THE MICHIG~AN DAILY
THURSDAY, AUG. 3,
' .- ;a;L 1PA 14 y; iV.C11.\ L to ii/i '
I YYYWYIYIIWYWIYiY iY1Ylq.
They Brought Buddhism To Masses
Dr. Sakarishi Describes Life And Works Of Honen Shonin
And His Disciple, Shinran Shonin
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NIGHT EDITOR: JACK CANAVAN
The editQrlals published in The Mchigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the
Them The Inside.
COME ONE, come all! Visit the show
place of Ann Arbor! The Rackham
Building-the most beautiful edifice on the
And visitors come, from far and near to look
at the University, with the special intention of
seeing the Rackham Building. And what do they
find? The doors locked! No way of getting a
view of the interior of this building they heard
so much about, the building that the newspapers
featured in their rotogravure sections, the build-
ing that is superlative in the way of buildings.
Every Sunday, the time when most people have
a chance to come to Ann Arbor, the building is
locked up. Why is this? Is it to guard the inside
for posterity or is it to prohibit anyone from
appreciating the art exhibits, the beautiful decor-
ations found inside?
If it is for posterity, aren't people of the present
just as important? Why should people of the
future be so much more superior than we are,
see so much more than we do? And if it is to
keep people from seeing something the like of
which they have never before laid eyes on, to
keep them from seeing something outstanding in
modern architectue is positively inane.
If the University does not want people wander-
ing through the building at all hours of the day,
let them have conducted tours at special hours.
But at least let them allow the many people Who
conme to see .the building an opportunity to look
at more than the outside.
-Ethel Q. Norberg
Role Of ,n-hentance
By KARL KESSLER
Inheritance as a factor governing human in-.
telligence was discussed yesterday in an address
In the Rackham Lecture Hall by Prof. Walter B.
Pillsbury of the department of psychology.
The theory that all men are created equal,
Professor Pillsbury indicated, has been wiaely
quoted, and has even been incorporated in the
primary documents of our country, but in actual
practice, men are created equal only in the eyes
of the law.
Studies of the correlation between intelligence
and heredity has attracted specific scientific re-
search in the last 50 or 75 years, he pointed, out.
Early investigations conducted in England select-
ed men of eminence as a basis of study, and then
contrasted the achievements of thehsons of these
men with the aveirage. On the basis of a scale
on which complete correlation is 100, and lack
of it is shown by 0, these studies gave a resultant
rating of 50.
Later studies were conducted on statistics
available at the University of Oxford. Probabil-
Ity rating here between fathers and sons who
were given honors ratings was found to be about
25 and that between brothers was somewhat
higher. Taking into consideration the high de-
gree of selection exercised by the university, this
rating would be approximately equivalent to that
Research conducted here by Professor Pills-
bury in recent years has shown a decidedly lower
rate of correlation. Statistics were obtained by
comparing the scholastic abilities of fathers and
fons at the University. - The chief difficulty1
arising from this study was that previous to 1912
the alphabetic grading system had not been
established, and a direct comparison was impos-
By HARRY M. KELSEY
Two men, Honen Shonin and his disciple, Shin-
ran Shonin, brought the practise of Buddhism to
the level of the Japanese masses, Dr. Shio Sakan-
ishi of the Library of Congress' Division of Orien-
talia told her audience yesterday in a talk spon-
sored by the Institute of Far Eastern Studies.
Dr. Sakanishi's lecture was the second in a
series of three on Japan's religious leaders. Today
she will tell of Dogen and the spiritual life
Honen Shonin, known also as Genku, was born
in 1133 at Kume and at the age of eight years,
Dr. Sakanishi asserted, decided to devote his life
to religion when his father made a request on
his deathbed that Honen should not think of
revenge, as was the custom, but rather should
pray for the salvation of his soul. He was or-
dained, the lecturer said, at the age of 17, and
was then considered the most learned man in
the monastery at Mt. Hiei where he had gone
to study. A successful public life was predicted
He immediately retired, however, and devoted
himself to learning, but found no spiritual com-
fort, Dr. Sakanishi asserted. At that time, she
pointed out, the country was being ruined by
civil wars which culminated in the death of the
Emperor and Honen was thrown into utter
despair. He was looking for a new and simpler
method of salvation and at the age of 43 at last
found this in the works of Genshin, who, 200
years previously, had written a treatise on the
essentials of salvation claiming, Dr. Sakanishi
affirmed, that salvation can only be found in the
boundless mercy of the Buddha Amida and that
all that was necessary to gain this salvation was
to recite the Buddha Amida's name.
