THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TUESDAY, JUNE 9-9, 1937
PAGE TWO TUESDAY, JUNE 29, 1931
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Official Publication of the Summer Session
How Nebraska's Experimental
Legislature Conducted Itself
By CURTIS A. BETTS
(From The St. Louis Post-Dispatch)
On The Level
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student .Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and the Summer Session.
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use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights
of republication of all other matter herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan as
second class mal matter.
subscription(uring summer by carrier, $1.00; by mail.
$1.50. During regular choolyear, by carrier. $4.00; by
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1936-37
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CHICAGO - BOSTON - SAN FRANCISCO
LOS ANGELES . POhTLAND - SEATTLE
MANAGING EDITOR ..........RICH ARD G. HERSHEY
CITY EDITOR..................... JOSEPH S. MATTES
Associate Editor: Clinton B. Conger, Horace W. Gil-
more, Charlotte D. Rueger.
Assistant Editors: James A. Boozer, Robert Fitzhenry,
Joseph Gies, Clayton Hepler.
BUSINESS STAFF e
BUSINESS MANAGER ..................JOHN R. PARK
ASSISTANT BUS. MGR. ......NORMAN B. STEINBERG
PUBLICATIONS MANAGER ...........ROBERT LODGE
CIRCULATION MANAGER .........J. CAMERON HALL
NIGHT EDITOR: CLINTON B. CONGER
Service Bill .. .
T HE MICHIGAN LEGISLATURE
adjourned without passing the
Civil Service Bill. That such came to pass is
cause for cynicism but hardly a surprise to those
who have listened to legislators privately speak
of the bill, or to those who have talked with
The bill was drafted by the Civil Service Study
Commission, the chairman of which was Prof.
James K. Pollock of the political science de-
partment, and in the opinion of many experts
would have given Michigan the best civil service
in the world.
Its failure of passage was certainly not from
lack of publicity. Many men and organizations
and the majority of the State's newspapers
backed the bill wholeheartedly. Civic societies
throughout the state pressured legislators (but
not enough). Candidates in the last election
pledged themselves to vote for the measure. Lead-
ers in both parties expressed themselves strongly
in favor of the bill.
Yet in the face of all this avowed support
the Civil Service Bill did not pass.
Responsibility for its failure must, of course,
be laid to the politicians. And they cannot be
summarily censured. They were governed by
the natural instinct to survive in the next elec-
tion, especially the Democratic legislators who
must rely on government patronage, while Re-
publicans are often privileged to distribute jobs
in large corporations. They were acting as
heritage commanded. The same was true of
those party leaders who openly espoused the
measure but privately worked against it; the
politician's instincts, rather than the states-
man's, dominated their actions.
It was a question of survival in present-day
politics, and what other result could we expect,
the roots of patronage being as deep as they are?
Apparently there remain only two logical ways
for the bill to become law. One is by referen-
dum, which Governor Murphy is apparently con-
sidering. The other is by renewed efforts to
educate the people of Michigan to the value of
this civil service bill, and then to trust that
candidates in the next election will be pledged
irrevocably to vote for the measure. But this,
as indicated in the last election, hardly works
when the test comes.
In consideration of these developments we
have printed on this page today the first part
of an article by Curtis A. Betts, of the St. Louis
Post-Dispatch, dealing with the first session of
the unicameral legislature of Nebraska.
We feel that Nebraska's experiment is well
worth studying. If, as Mr. Betts suggests, the
one-house legislature eliminates the politics
seemingly inherent in the bicameral system, then
Nebraska's system demands the attention of
every Michigan citizen.
We recommend that every one interested)
in good government read Mr. Betts' article. In
such a system, perhaps, this State will find a
way to turn strong public opinion, such as
backed the Civil Service Bill, into law.
Oarsmen submit to greater physical punish-
ment and receive less personal recognition than
athletes in any other college sport. Why they
do it, probably every one of the participants,
but not more than a few spectators, can answer.
-The Literary Digest.
British discipline is strong. A visitor at the
recent fire college told of the maintenance of a
sentry at a solitary gate at the fort at Gibraltar.
