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July 27, 1934 - Image 3

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1934-07-27

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

TH-E, MtCHI(ZAN DATTv

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(Continued from Page 1)
is attributed to failing health wh
lasted over a period since 1932. Ab
two months ago, his condition beca
serious and the operation was nec
sitated. He had rallied several ti
since but had also suffered result
relapses.
ProfessorFessenden was born
St. Louis and graduated from t
University of Missouri at the age
21 with a degree of Bachelor of S
ence in Mechanical Engineering.
received his Master of Engineer
degree from the same university
1908.
From 1906 to 1907, Professor F
senden was associated with the N
York Telephone Company. In t
latter year, he transferred his servi
to the Babcock and Wilcox Boil
Company and remained with th
coniern for one year.
He came to the University in 19
to take the position of instructor
mechanical engineering. After ser
ing four years as an instructor,1
was promoted to the rank of assista
professor of mechanical engineerir
and from 1919 to the time of h
death was professor of mechanic
engineering.
During the World War, he was
Captain of Ordinance stationedd
Frankfort Arsenal from 1917 to 191
At the time of his death, he held
commission as major in the Office
Reserve Corps.
Professor Fessenden was a reco
nized authority in thermodynamic
refrigeration, steam power boiler
and air conditioning and was one
the outstanding teachers in his pa
ticular field.
He held membership in numeros
societies, including the American Sc
ciety df Mechanical Engineers, th
American Society of Refrigeratin
Engineers, executive committee of tb
Detroit section, A.S.M.E., Natio
Electric Light Association, Societ
for the Promotion of Engineerin
Education, Junior Research Club, Al
pha Tau -Omega fraternity, Mason
and Barton Hills Country Club.
R-Ie is survived by his parents, M
and Mrs. T. D. Fessenden, Seven Mil
O., and a brother, Prof. Edwin Alla
Fessenden, Troy, N. Y.
Prinepals Are
Beaten 16-5 In
oftball Gam
Superintendents 1 Gam
Out Of First With Fou
Contests Remaining
With but four more games in th
Education Club S o f t b a11 Leagu
schedule, the Principals' lead wa
whittled in yesterday's play as the
were defeated by the Educational Re
search team, 16 to 5. It was the secon
straight loss for the Principals an
their second defeat of the season.
Brilliant relief pitching by Prof
Paul Washke halted a last-inning
rally by the Teachers in anothe
ledgue game yesterday, the Super.
intendents winning 22 to 19.
The schedule will be ended Aug-
ust 2.
W L Pct
Principals ..............5 2 .714
Superintendents ......4 3 .571
Ed. Research...........4 3 .571
Teachers...,.. .. ..1 6 .143
Yesterday's Results
Superintendents 22, Teachers 19.
Ed. Research 16, Principals 5.
Games Today
Ed. Resea'ich vs. Superintendents.
Prin ipals vs. Teachers.
Drought May
Force Use Of

S FullAcreage
WASHINGTON, July 26. -(/P) -A
sweeping change in the AAA's wheat
control tactics was under considera-
tion today as the drought tightened
its disastrous grip.
Instead of plowing under to cut
the crop, officials studied a plan to
return to virtually normal acreages
next year - but with an ace in the
hole. If restricted production were
found necessary, part of the crop
would be harvested while still green
to be used for forage.
Uncertainties in the world wheat
situation, as well as lessons learned
from the drought, influence the plans.
The new control idea would enable
the nation's farmers to harvest the
crop on normal acreages if that much
wheat is needed next season or if the
world wheat export agreement col-
lapses and the United States desires
more grain for export.
It was explained that this plan

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Falls History
Measures Time
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Niagara Gorge Serves
A Readable Record
The GlacialAge

