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August 09, 1942 - Image 3

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Michigan Daily, 1942-08-09

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SUNDAY, AUGUST 9, 1942

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

PACE: TEMER

SUNDAY, AUGUST 9, 1942 PAGE THREE

The

Week

In

Review

Foreign
People stopped trying to keep up
with the strange combination of the
old and the new that is Russian
geography this week. Eager to seize
on the name of any town or generala
that had anything to do with a vic-
tory, they saw no reason to go on
memorizing the names of people and
places that marked defeat. They
wanted an heroic siege as at Sevas-
topol and Leningrad, or a victory like
that at Rostov in 1941. Only such
names and places would they learn.
They had little interest in the towns
that marked the way to Stalingrad
and the Caucasus. They refused to
speak or mention the cities that lay
filled with German dead along a Nazi
road to victory.
In this attitude people were only
human, but in this attitude they were
making a grave mistake. Names per-
sonalize a war, bring it close to home,
but the American people wanted it at
a distance, far enough away so they
need only say, "The Russian situa-
tion looks bad."
Pretty mild words, those, for what
happened to Russia in the days
which edged into eternity this week.
In the Caucasus the ruthless
slashing of coordinated tanks, air-
planes, infantry, paratroops and oth-
er instruments of Nazi warfare cut
through Soviet lines. Breakthroughs
at varying points along the line,
stubborn resistance in others. A gal-
lant dike of defenders could not plug
all the holes opened by the wearing,
pounding sea of, invaders. They had
enough men, but the weapons weren't
there.
Another of the famed Nazi pincer
movements circled south from Ros-
tov and one of the pincerheads
reached within 30 miles of long-
sought oil at Maikop. Though Bel-
aya Glina on the southeast and
through Krasnodar on the south-
west the Hitler hordes swept through
land that first saw military might in
the days of Genghis Khan. At the
same time that Maikop was endan-
gered, Russian defenders along the
shore of the Sea of Azov were in
equal jeopardy. A drive to Maikop
would cut them off from the main
force, isolate and softenthem for
the kill."
The equally important drive on
Stalingrad made less . progress, but
any joy over the battle was of a
purely negative variety. It was like
saying that the Nazis weren't in
Moscow yet. The fight raging this
week-end was in the furthest west
bend of the Don-a river which by
this time its history has stained, like
the Marne, indelibly red. It now
appeared that behind Stalingrad on
a line behind the Volga the Russians
would do or die.
Many experts didn't give them
long, Pearson and Allen only a few
short weeks, others a few months;
but the observers spoke with a huge
"if" in mind. They saw Russia fight-
ing on indefinitely-perhaps to vic-
tory in two years-if she could have
a Second Front that was a real front
in more ways than one.
On three things now does the fate
of Russia depend, on its indomitable
spirit of complete sacrifice, on a huge
reserve army poised behind the Vol-
ga, and on the word of her Allies not
to let her die without a blow in her
behalf.
-* * *
Russia appeared to be very little
worried about the Japanese menace
in the rear, but military observers
saw that she was not ignoring the
busy little yellow men whose un-
ceasing activity wins grudging ap-
proval from an enemy that hates
their complete lack of anything but
barbaric principles and Russia was
still only a wounded bear with plenty
of kick left in both fore and hind
feet, and Japan knew it.
One Congressman asserted that
actual undeclared war already ex-

isted in the North Pacific, but like
most Congressmen he was fortunate-
ly ignored by Russian diplomats. If
Russia believed everything said about
her in our Congress the war would
be over by now.
* * *
What Now, Little Men?
The Japs have so much territory to
cover that they could embark on any
of three major campaigns at any
time, one of them being the Russian
venture. Her top generals this week
were poised at the point of the Man-
chuokuo "dagger, but she made what
must be interpreted as at least feints
in two other directions.
On the MacArthur front the crafty
Nips did a 'good week's work that
might well wrinkle the brow of
America's military idol. They com-
pleted a semi-circle-whether for de-
fense or offense nobody knew-but
it was broken only by Port Moresby.
On this semi-circle whose focal point
is Point Darwin, they took a new set
of islands which moved the Red-
Balled bombers 200 miles closer to
their target.
And at the same time they moved
nverland in New Guinea. Establish-