He didn't seem to be doing much good, but one
had always been there-since 1703. Finally
THE NEBRASKA common sense step in pro-
gressive government in establishing a one-
house Legislature with members elected on non-
political ballots, supplanting the boss and lobby
controlled two-house body, has satisfied the cit-
izenship of the state to such an extent that the
sidetracked professional politicians dare only
feeble criticism of the experiment.
The first session of Nebraska's unicameral Leg-
islature ended six weeks ago, and there has not
been a suggestion from any person of promi-
nence in the state that it would be well to
return to the old system. Gov. R. L. Cockran,
a Democrat elected on a partisan ballot, though
not a convert to the one-house system, told the
writer that "based on the record of accomplish-
ment, which after all is the real test, the plan
has worked out satisfactorily."
It cannot be said that subversive political in-
fluences were instantly and automatically ban-
ished by the change in legislative methods, but
to one who has observed the operations of the
two-house Missouri Legislature for many years,
as has this writer, there comes a firm conviction
that Nebraska has adopted a plan which is me-
chanically correct and under which Missouri and
every other state can have intelligent law making
and can end the influence of political bosses and
self-serving politicians in the enactment of laws.
Without precedent in this country to guide
them, the supporters of the changed system
have had to feel their way, and in the first
session there were instances which showed that
they had not been able to foresee all that the in-
genuity of practiced politicians could accom-
plish, but nevertheless in a few months the state
has made remarkable progress toward getting the
best in lawmaking. With the unicameral Legis-
lature as a start, it has initiated steps toward
abolishing politics in county governments and
toward centralization of responsibility for the
State government in a decreased number of elec-
tive State officials.
Success Is Up To Vote s
A good system cannot of itself be a guarantee
of perfect government, any more than can a per-
fectly constructed automobile or airplane func-
tion efficiently without an intelligent driver.
Under the unicameral legislative system the
people of the state is the driver and in the final
analysis the system will function for good gov-
ernment only to the extent that the voters accept
their responsibility seriously and use intelligent
care in the selection of the members of the Leg-
Three-fourths of the members of the new
Legislature, though elected on non-political bal-
lots, had served as members of previous Legis-
latures to which they were elected as partisans,
and it is not to be wondered that they did not
cease to be Democrats and Republicans over
night. The wonder is that they were able to
cast aside partisanship to the great extent they
did in their legislative actions.
Most of them had been political leaders of
some sort in their communities and had their
political followings, but as future elections on a
non-political basis are held, it is reasonable to
assume, elections will more and more lose their
political aspects with the result that the legisla-
tors will be chosen more because of their stand-
ings as citizens than as politicians.
But even though politics was not entirely ab-
sent in this first session, the atmosphere of the
Legislaure was not political. On, a two-day
visit to the body before its adjournment, the
writer received a distinct impression of studious,
conscientious consideration of the problems up
for solution at that time, in sharp contrast to
the irresponsible mob action which characterized
the Missouri House of Representatives almost
daily wuring the recent and many previous ones,
and the coldly calculated politics of the Missouri
State Senate, lobby directed and serving the
interest of political bosses, partisan politics and
special business advantage.
The big start toward revamping the Govern-
ment in Nebraska is due largely to the efforts
of three men, United States Senator George W.
Norris, former Congressman John N. Norton
and Dr. JohnP. Senning, professor of Political
Science of the University of Nebraska. They
looked upon State Government as a business
which should be conducted along business lines
in the best social and economic interest of the
people of the State who paid the cost of govern-
They discussed among themselves and with
others they called into their conferences the
whole problem of the State government, how it
could be improved. In these conferences they
looked to the time when politics would be abol-
ished in the management of the local affairs of;
the state and the counties and when state laws
would be passed on the basis of merit rather
than for partisan political advantage or to repay
selfish interests for favors granted politicians
and political parties.
Only A Start Attempted
Though theorists, these three men were very
practical theorists, and two of them at least,.
Norris and Norton, had had long experience in
practical politics. They early came to the con-
clusion that their entire plan would fail if they
attempted to do more than make a start toward
accomplishment of their ultimate aim. They
toward their other objects. Under Norton's force-
ful guidance, the Legislature in its first session
submitted a Constitutional amendment for a
short state ballot, on which only the governor,
lieutenant-governor and state auditor would be
elected. Other state officials would be appointed
by the governor. That proposal will be voted
on in the next election.
Through a bill introduced by Senator R. M.