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By HOWARD W. BLAKESLEE
(Associated Press Science Writer)
HOUGHTON, Mich., July 26. - (f'
-With $25,960 of FERA money, a
"shoestring" compared to the pros-
pective billions involved in the suc-
cess of the project, the Michigan Col-
lege of Mining and Metallurgy is un-
dertaking a revision in the basic
metals industry.
Three branches of this investigation
potentially touch the welfare of the
entire United States. The first of these
is search for methods of utilizing low-
grade iron ores of the Michigan dis-
trict. Because of the tremendous ton-
nages involved the prospects are spec-
tacular.
Present reserves of high-grade iron
ores in Michigan, the college ex-
perts announce, will be practically
depleted within 15 to 20 years, at nor-
mal rates of consumption. But after
this high grade is gone, there still
remain billions of tons of rocks con-
taming 20 to 35 per cent iron.
These rocks contain the low-grade
ores. The Houghton institution has
invented processes of treatment, of re-
covery and of costs which improve
on former methods of handling these
low-grade ores. But much, their an-
nouncement states, remains to be
done before the new processes can
become commercially successful.
The' increase in research personnel
made possible by the FERA grant
has speeded up this work.
In another department part of the
$25,960 is going to experiments in
improving cast iron by introduc-
ing into it higher percentages of cop-
per. Formerly use of more than two
per cent of copper resulted in cast-

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ings which were not uniform. The
Michigan Tech scientists have dis-
covered a new process by which the
percentage of copper can be increased
with good effects on the structure of
the iron.
The third project is solution of
one of the expensive problems of the
copper industry - how to select from
the rocks the portions containing the
valuable quantities of copper. The
rock, even when hand-picked, con-
tains considerable material not worth
the expense of running it through the
crushing machinery.
Professor A. T. Sweet and his staff
have found methods of selecting the
materials so that sometimes as much
as half of the stuff now sent to the
mills can be discarded and all that
expense saved.

l

(Continued from Page 1)
indirectly, by allowing the Trent
Valley to spring back up. Relieved
of the weight of. the ice cap, the
entire region of eastern Ontario is
rising about one foot every 100 years,
and as a result the Trent River be-
cainetoo high tokcarry off the waters
of the Great Lakes.
Uses Port Huron Outlet
Once more the water flowed through
the Port Huron outlet, but as the
lower river level was so much higher
because of the level of the lake, the
water struck a deeper pool and lost
most of its cutting power. As a re-
sult the third stage of the lower
Gorge has a channel only 40 feet deep.
The river, flowing down from Lake
Erie, crossed St. David's Gorge, a
former channel, at the present site
of the Whirlpool. This old channel
had been covered up by the glacier
mostly with a soft soil known as
glacial till, protected by a thin wall
of rock.
This wall was continually weak-
ened until it finally gave way to the
pressure of the falling stream of
water. The stream then rushed into
the old channel with tremendous
force.
Took Short Time
"It is hardly to be conceived that
the washout of the ancient channel
to form the Whirlpool Basin could
have occupied more than a small
fraction of a day," says Professor
Hobbs in "Earth Features."
Thus the great bowl was hollowed
to a depth of over 125 feet in an in-
credibly short period. The tearing
away of the Gorge was stopped only
by the slide of boulders it occasioned
in scooping out the loose deposits
from far below. The boulders formed
a heavy protective layer that stopped
the stream from racing on down the
old channel. ยข
The Falls now re-established them-
selves on the cliff at the point where
the old St. David's cataract had been
when the glacier had covered it up.
This turning of the river has caused
a looping motion below, occasioning
the Whirlpool. The water was tem-
porarily halted by the obstructions it
was forced to clean out of its path,
and as a result the Gorge is quite
narrow just above the Whirlpool ba-
sin.
Water Crosses Over
Now the water, rushing into the
basin, crosses over in a stream 35
feet deep to the opposite side, where
it strikes the sheath of boulders and
is turnedcto the left. It doubles back,
and plunges underneath itself to
"boil" up visibly and pass on dpwn
to the Lower Gorge.
It had taken 25,000 years. for the
Falls to recover from the attack of
the Glacier, and to recut a channel
from Lake Ontario to the edge of the
Whirlpool, where they stood when
the ice cap covered them.
The ever-receding glacier now came
into the picture once more by un-
covering the northern Ottawa Valley
and draining all the Lakes except
Lake Erie across northern Ontario.
The fourth stage of the Gorge, then, is
only 400 feet wide and 35 feet deep.
Today, however, with the full volume
of water forced through it again, it
becomes the world's most turbulent
rapids.
Gorge Is Deep
Just above the railroad bridges the
river once more gets its full volume by
the demand of the St. Lawrence for
the water which had been flowing
across Ottawa. Here the Gorge is
again 150 feet deep, and is 1,000 feet
wide.
The Ottawa Valley was now tqo
high, and the Falls began receding at
their present rate. The Falls lay
where the bridges now are some 4,000
years ago, and the final two miles
have been cut since the dawn of the
Christian era. At first receding at
4.2 feet a year, the Falls have been
robbed of some water for power
purposes, and now cut back 3.2 feet
each year.
The next movement will be com-