Here, the lecturer told, Honen saw a means to
salvation which was within the grasp of the
masses who could not understand the Buddhism
of Kukai and others. He began to teach his
philosophy and gained a large following made up
mostly of peasants, artisans and merchants,
creating a religious controversy which caused
his banishment by the Emperor in 1207, a ban-
ishment which was retracted the following year
although, according to Dr. Sakanishi, Honen did
not return until 1211. A year after his return,
she related, he restated his creed and died shortly
afterward, his death only serving to quicken the
faith in his teachings.
Chief among the disciples of Honen, the lec-
turer stated, was Shinran Shonin, born in 1173,
who came to Honen at the age of 28 and not only
was Honen's pupil, but was made his heir. When
Honen was banished, Shinran went with him, but
did not return when his master did, preferring to
journey into the northern provinces as a mis-
sionary, Dr. Sakanishi asserted. He followed
Honen's principle of simplifying Buddhism, say-
ing that if the person were to repeat the name
of Amida Buddha with no doubt as to his mercy
he would be reborn on his death into paradise;
and, considering himself a preacher rather than
a teacher, the lecturer maintained, he continued
to spread the new faith he had founded, that of
Jodo Shinshu, until his death in 1262.
The disciples of Honen and Shinran worked
previous investigations, a new method of ap-
proach was attempted.
Investigators at the University of Iowa com-
pared the intelligence quotients of children in an
orphanage and later of the same children after
placement in good homes. The data thus
obtained showed an increase of 20 points. Other
investigators, Professor Pillsbury indicated, have
been unable to confirm this result.
Experiments conducted here on cases of iden-
tical twins showed a remarkably high rate of
correlation, and even in twins who had been
separated since birth, the similarity of intelli-
gence was pronounced.
These results seem to indicate, Professor Pills-
bury concluded, that the same correlation exists
between intelligence inheritance characteristics
as is the case with color of hair and eyes and
similar physical qualities.
The alarming picture of a degeneration of the
human race now presents itself, Professor Pills-
bury pointed out. Surveys show that feeble
minded people have a far larger birth rate than.
the more intelligent individuals, and calculations
indicate that the average intelligence quotient is
decreasing at the rate of three points per genera-
tion and at the present rate of decline, 50 per
cent of the population would be feeble minded
300 years from now.
To prevent such a calamity, if it is a calamity,
two courses may be pursued. Sterilization of
feeble minded individuals is practiced in some in-
stances today, but the number of such cases taken
care of is insignificant. The alternative re-
course lies in increasing the birth rate among
the other section of the population, but attempts
at stimulating an increase here have generally
been unsuccessful, as indicated in the case of
as apostles and their followers in the 15th century
became a powerful church, Dr. Sakanishi de-
clared. Buddhism for the first time, she stated.
became a popular religion and the people of
Japan became united in the recitation of the
name of Buddha Amida, for the teachings said
that whosoever recited the name enters into
paradise which by his own efforts he could not
Included in the philosophy of the Jodo Shin-
shu sect, Dr. Sakanishi told, were the three states
of mind: a sincere heart, one in which every
thought is true; a believing heart, the belief in
the mercy of the Buddha Amida; and a longing
heart, one which wishes every minute spent in
saying the Nembutsu, the recitation of the name
of the Buddha Amida, to be dedicated to Buddha
with the idea of being reborn in paradise.
Prayer, according to the sect, is not merely a
help, she pointed out; more than a part of life
it is the whole of life, and should leave no room
for passion or ambition, the source of sin. The
founders of Jodo Shinshu advised their followers,
if they had any spare time after saying the
Nembutsu, to apply it to doing good works, Dr.
Although this is in paradox to the third state
of mind, she pointed out, Honen and Shinran
ignored this. Though it would seem that the
philosophy of the sect claimed that one was
saved by faith but yet works helped also, Dr.
Sakanishi stated that Shinran paid no attention
to this and pushed the Nembutsu to its logical
extreme, saying that one recitation of the Nem-
butsu was all that was necessary; repetition was
desirable but not requisite for the individual to
be reborn in Nirvanah.
By STAN M. SWINTON
A smashing attack on fascism neatly wrapped
in three acts and sweetened for pubic consump-
tion through the addition of melodramatic action
scenes, Elmer Rice's "Judgment Day" made a
favorable impression on the spectator last night.