Howard of Flats (the members are called Sen-
ators), an effort was made to provide for the
election of county officials on non-political bal-
lots, but that failed. It brought the chairmen of
the Democratic and Republican State Commit-
tees scurrying to Lincoln, and the strongest po-
litical pressure was brought to bear on the mem-
bers, who. as has been explained, were still Dem-
ocrats and Republicans ,to kill it. It struck at
the very basis of political organization of both
parties, and its passage would have wrecked
them, abolished the jobs and perquisites which
keep them alive. The bill failed by a vote of 17
to 26, but the fact that one-third of the mem-
bers ignored party leaders and ignored political
considerations led the supporters of the bill to
the conclusion that the reform could be accom-
plished in a relatively short time.
The evils of the old legislative system had
been apparent in Nebraska for many years, just
as they have been apparent to those who have
observed legislative conditions in Missouri and
other states. As long ago as 1913, Norton, then
a member of the Legislature, attempted to have
submitted a one-house Legislature amendment
to the Constitution. He failed then and in sev-
eral subsequent efforts. In 1923 Senator Norris
joined in the movement, which made little prog-
ress until 1934, when Norris threw himself whole-
heartedly into the battle and made it the leading
issue in the state.
In Nebraska as in Missouri and other states,
the controlling influences in legislation were pol-
itics and the lobbyists representing special in-
terests. The party organizations there as else-
where were to a considerable extent in collusion
with these special interests, which contributed
to party campaign chests and often to the indi-
vidual campaign funds of candidates for the
Legislature. They received their payment through
legislative favors possible because of the blind
following of political legislative leaders by polit-
Evils That Existed Elsewhere
The secrecy which characterized much legis-
lative procedure was of vast help in concealing
from the voters the real facts about legislation.
With two houses there was constant "buck pass-
ing," and it was usually impossible to definitely
fix responsibility for bad laws or for failure
to pass good laws.
The conference committee, common to the
procedure of all bicameral legislatures, was effec-
tively and secretly used in Nebraska, as it is in
Missouri and every other state to permit a very
few, six to 10 members, to write the most im-
When two houses of a Legislature are unable
to agree in the passage of a bill, it is referred
to a conference committee which consists of
from three to five members of each house. This
committee, meeting in secret, can rewrite the
bill, and while it goes back to the two houses
for their votes, in practical operation the con-
ference committee writes the law, as almost al-
ways conference committee reports are made in
the closing hours of the legislative session when
a majority of the members are anxious to go
home and are giving little attention to the details
of legislation. It is seldom a conference commit-
tee report, regardless of what it may contain,
fails of adoption.
In a one-house legislature there are no con-
The advocates of the Constitutional amend-
ment in Nebraska were convinced from the out-
set that unless political leadership in the Leg-
islature was prevented, the one-house set-up
would be little if any better than the old, and
they incorporated in the amendment a provision
that there should be no party designations on
the legislative ballots in the election.
The organization politicians of both parties
fought the amendment, as did the special inter-
ests lobbyists, and nearly all the newspapers in
the state. Senator Norris campaigned the state
vigorously for it. The amendment was adopted
by a majority of 92,934 in a total vote of 479,239,
receiving majorities in 84 of the 93 counties.
The size of the new Legislature was not fixed
in the amendment, that question being left to the
last bicameral Legislature within limits of 30
and 60. The number of members was fixed by
the Legislature at 43. Under the bicameral system
there had been 33 Senators and 100 members of
The opinion of Senator Norris and his asso-
ciates in the movement that politics could be
largely abolished in elections on non-political
ballots was shown to have been justified in the
November, 1936, election in which the new Leg-
islature was elected for the first time. Although
President Roosevelt, as the Democratic candidate,
carried the state by 99,823, receiving three out
of every five votes cast, 22 Democrats and 21
Republicans were elected to the Legislature. In
an election which went overwhelmingly Demo-
cratic on political ballots, the Legislature was
as evenly divided as could be between the two
THE PRIZE STAND-OFF of the
year goes to a girl who unfortu-1
nately is known only by the fictitious I
name of "Marjorie Daw.' This "Miss
Daw." a very nice looking blonde, wasf
recently bothered by a pest who flirt-1
ed around with her as she sat parked
in a car across from one of the cam-
pus theatres. To get rid of the fellow, -
she finally told him that her name
was "Marjorie Daw" and that she
could by reached at the telephone
number 4-0-1-7. Then she drove
away wreathed in a mysterious smile.