pleted. when the Canadian Falls com-
plete their turning motion, capture
the American Falls leave Goat Is-
land, and recede further. That is the
future geological history of Niagara
Falls.

Camp News

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U 15

---- ------

State Voters
Are To Ballot
On 6 Measures
November Election Will
Ignore Most Of Proposals
Made

BIOLOGICAL STATION
It has been a relatively fair week
at Douglas Lake, having rained only
once, giving everyone ample oppor-
tunity for outdoor, recreation and
work. On Monday, camp residents
were entertained at a ball game in
which the boys played the girls and
were obliged, by specifications in the
challenge, to dress in women's clothes
and bat left-handed. The boys, be-
sides winning the game, entertained
the spectators with interesting inter-
pretations of feminine grace and agil-
ity.
The Saturday party last week was
reminiscent of circus days. Several
appeared in costume and formed a
parade. There were performances of
dancing, singing, and acrobatics. The
latter part of the evening was de-
voted to dancing.
Thursday and Friday, 12 students
and 8 guests, under the direction of
F. C. Gates, went on a trip to the
Sleeping Bear Sand Dunes. The class,
besides studying the dune, reported
that the weather was hot and the
mosquitoes numerous, but the swim-
ming in Glen Lake on the way home
was fine.
Among the visitors this week were
Esther Rodger, former student at the
Station, and her friend Miss Betty
Bogrette; Professor Samuel A Graham
of the Forestry College at Ann Ar-
bor; Miss Lenore Merrick of Detroit,
week-end guest of Sol Baker; and Dr.
Donald J. Ameel of Sioux Falls, South
Dakota, formerly a student at the
Biological Station.
Present visitors are Mrs. Albert,
Eisner, Jr., of Champaign, Ill., and
her daughters Janet and Regina,
guests of Professor and Mrs. Cort and
family; and Dr. S. X. Cross, research
scientists in parasitology from Johns
Hopkins University.
-Florence D. Muyskens.

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LANSING, July 26-Although near-
ly a score of proposed changes to the
state constitution were discussed in
the last few months, only six of."the
proposals have been qualified for
places on the ballot at the Novermber
election, according to Frank D. Fitz-
gerald, secretary of state.
Five of the questions will be sub-
mitted to the voters'after initiatory
petitions bearing sufficient signatures
were filed with the Department of
State. The sixth question was ordered
on the ballot by the legislature. The
order in which the proposals will ap-
pear on the ballot .and brief sum-'
maries .follow:
1. This provides that all judges be
elected on non-partisan ballots.
2. This proposal would reduce the
gasoline tax from three to two cents
and would prohibit the legislature
from increasing the tax above two
cents a gallon.
3. At the present time the auto-
mobile weight tax is 35 cents per hun-
dredweight. This proposed amend-
ment would prohibit the legislature
from increasing the weight tax above
the present figure.
4. Reorganization of county sys-
tems of government along plans
adopted by the legislature or sub-
mitted by initiatory petition, is pro-
vided for in the fourth proposal. The
amendment would permit abolishing
any preseint constitutional office upon

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07,M AlI 0 -- - - - "-' '144-11a Iw."i

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