Lesson In Russian Geography

Domestic-y CargoPlanes At Last

the U. S. Navy had commenced an
offensive in the Tulagi area of the
Solomon Islands.
If the move is in full force it may
mean that Japan will have not only
to give up plans for concentrated at-
tack on Port Moresby, but might
have to call off the dogs in Siberia.
Throwing Japan on the defensive
here and in the Aleutians where the
Navy has also reported extensive of-
fensive operations may be the begin-
nings of an offensive in the Pacific
which will paralyze Japanese plans.
The Navy announcement also told

Begins Campaign

earlier in the day by the Army Min-
ister of Australia who warned the
people there that invasion of the
continent remained a distinct possi-
bility and even a probability.
The brief communique did not de-
scribe the action in the Solomons,
the small atolls northeast of Aus-
tralia and slightly southwest of New
Guinea, flanking the Coral Sea.
* * *
Two-Way Trouble
In India the principal threat re-
mained the Jap army in Burma, but
the short-range problem was what
to do about Mohandas K. Gandhi,
the All-India Congress, and their
civil disobedience campaign-a cam-
paign which opened Friday to the
personal exhortations of the famed
ascetic. Gandhi had wavered on the
issue for months, Cripps had made a
trip to India to talk with the little
Hindu, British leaders had palavered
for hours with the Congress, Roose-
velt had sent a wire, Johnston had
gone to India-but the decision was
merely delayed. Britain, in refusing
Indian freedom after the first war,
had sealed her fate in much the same
way as the boy who cried "Wolf."
This time Britain looked to Gandhi
and other Indians like a bigger wolf
than Japan. That's why British mili-
tary leaders in India looked with
trepidation at the Burmese border.
* * *
Allied Council
In England, the Second Front was
the topic of the day not only in the
streets and pubs. An Allied Council
met to decide the fate of Russia, but
one wondered whether or not they
any longer held the fate of Russia
in their hands.
The RAF winged its way over Ger-
many and France with bombracks
and machine guns, carrying and de-
livering capacity loads to such Ger-
man industrial centers as Duisberg,
but there were no more Colognes or
Hamburgs. Its high command also
admitted that the all-out bombings
of early June had cost the RAF more

planes than the Germans lost, some-
thing to be expected, but still dis-
heartening.
Mussolini lnit Wood pile
By the way, what's going on in
Africa? Are they waiting for Musso-
lini to go north before they start
anything?
** *
The Western Hemisphere was qui-
et again this week with the excep-
tion of Argentina, a country split
Leads New Attack

Miracle production man Henry J.:
Kaiser has at last been promised the
opportunity to apply his magic touch9
to 500 70-ton "Mars" flying cargo"
boats, with even 200-ton ships some-
where in the offing.
To an American public that had
just received from the Office of War7
Information a startlingly sharp slap
in its too-optimistic face, this was
the best possible news that could
have come out of the domestic front.
Many an individual, previously1
content with the lavish praises which
businessmen and ex-businessmen
have been heaping upon our produc-
tion efforts, were rudely awakened
by the OWI blunt statement that:7
"As a nation we are not yet more'
than ankle-deep in the war ... pro-
duction of small vessels for the anti-
submarine campaign is still laggingl
and in June was less than half of
schedule."
"Even if shipbuilding continued to a
rise and sinkings to decrease, we$
shall probably be well into 1943 be-
fore we again have as much mer-
chant shipping as we had on Dec. '7,
1941."
With this warning ringing in its
ears, the nation could take some
comfort at least in Production Chief7
Donald Nelson's announcement that
Kaiser would soon get a letter of in-
tent to build 100 flying boats in his
shipyards on the West Coast and
that he would be allowed to build
400 more if the first order turned
out satisfactorily.,
There is only one string attached
to the announcement and Kaiser is
confident it will not trip him up. Nel-
son said that the entire plan is "con-
tingent upon the construction not in-
terfering with our combat plane pro-
gram." He added, however, that he
had hopes this would be possible-"at
least we can try."
Although everyone else seemed
gratified that Nelson and the WPB
hAd at least given recognition to the