The fellow, who asks to be left
nameless that he can be merely the1
unknown goat, went home and waited
on pins and needles until nightfall.1
Then, with trembling fingers, he
dialed 4-0-1-7. Quickly the answer
came, "Good evening. Ann Arborr
Somewhat taken back by this, the
sucker finally assumed that his
blonde Venus was a librarian, and
meekly asked for "Marjorie Daw."
The voice on the library end of the l
phone replied that she would see if
"Marjorie Daw" was in, and after a
minute returned to state that "Mar-1
joric Daw" was out but would be in
iU he called at the Library around 10
In his slickest Sunday best our hero
raced to the Library at 10 bells and
asked the woman at the desk for
"Marjore Daw." As you have prob-1
ably already guessed, the librarianl
went back into the files and handed
the poor fellow a novel, "Marjorie
Daw" by Thomas Bailey Aldrich!
IFRANK HULSWIT, dashing l
Dent Junior who transferred I
here from Chicago, panicked a
few onlookers at the University
golf course yesterday. Playing
with George Hanson, a perpetual l
s u m m e r schooling engineer,
Frank skied a ball from one of
the tecs, and the ball flew higher
until it threatened to disappear
into some low-hanging clouds.
"Fore, God!" boomed Franklyn
in a voice that was heard all
over the course.
A MIX-UP that compares with the
one mentioned in yesterday's col-
umn (concerning the Ypsi blindates),I
greatly embarrassed Hope Petrouleas
the other night. Hope, who wasC
labelled "Dawn Patroleas" by Walt
Woodward, had a date for Saturday
±u'iu, uwif. r1f z~ i l1 !-loo U'dUC ilnieit+-H
Pl ace advertisemnents; with Classi fied
Advcrtising 'Departmnict. Phone 2-:3241.__________
The classified coiumns close at five STANLEY BUTLER, teacher of piano,
o'clock previous to day of insertion. hhly recaninended by Gay Maier.
Box numbers may be secured at no hilyicmendbyGyMe.
extra charge. Beginning and advanced students
Cash in advance lie per reading line accepted. Special Cass lessons for
for one or two insertions. 1Oc per read-
ing line for three or more insertions. beginners from 5 to 7. Lessons start
(om basis of five average wordh to line), immediately. Phone 2-1274. 599
l i 0in mn three lines, per insertion.
Telephone rate -- te per reading line -
fr two or more insertions. Minimum TYPTNG: Neatly and accurately done
three lunes per insecrtion.TYIGNetyadcureldo.
101 discount if paid within ten days Mrs. Loward, 613 Hill Street. Phone
from the date of last insertion. 5244. 568
LAUNDRY WANTED WANTED: Student.: to work for
Priced Reasonably board. Good food. 1223 Hill. Phone
All Work Guaranteed 2-2276. Mrs. Schlee.
STUDENT LIST -
Shirts .......12c FOR RENT
Shorts............4c - ________
Tops. ......... ...4c THREE AND ONE-HALF BLOCKS
Handkerchiefs .................4 from campus. Two doubles, two
Hokrh...................c singles. 327 E. William. Phone
Sacks ..... 3c ...... .... 2-2203. 601
Pajamas .....................loc -23 0
Slips...........0c3 SINGI4 rooms for girls near cam-
Dresses ........................25c pus. Clean, newly decorated. Home
Panties.......................7.7c privileges. Phone 3968. 606
Handke.chiefs................. . ..2c
Pajamas1......... . c to .. FURNISHED APT. with private bath
Hose (p.) .....................3c and shower. Continuous hot water.
Silks, wools our specialty. All bundles Garage or parking space. 422 E.
done separately-no markings. Call Washington. Phone 8544. 605
for and deliver. Phone 5594. Silver
Laundry. 607 E. Hoover. 3x FOR RENT: Very attractive single
-------room. Shower bath. Hot and cold
EXPERIENCED laundress doing stu- running water. Phone 7796. 604
dent laundry. Call for and deliver.
Phone 4863. 2x SINGLE and double rooms for girls.
--_ _Large and airy, large yard, trees.
