commender-in-
chief in the Mediterranean area.
Thus, it appeared that Rome--a
key center of the Italian railway
system-would have to be taken
clear out of the war if it is to be
spared further bombings.
Reuters, in a dispatch from Allied
headquarters in North Africa, said
the Algiers radio indicated that mii-

RO ME
AND VICINITY LITTORIO
SAN
VATICAN CITY.-
\ Malagrott o i
s Paola \
Ponte Galenai#
TiberRivripino
Castel di L va
Ostia Antica Malpasso
Ostia Lido
Air Bose
Castel Romano
Patoma
0 4
. . . . .i STATUTE MILES

.... ... ...

jKlAm

Rome ... A bombed city that bows out of World War 11

tary objectives in the Italian capi-
tal would be bombed as long as Axis
troops moved through the city and
it was used for military purposes.
Should Rome be declared an open
city, the Allies would be entitled to
receive definite assurances that the
city actually had been-stripped of all
military significance.
War-weary Italians flocked to
Saint Peter's square for prayers of .
thanksgiving as soon as the news
spread among them concerning

VARIETY OF TALENT:
Company A To Present Soldier
Choir in Choral Concert Today
1*1

The Army's contribution to Ann
Arbor entertainment, Co. A, 3651st
Service Unit, will present their Sol-
died Choir in Hill Auditorium at 4:00
p.m. this afternoon in a special chor-
al concert.
The concert is open to all service-
men, townspeople, and students and
there is no admission charge.
Bill Sawyer Directs
Co. A's songsters, who have recent-
ly completed a five week broadcasting
assignment for WJR, Detroit, are
under the direction of Bill Sawyer,
who has been rehearsing them for
several months. The group is believed
to be the first service musical organ-
ization of its kind in regard to its
extensive repertoire which includes
medieval hymns, Negro spirituals,
sea chanteys, and a special arrange-
ment of Cole Porter's "Begin the Be-
guine," besides many other offer-
ings.
In addition to the chorus, Co. A is
also presenting several instrumental
and vocal soloists, all members of the
Unit, and all of whom have proven

their talents previously in civilian
life.
Soloists Are Experienced
Pvt. Robert Kurka, young concert
violinist from New York City, Pvt.
Joseph Running, former assistant or-
ganist and instructor in music at
Stanford University, and Pvt. Otto
Graf, concert pianist and former as-
sistant professor in Ge mnan at Mich-
igan are instrumentalists who will
perform between choir numbers,
while Pvts. Arthur Flynn, concert
tenor who has appeared regularly at
Town Hall in New York, and Pvt.
Allen Beach, star of Co. A's musical,
"Nips in the Bud," are the vocal
soloists.
This won't be Co. A's first enter-
tainment offering to Ann Arborites.
Late this spring they put their laugh
hit production, the above mentioned
"Nips" on the boards of Lydia Men-
delssohn theatre. One of the featured
acts in the show was the chorus, di-
rected by Sawyer which sang the
tunes written by Co. A's own song
writers, Pvt. Richard Malkin and
Jerry Stoner. Two of these numbers.
"A Soldier's Goodnight" and "The
Turn to Page 6, Col. 1