As neat a performance as the Lydia Mendels-.
sohn stage has seen in some time rejuvenated
the show after a slow first act, as scene stealing
Dorothy Hadley carried off top feminine honors
with her professional performance of Giulia
Crevelli, an opera singer of a very few thousand
Telling the true story of a politically-inspired
trial and modeled after the infamous Nazi-per-
petrated Reichstag farce, Rice's play contained
fine eloquent writing which won appreciation
despite some of the corniest melodrama seen this
side of a poverty-row western. It speaks well
for the cast that they managed to carry off the
insufficiently motivated action up to the final
Aside from mechanical plot difficulties, the
show was also slowed up by first-night trouble.
Charles Leavay's excellent portrait of Dr. Wolf-
gang Bathory, the prosecutor, was weakened as
he muffed his lines again and again while the
tension which had been built up was almost
killed at the start of the last scene when the
bit-player taking the part of the Lieutenant
stood wordless until prompted.
Despite the inevitable line difficulties of a
repertory company, however, the play deserves to
be ranked near the top of summer productions.
E. S. Cortright's fine portrait of the judge 'with
a conscience; Nancy Schaeffer's amazingly good
scene as Sonia; Steven Filipiak's blustering,
Goering-esque General; Frank Jones' Dr. Con-
stantine Parvan and Burdette Moeller's cloddish
waiter all served to make one forget mechanical
difficulties while creating an illusion of reality.
Especially deserving of praise were Nathan
Gitlin as Conrad and Duane Nelson's powerful
portrait of the persecuted liberal whose faith
in humanity and democracy survived the terri-
fying spectacle of the fascist mind unveile4
Another outstanding performance was Dorothy
Strootman's vital portrait of the woman whose
love for her husband enables her to survive
In reviewing the play, then, one comes to the
conclusion that it was the acting which lifted
it to a level above mere melodrama. And that
despite that fine acting the work which Rice
has produced fails to prove convincing despite
the power of its indictment. Luckily a play
doesn't need to convince to be a worthwhile,
amusing show and that's what %"Judgment
The University Hospital was established as a
teaching clinic for students in the University
Medical School. Insofar as hospital expenses
are concerned, the hospital is self-supporting.
own & Qown
By STAN M. SWINTON
They finally stopped The Jeep.
It takes a lot of stopping for a guy
who can be taken from the game with
a broken nose, promptly borrow a
nose-guard and then grouse at the
coach for not sending you back in.
But Kid Nature wound up that right
and kayoed the dreams of a youth who
asked nothing more than the oppor-
tunity to clutch a football against his
blue jersey and savagely smash his
body into the opposing line.
It all started a long time ago.
Something went wrong with the left
leg. Howie Mehaffey went to the
doctors and they told him "osteomye-
litis." That's a dangerous infection
of the bone. It was 15 years ago that
they operated for the first time.
But Howie overcame the handicap
of that leg and went on to become a
sensational football player and a
swell baseball catcher. He wasn't far
from tops in Pittsburgh. And when
he went to the top football prep
school in the nation-Kiski-he still
was tops. In the meantime his leg
still bothered him. There are a lot
of stories on how many times it was
operated on. I don't know for sure.
Anyway, Howie came to Michigan
where his ludicrous, haircut, promi-
nent nose and likeable personality won
him the affectionate nickname
"Jeep." As a freshman he really
played ball. He kept training, worked
on his studies only so that he could
be out there when the referee blew
Last fall he went into action. In
.the Ohio State game-the best he's
ever played, Howie feels-they gave
him the ball on the 18 yard line and
told him to get going. He got going.
When they stopped him the ball was
within three-yards of' the goal line.
But the big thrill came against Chi-
cago when he went over the goal line
for a touchdown. Everything was
swell . .. until the Yale game. ' .
Then something went bad. The
leg was injured again. Examination
showed its condition. During the
winter it was operated upon, a hole
bored in the bone and the inflammed
tissue cleaned out. The second sem-
ester Howie had to drop out of school.
You'd see him with the cast on his
leg around the Nickel's Arcade news-
stand, joking with someone else in
his legion of friends.
"I'm going to be back in there next
fall," he'd tell you.
The doctors weren't so sure. The
leg wasn't coming around. 'A second
operation was necessary. Again
Howie took it in stride. He'd show
you the new hole in his leg and tell
you it looked a little bad but it'd be
swell by football season.
"I'm going to be in there," he'd
But the doctors were even less sure.
And Howie seemed to be losing a little
of that wonderful confidence. Yet
he wouldn't give in.