amazing production genius of Kai-
ser, the Navy was reportedly object-
ing strongly. Just why Navy offi-
cials should object to what seems the
obvious solution to the submarine
menace is (ificult to understand-
but it has always been difficult to
understand the "brass-hat" mental
process.
At any rate. even if the Navy re-
fuses to sign the contract. it seems
likely that Nelson--once more act-
ing in the diynamic fashion that has
been sadly missang of late --will fall
O.I s fly R,-fots

MOHANDAS K. GANDHI
of sea and air attacks on Kiska,
Japanese-invaded Aleutian island off
the coast of Alaska, but there was no
mention that this attack was con-
tinuing and it was assumed that it
was more a heavy raid than a gen-
eral offensive intended to drive the
Japanese invaders from their bases.
The communique issued in Wash-
ington followed a pronouncement

ADMIRAL CHESTER W. NIMITZ
by terrific internal dissension-the
people for the U.S., the government
for the Axis. Waldo Frank, famed
American author, was ordered to
leave the country, but before he could
comply six thugs worked him over in
his hotel room. Argentine citizens
really got sore about that, but with-
out a leader they had no channels
in which to express their anger.
- Hale Champion

DONALD NELSON

back on his wartime powers and sign
it himself.
And it is certain that Kaiser is
more than ready to act. He is the
sort of man who dreams the impos-
sible and then sets about making it
possible. He is about to make 70-ton
flying boats a possibility and has al-

wausis INTHE CAUCASUSI

pntORO SHILOVGRAD S 0
osg KAMENSK ".
ALILT STA4
G RO ROSTOV ' DoG E
4e OpOL * St S"y~ .
BATAISK d(
PROLETARS .N RLO
SA SALT MARSHES and deserts ill RAH1kA
suited to mechanized warfare UNDER
rAmay channel Nazi drive west CONSTRUCTION
tiQto great plains.
"TIKHORETSK --:.
S.
t
W KROPOTKIN -
: .n .,tr" ' "_A-'AV R VO ROSHILOVSK -
.f-//fl:f/(/ .r/. .f/4 ni y.rt_?f r, ": :.. "..
"'+4 ,t,,! ,',,lr^4 r' , 44
MOUNTAIN BASTION: Nazis
,'SHP pe inemust fight uphill over -10,-
000-foot Caucasian Range if "R'a
Russians retire to mountains,
block the few passes.
-
;RLEND-LEASE HELP by plane ship and overland
anpplnelnknn .viaTrans-IranianRairoad and highways could
Ccu o.tmaintain resistance behindmountainront.
-WideI ord
,tu , }U ,~ , t~~rY Etv~ i er, ' 'rE ltlr4' ) ,r,,i; ." f jl a k JII ' ; ^
RIV NG don for Cauasus oi Yt.,,Naziarmies hae struck
_ t, Ug' the grfa1111rthwest p. s.- .ttlonce they gJ ,inrr s ,r- 'ftot""y
IVIN d uau onr aucsasdushoilthed sapp yrmies hverucrk AZ
fiedy phe iader's"tanksgra"find"Masycoll"ngeforns ilesn.E LFEDSRVEw wrdFers
-----