LAUNDRY 2-1044. Sox darned. 1511 Washtenaw. Tel. 3851. 603
Careful work at low price. lx
r B E A U T IF U L L Y furnished brick
LOST AND FOUND apartment for summer. 2 bedrooms,
LOST: Brown gabrdine urse. A-- $60 month plus utilities, 1506 Pack-
LOST: Brown gabardine purse. An- ard. 602
gell Hall. Reward. Return to 319
S. 5th Ave. or to Lost and Found FOR RENT: Room with cooking fa-
office, University. 600 cilities, shower bath, in exchange
-t cfor light work. Near campus. Phone
LOST: Friday, Main Street or cam- 3958
pus section, chain containing four -_
keys. Reward. Call 7753 evenings. RENT: Cool large rooms downstairs,
607 Reasonable. 2-2159. 314 E. Liberty.
I - --
ft's A Long Road,
Rdcisen Finds, As
City Appeals Case
B. Ray Riksen, local sandwich ven-
dor who is a familiar figure to soror-
ity and fraternity members when time
for the evening lunch rolls around,
faces a further fight before he can
legally sell his wares without pay-
ment of the $150 license fee now re-
quired by city ordinance.
Week before last Circuit Judge
Gcorge W. sample handed down a de-
cis<io n in his favrz, declaring. that the
fee was confiscaitory and therefore
urnconstituional. Yesterday, how-
ever, the city of Ann Arbor filed no-
tice of an appeal from his decision
to the State Supreme Court.
Meanwhile, Sam Spinelli, who
payed the required fee, and Riksen,
his arch competitor who is selling
without enough of the licenses for
his numerous trucks, are still vieing
for the evening lunch business, along
night, out when the date failed to j
call by 8 o'clock to tell her where and
when, she took it to be an error in
nights so a sorority sister volunteered
to get her a "blind."
When her real date finally phoned,
Hope told him that she was sorry
but she thought there had been a
misunderstanding and she had made
another date. The sorority sister's
search proved successful, so Hope
dressed and hoped that her new date
would be as good as her old one. Her
date arrived., and Hope skipped down
the serpentine stairs at the Tri-Delt
House to find that her "blind" date
was the same boy she had had a date
with originally! The boys at his l
house had heard he was dateless, and '
had fixed him up with what they
thought was a blindate. E F
"pOP" LONGLEY, who used to
star for Ohio U., found out
yesterday that he missed a swell
chance to be a hero last April.
Longley, who is here to get his
master's degree in Physical Ed-
ucation, is a football and basket-
ball coach at an Ohio school, and
during a coaches' convention in
April, he struck up a conversa-
tion with the bartender of the
Statler Hotel Bar in Cleveland.
That bartender turned out to be
Robert Irwin, the sculptor who
confessed to committing the fa-
mous "Gedeon slayings" in New
York City on Easter morning.
Longley identified Irwin from a
picture Sunday night, after Irwin
had confessed on Saturday after-
PONTIAC MAN DROWNS
PONTIAC, Mich., June 28.-()-
Harry McMonagle, 19, of Pontiac,
drowned this afternoon in Loon Lake,
five miles west of here.
whom had been elected as partisans'
and most of whom had positions of
more or less leadership in their com-
In the primary as many candidates
could file as desired. Two were nom-
inated in each of the 43 districts,
and one was chosen in the election.
There were 283 candidates for the 86
nominations. Of the 33 State Sen-
ators, 22 filed for nomination, 18
were nominated and 13 elected. Of
the 100 House members 62 filed for
nomination, 37 were nominated and
15 were elected.sThus in the first
unicameral Legislature 32 of the 431
members had had previous legislative
The opinion frequently heard ex-
pressed in Lincoln is that "most of
ot her Week of
tional Friendship Week
\rtc ra f,
The very last day to buy this lovely sheer
chiffon hosiery at such amazing reductions.
Plan now for the complete fashion success of
your wardrobe by stocking up on Artcraft
Silk Stockings, with the patented features that
make them durable in every test of wear.
Frothy sheer chiffons for
Friendship Week $1.35
Regularly ......... ........1. .... 1.65
Sleek, flattering chiffons for daytime.
Regularly ...,............. 1.35
Sturdy service chiffon for active days.,
Regularly ...............r 1.35