Yesterday the blow fell. I saw him
down by the courthouse early in the
"I'll know for sure today," he said.
His face was anxious.
At eight in the evening the phone
rang in the outer editorial office.
"This is Howie," a voice said. "I
won't be able to play."
Feeling like a heel, we questioned
him for details. And, just' before he
hung up, he said:
"I'll be ok by baseball though. I'm
going to be out thee."
It's not an easy job to call up a
reporter and tell him your hopes are
smashed. But the Jeep has guts.
And now, his dreams of playing foot-
ball gone, he's still in there fighting.
"I'm going to be out there for base-
ball," he said.
If only the doctors were surer .-
Reading Examinations in French:
Candidates for the degree of Ph.D.
in the departments listed below who
wish to satisfy the requirement of a
reading knowledge during the cur-
rent academic year, 1938-39, are in-
formed that examinations will be
offered in Room 108, Romance Lan-
guages Building, from 2 to 5, on Sat-
urday, Aug. 12. It will be necessary
to register at the office of the De-
partment of Romance Languages
(112 R.L.) at least one week in ad-
vance. Lists of books recommended
by the various departments are ob-
tainable at this office.
It is desirable that candidates for
t e doctorate prepare to satisfy this
re uirement at the earliest possible
date. A brief statement of the na-
ture of the requirement, which will be
found helpful, may be obtained at
the office of the department.
This announcement applies only to
candidates in the following depart-
ments: Ancient and Modern La-
guages and Literatures, History, Ec-
onomics. Sociology, Political Science,
Philosophy, Education, Speech, Jour-
nalism, Fine Arts, Business Adminis-
Luncheon Conference: "Hirt's The-
ories on Indo-European Syntax." by
Professor E. Adelaide Hahn, Linguis-
tic Institute, in the Michigan Union
at 12:00 p.m. today.
Lecture: "Humor in Japanese
Classical Writing." by Dr. Shio Sa-
kanishi, Division of Orientalia, Li-
brary of Congress, in the Amphithe-
atre, Rackham Building at 4 p.m. to-
Lecture, "What is Happenfng in
Elementary Education?" by Edith
Bader, Assistant Superintendent of
Schools, Ann Arbor, will be given in
University High School Auditorium
at 4:05 p.m. today.
Russian Language Tea will be given
at the International Center at 4:15
Mathematics Club will meet Thurs-
day at 4:15 p.m. in Room 3017 A.H.
Professor Churchill will speak on
"Some Mathematics Involved in Vi-
brations Problems," and Professor J.
A. Greenwood, of Duke University, on
"Practical Tests of the Theory of
Lecture Recital. Ernst Krenek,
guest professor of composition, will
give a lecture recital of his own com-
positions in the Assembly room of
the Rackham Building this af-
ternoon, Aug. 3, at 4:15 o'clock. There
will be no admission charge. Mr.
Krenek will be assisted by Nellie
Hahnel, mezzo-soprano; Helen Titus,
pianist; and a string quartet com-
posed of Adelbert Purga and Frances
Ayres, violinists; Romine Hamilton,
violist, and Hanns Pick, violoncellist.
Stalker Hall. Group leaving Stalker
Hall today at 5 p.m. for swimming
and a picnic. Small charge for food.
Call 6881 for reservation by noon.
Lecture, "Colonial Society in Bra-
zil" by Professor Gilberto Freyre,
Brazilian social historian, 5 p.m.
Deutscher Verein: The last picnic
of the season will take place to-
day, Aug. 3. Meet at Deutsches'
Haus at 5:30 p.m. Transportation
furnished to Portage Lake. Admis-
sion 50 cents to all non-members.
Open to all students and faculty
members interested. Picnic supper,
games, songs and swimming.
Otto G. Graf.
Concert on the Charles Baird Caril-
lon will be given 7:30 p.m. this eve-
Francais, 1414 Washtenaw. M. Sallet
will talk on the present political and
social situation in France. Refresh-
ments will be served.
Piano Recital. John McAlister, pi-
anist, of Lexington, Ky., will give a
recital in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Bachelor of Mu-
sic degree this evening, August 3,
at 8:15 o'clock, in the School of Mu-
sic Auditorium. The general public
is invited to attend.
Record Recital of Brazilian Music:
Friday, Aug. 4 at 4:30 p.m. in the
East Conference"Room of the Rack-
ham Building. The public is in-
vited. The. records to be played are
non-commercial recordings made
especially for the Brazilian Pavilions
at the New York World's Fair and
the Golden Gate International Ex-
position. With the exception* of Car-
los Gomes (1839-1904) all the com-
posers represented are now living.