their government's announcement,.
the Vatican said.
The text of the announcement, a
bulletin by the official Stefani news
agency broadcast on the Rome radio
and recorded by The Associated
Press, said:
"The Italian government announced
on July 31 through an intermediary
of the Holy See its decision to de-
clare Rome an open city and has been
waiting to know the circumstances in
which this declaration wiuld be ac-
cepted."
* * *
U.S. To Ignore Rome as
Open City If Militarized
WASHINGTON, Aug. 14.-( P)-
The United States probably will ig-
nore an Italian declaration of Rome
as an open city until there is unques-
tionable evidence that Rome's mili-
tary and production facilities no
longer are used for war against the
Allies.
- BULLETIN --
LONDON, Aug. 15, Sunday.--(P)
-Britain's big bombers made an-
other punishing jab at northern
Italy last night, it was announced
early today, but where they struck,
was not immediately disclosed.
Atlantic Charter
Cited by FDR as
Post war Aim
WASHINGTON, Aug. 14.- (A)-
The Atlantic Charter's recognition of
the right of all peoples to self-de-
termination and the necessity for
international collaboration for eco-
nomic improvement were cited by
President Roosevelt today as prime
aims for a better post-war world.
The chief executive issued a for-
mal statement in commemoration of
the second anniversary of the char-
ter agreement and asserted the Al-
lies are now standing on the thresh-
old of "major developments in this
war."
Noting that this also is the eighth
anniversary of enactment of the
American social security law, he re-
newed a plea for covering farmers
and other new groups within its ben-
efits and to insure worers against
ill health.
He was joined in this plea by Sen-
ator Wagner (Dem.-N.Y.), one of the
act's framers, and Paul V. McNutt,
federal security administrator. Wag-
ner called for early congressional ac-
tion to broaden the law and increase
its annual assessment against pay-
rolls by $5,000,000,000.
Eden, Welles To Fly
o Moscow Parley

FDR, Prime
Minister Tell
Sea Success
Allied Leaders Make
Joint Announcement
Of Undersea Triumph
WASHINGTON, Aug. 14.-(P) --
President Roosevelt and Prime Min-
ister Churchill triumphantly an-
nounced today that "a total of over'
90 U-boats" were sent to the bottom
of the seas during heavy fighting in
May, June and July.
At the same time, the American
and British leaders declared in a
joint statement, which indicated the
two have already met for their cur-
rent war talks, that the Nazis still
have large reserve forces of undersea
raiders and that the Allies can expect
continued success in the all-import-
ant battle of supply lines to Europe
only if the most effective measures
possible are continued in force and
even improved in results.
Hitler's Weapon Fails
.The statistics and tone of the
statement seemed to make clepr that
the one weapon on which Adolf Hit-
ler had 'counted to keep his Fortress
of Europe impregnable had failed
completely at the strategic time, due
to the overwhelming success of Al-
lied counter-measures.
Out of 2,500 vessels involved in the
operations against Sicily and, in mov-
ing large.,numbers of reinforcements
following up the.. initial invasion, the
report noted only 80,000 tons had
been' lost.
More Ships Built
Moreover, it was disclosed that
new ships completed by the Allies in
1943 "exceed all sinkings from all
causes by upwards of three million
tons."
The statement by Roosevelt and
Churchill made it clear that barring
a letdown in Allied anti-submarine
operations the U-boats would not be
able to disrupt sea communications
between the United States and
Europe in the future any more than
they have been in the last several
months.
The statement declared that offen-
sive operations now arercontinuing
"to progress most favorably in all
areas."
Eden Will Come to
Quebec for Councils
QUEBEC, Que., Aug. 14.- ()- It
was learned on good authority to-
night that British Foreign Secretary
Anthony Eden would come here for
the British-American war councils,
joining top-ranking military chiefs
of the two nations who today swung
into a full-scale examination of Al-
lied combat plans.
In view of Eden's expected arrival,
it was regarded as almost certain
that the U.S. Secretary of State, Cor-
dell Hull, or Undersecretary Sumner
Welles also would attend the parleys.