ready begun to dream about those
in the 200-ton class. If we ever over-
come the submarine menace, it will
be largely because of the vision and
the ability of Henry J. Kaiser, mir-
acle production man.
s * *
Extermination Week
This week was a bad one for trai-
tors, saboteurs and pro-Axis propa-
gandists, seven of whom received the
death sentence, two long prison
'terms at hard labor and three were
convicted of sedition and are now
awaiting sentences which are certain
to be severe.
First to feel the wrath of a United
States at war was Max Stephan,
German-born American citizen, who
learned-but steadfastly refused to
believe-that he would be hanged for
the assistance he gave escaping Nazi
Oberleutnant Peter Krug.
Federal Judge Arthur J. Tattle has
decreed that because "Stephan never
lost his love for Germany," he shall
die on the morning of Friday, Nov.
13, in the Federal Correctional In-
stitution at Milan, Mich.
Six Saboteurs Die
Two days after Stephan received
the death sentence and exactly one
month after a military commission
had begun the secret trial of eight
Nazi-trained saboteurs, six of them
died in the electric chair in the Dis-
trict of Columbia jail.
Two of the Nazis escaped death
"because of their assistance to the
government of the United States in
the apprehension and conviction of
the others." They were Ern'est P.
Burger, who was sentenced to life
imprisonment at hard labor and
George John Dasch, who received a
sentence of 30 years at hard labor.
The death of the six was kept as
nearly secret as their trial had been.
Although a reporter for the Inter-
national News Service broke the real
story of the sentences on Friday, the
President denied its truth until after
the electrocutions had actually taken
place at noon yesterday. The Presi-
dent also announced that the rec-
ords of the men will remain military
secrets until after the war.
Pelley Is Convicted
In a clear demonstration of what
Americans think of the home-grown
type of Nazi, a Federal Court jury-
including six Hoosier farmers-de-
creed that William Dudley Pelley
and two companions were guilty of
sedition.
Former leader of the fascistic Sil-
ver Shirts and publisher of The Gal-
ilean, Pelley was convicted on 12
counts and faces a maximum sen-
tence of 20 years in prison or $10,000
fine for each.
Toward Labor Peace
Out of Chicago this week, where
the United Automobile Workers
(CIO) held their national conven-
tion, came rumblings of dissatisfac-
tion with the way the war effort is
being conducted, proposals to in-
crease its effectiveness and another
insistent-but seemingly futile-cry
for equality of sacrifice.
Most important news was the pro-
posal by CIO president Philip Mur-
ray that the CIO and AFL enter into
close cooperation to end all jurisdic-
tional strikes for the duration of the
war.
He said that if the AFL would
agree to the creation of a joint com-
mittee, with an impartial arbitrator,
tot handle all disputes which may
arise between the two labor organi-
zations, he would "assure America
that. there will not be another strike
caused by jurisdictional disputes in
the United States during the war."
MurrayCharges Evasion
Two days later, however, Murray
was forced to send a telegram to the

War Labor Board charging that Wil-
liam Green, president of the AFL,
has tried to evade the proposal for
unity.
Green had announced to the news-
papers that he did not have the
power to agree on arbitration.
If the Murray charge is true-and
it appears to us that it well may be-
Green will have to do a lot of ex-
plaining to prove his sincere inter-
est in winning the war. We hope,
however, that the CIO president was
mistaken and that the two organi-
zations agree soon on a real, work-
able method of arbitration.
Other Labor News
Other labor news from the conven-
tion included the following:
1. Notice was given that unless all
workers-union and non-union-re-
linquished overtime pay for work on
Saturdays, Sundays and holidays,
the UAW would have to revoke its
policy of doing so. Union leaders
charged that this contribution of the
UAW to the war effort had been re-
neateiuv ed hv rival lahr groups

NO MILITARY ANALYST attempts to minimize the
gravity of the Nazi threat to Russia in the drive into
the Caucasus, but despite Axis gains in the savage on-
slaught, Hitler is still a long way from gaining concrete
returns from the rich between-seas area.
There are two very serious factors weighing against
-.. v_ _ . . . , -__ « ......- .. w .. .r r - i . s fh

An estimate of the situation in the Caucasus now
brings the general conclusion that Hitler's toughest
fighting is yet to be done. The terrain in the North
Caucasus is ideally adapted to mechanized fighting, in
which the Nazis are brilliant.
* * * f*-
mrr tni' m'Af PAT1\T om mrn1 t rn'irv fnr tsnnk gninv-

and Caspian Seas from northwest to southeast. Even
Maikop, the small oil field closest to the German ad-
vance, is in the first foothills of the range. Other key
p
objectives are protected by the mountains.
EVEN if the Axis forces succeeded in occupying the
nil objectives, the Russians could retire behind the

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