The records of works by Villa-Lobos
are conducted by the composer the
Fantasia Brasileira of Gnattall is
conducted by Romeu Ghispam, with
the composer at the piano; all other
records are played by the orchestra
of the Sindicato Musical do Rio de
Janeiro, under the direction of
Francisco Mignone. The intermis-
sions are five minutes in length.
Program for August 4:
I. Bacrianas Brasileiras No. 1
II. Imbapara (Indian Poem)
.. . ...0. Lorenzo Fernandez
III. Bachianas Brasileiras No. 5
..-..-. .... .-.. H. Villa-Lobos
Cantilena for soprano and 'cello or-
chestra, Ruth Valadres Correa,
IV. Fantasia Brasileira for Piano
and Orchestra ........R. Gnattall
Rhadames Gnattall, soloist
V. A. Ponteio, No. 1
.M. Camargo Guarnieri
B. Toada a moda paulista
VI. Two Choruses on Negro Themes
B. Bazzum! (Embolada).
Piano Recital. Robert Shanklin, of
Wichita, Kansas, will give a piano
recital in partial fulfillment of the
requirements of the Master of Music
degree, Friday evening, Aug. 4, at
8:15 o'clock, in the School of Music
Auditorium. Mr. Shanklin is a stu-
dent of Professor Mabel Ross Rhead.
The public is invited to attend with-
out admission charge.
Student Loans: The Committee on
Student Loans will meet Friday, Aug.
4, in Room 2, University Hall to pass
on loans for the coming school year.
Appointments to meet the Commit-
tee should be made at once in the
Office of the Dean of Students.
The Textbook Exhibition of te
American Institute of Graphic Arts
is on display in the library, Room
1502, University Elementary School
all this week up to Friday,
August 4. Sixty textbooks for ele-
mentary and high schools, and col-
lege have been chosen to illustrate ex-
cellence in design and workmanship
of typography, illustration, and bind-
ing and their fitness to present ideas
successfully. The books may be ex-
amined from 7:45 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
from Monday throuh Friday and
from 8-12 Saturday morning.
Candidates for the Master's Degree
in History: Students taking the lan-
guage examination on Friday, Aug. 4,
should bring their own dictionaries.
Copies of old examinations are on
file in the Basement Study Hall of
the General Library.
The Fellowship Committee of the
Ann Arbor-Ypsilanti Branch of the
American Association of University
Women will accept applications for a
five hundred dollar ($500) gift fel-
(Continued on Page 4)
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Summer Session until 3:30 p.m.; 11:00 a.m. Saturday.
Sponsored by the Cooperative Cur- Bridges Lessons will be given in the
riculum Workshop of the School of Michigan League at 7:30 p.m. this
Education, an exhibit of work done evening. '
by the students enrolled in the work-
shop studies will be on display Cercle Francais: Meeting this eve-
aning (Thursday) at 8 o'clock Foyer
today and tomorrow at the Tap-
In connection with the exhibit, a
play will be given at 7 p.m. today
entitled "The Greeks Had A Word
For It, or Unmasking the What-
Not." This play was written by the Today and Friday!
Workshop group and all. the work
connected with producing it was done
in the Workshop. The play will RIDIti ROMEO ROPES HEIRESS!
follow a dinner and will be followed
by social dancing, and all members of
the Workshop are invited to attend.
On display are art works, metal and
wood craft objects, and all sorts of
weaving, all done in the Workshop.
In addition there is an exhibit of a
group of color prints by contempor-
ary American artists, handicrafts
from Harland, Mich., and from Penn-
land, N.C., and one on techniques in
processes in the graphic arts and
sculpturing from the Aliquippa, Pa., * rfc
The works on display, done by m~u iai3Y low
members of the Workshop are the re-
sults of excursions into fields with
which the individuals, for the most / And
nart. had had no previous experience . BETTY GRABLE
Physics Symposium, Prof. John A. Wheeler of Princeton University
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
Physics Symposium, Prof. E. J. Williams of the University of Wales
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
"Hirt's Theories on Indo-European Syntax" by Prof. E. Adelaide
Hahn at Linguistics Institute luncheon (Union).
"Honen Shonin: Salvation for the Masses" by Dr. Shio Sakanishi
of the Department of Orientalia, Library of Congress (Amphi-
theatre, Rackham School).-
"What Is Happening in Elementary Education" by Edith Bader,
Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Ann Arbor (University High