Draft
AlliedAir
Raiders Hit
Balikpapa n
Main Jap Oil Port in
Southwest Pacific Set
Afire in Record Raid
By The Associated Press
ALLIED HEADQUARTERS IN
THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC,. Aug.
15, Sunday.- Big American Libera-
tor bombers, in a record-breaking
round, trip flight of 2,500 miles,
turned Japan's oil port of Balikpa-
pan on Borneo into a fiery cauldron
in the first air blow of the war on
that base, Gen. MacArthur an-
nounced today.
The bombers struck Friday night
and in the early morning hours Sat-
urday at the enemy's oil refinery and
fuelling center.
172 Tons of Bombs Dropped,
172 tons of bombs were dropped
Saturday in the Salamaua area, al-
ready strewn with ruins caused by a
177-ton attack the day before. And,
ind the Solomon, thedsecond aerial
pounding in as many days was given
Japan's big airdrome of Kahili on
Bougainville.
Ground progress was reported on
both flanks of the Pacific offensive.
On the right, United States jungle
troops on New Georgia pushed closer
to the last foothold of the enemy at
Bairoko. On the left, while the air
force was demolishing one ridge po-
sition of the enemy before S lamaua
ground troops partially destroyed
another.
Set Seven Reservoirs Afire
The raiders of Japan's oil center
in the central East Indies set at least
seven large oil reservoirs afire. These
flames spread to two big refineries
which the Japanese had succeeded
in restoring. These refineries had
been wrecked by the Shell Oil Com-
pany prior to Japanese landings ear-
ly in February,. 1942.
A medium-sized ship, believed to
have been a tanker, was hit squarely
by 500 pound bombs and was envel-
oped in flames.
All the Liberators in the raid got
safely back to their Australian base.
To reach Balikpapan, on Borneo's
southeast coast, they had to fly over
island bases and seas long and
strongly protected by the enemy.
Fire Thrown Up
The Liberators made their passes
over Balikpapan from heights rang-
ing from very low to medium alti-
tude, flying through an intense hail
of fire thrown up by Japanese ground
batteries.
Deterioration of the Japanese, po-
sition at Salamaua, whose airdfome
is within short flying range of other
enemy air bases on New Britain, was
hastened by Saturday's attack. Other
planes kept up the less sensational
but all-important work of bombing
supply barges.
Messerschmitt
Factory Hit by
U.S. Bombers
Wiener Neustadt Plant
Raided by Liberators
From African Bases

CAIRO, Aug. 14-()-American
Liberator bombers, flying a round
trip of nearly 2,500 miles from their.
African bases, dumped more than
330,000 pounds of high explosives
yesterday on a German aircraft fac-
tory at Weiner Neustadt which has.
been credited with production of a
third of all the Messerschmitt fight-
ers used by the Nazi air force.
Catching enemy defenses com-
pletely by surprise, the four-engine
bombers completed the long daylight
trip to the Danube river city, 27 miles
south of Vienna, with every plane
"accounted for," a communique from
U. S. 9th air force headquarters an-

Lists
U.S. Subs Hit
Supply Lines
In Far Pacific
Five Enemy Merchant
Vessels Damaged in
Shipping Operations
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Aug. 14-Tb
Navy announced today that Ameri-
can submarines operating aainlt
Japanese supply lines in the far
Pacific had sunk seven more ene-
my merchant vessels and dinaged
five.
Navy communique No. 457 said:
"Pacific and For East:
"1. . S. submarines have re-
ported the sinking of seven enemy
vessels and the damaging of fiye
others in operations against the
enemy in the waters of these orea,
as follows:
"Sunk: "one large transport, on
medium sized passenger fregter,
two sma llfreighters, one small
schooner, one medium sized su-
ply ship, one medium sized cargo,
vessel.
"Damaged: one medium size
freighter, one medium sized tank
er, one medium sized cargo vessel,
one small freighter, one small cr-
go vessel.
"2. These actions have not bfen.
announced in any previou N4y
department communiques :
Russian A rmy
BattersXKey
Nazi Fortress
Fierce Battle Rages on
Karachev Approaches
In Bryansk Offensive
LONDON, Aug. 15, Sunday.- (P)
-Russian troops fought in the
streets of Kharkov last night, front
dispatches said, while a Soviet mid-
night communique issued early today
told of battles on the approaches to
Karachev in the Bryansk offensive
and the killing of 8,000 Germans ,in
the new drive from Spas Demensk
on the central front.
Wild fighting raged on the blazing
500-mile Russian front where Soviet
troops killed nearly 10,000 Germans
during the day, seized more than 80
villages and reaped great quantities
of war material intact. Scores of
enemy tanks were knocked Out or
captured.
One Unit Kills 8,000 Nazis
One Russian unit alone, in three
days fighting around Spas Demensk,
killed 8,000 Germans, wrecked 58
tanks, 128 guns and demolished 200
blockhouses studding the deep Ger-
man defenses, the bulletin said. In
another sector an important store
of railway equipment, including nine
locomotives, 184 freight cars and 126
flat cars fell into Red Army hands
intact, said the communique record-
ed here by the Soviet monitor.
Kharkov, battered from several
sides by the Russians organized into
the new "Voronezh steppe front"
army, echoed to the roar of artillery
and the chatter of machineguns, and
in two sectors the Russians had al-

ready penetrated to the streets of
the city, front dispatches said.
In the fighting on the approaches
to Karachev-26 miles east of Bry-
ansk-the Russians killed 2,500 Ger-
mans, wrecked 20 tanks and 98 girns
and captured 12 tanks, 56 guns and
42 mortars.
Cassidy Reports Retreat
Henry C. Cassidy, Associated Press
correspondent with the Red Army
on the Bryansk front, said that the
last escape up through Karachev for
the Germans retreating since their
defeat at Orel, was only three miles
wide and under constant Russian ar-
tillery fire.
"It is raining intermittently out
here now." Cassidy said. "Fighting

.a
,s
s : j

ALLIES HIT MESSINA STRAITS:

Nazis Retreat from

Sicily

ALLIED HEADQUARTERS. IN
NORTH AFRICA, Aug. 14-Allied Air
and Naval forces drew a ring of fire
around tte Strait of Messina today
in, a bombing and shelling battle
against dazed German troops who
had begun a wholesale withdrawal
from Sicily for a stand in Italy.
Only about 34 miles from Messina,
American and British troops moved
up fast on all sides after smashing
through the fire-swept crossroads of
Randazzo, capturing Piraino on the
north coast, Floresta in the middle
section of the front, and Riposto, Gi-
arre and Milo on the east coast.

evacuation the situation in other re-
spects resembled the closing phases1
at Cap Bon in Tunisia three months
ago, and it was doubtful if they would
be able to carry away much of theirI
heavy equipment. Germans crowded
into the narrow funnel of Messina
Peninsula as American and British
planes of almost every type except
the heavy Flying Fortresses bore
down on them by day and night.
Planes Sweep Roads
Fighter and light bombers swept
along the roads, dipping to truck-
roof height to pour out streams of
cannon and machinegun fire. Aban-

and Pizzo, small debarkation points,
pelted a mass of troops crossing a
bridge near Marina De Valencia and
raised an explosion and eight big
fires which seared the sky above the
railroad yards at LaMezia.-
Troop Ferries Sunk
Although cloud formations inter-
ferred over the strait somewhat, Al-
lied airmen sank six small troop fer-
ries and shot up 16 others.
Motor torpedo boats penetrated
right to the mouth of Messina Harbor
and sent a salvo of torpedoes after
three vessels entering- the port. A

s
t

Buck Firmara
Rides Again
ALLIED HEADQUARTERS IN
NORTH AFRICA, Aug. 14.- (A)-
The title of this story is "Buck Fiu-
mara Rides Again."
And it's a story that is spreading
like wildfire through the American
and British armies on Sicily where
a British provost marshal captured
an Italian general and his aide-de-
camp after a thrilling 45-minute
chase up and down the slopes of Mt.
Etna. All three mounted donkeys.
. It seems the provost marshal re-
ceived word that two suspicious
characters in civilian clothes had
been sighted astride donkeys along
the lower path of the mountain not
far from a newly-captured British
position yesterday.
He went out to investigate, found
them and attempted to approach
them on foot. The two men urged
their dnnkevs un the steen. sloning

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