__THE MICHIGAN DAILY
ial Publication of the
r y. j
Publibed every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.-
Jember- of the Western Conference Editorial Association
and the Big- T&n News Service.
, MEMBER .
As5ocatedS %oliteiate rts
x1934 GAI giaeX M t935e
MAWSON- '. t4Stn
MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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MANAGING EDITOR................. JOHN C. HEALEY
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THE SALIENT characteristic of the
Fascist state is that, iri the face of
to usually desperate expansionist needs, it fails
trespect the territorial integrity of smaller and
weaker, but potentially wealt.hy, countries.
This is the case with Italy, and her contemplated
aggression in Ethiopia.
David Darrah, the Chicago Tribune correspon-
dent who was recently expelled from Italy for
telling the truth about the jaded economic con-
dition of that couritry,-had some very interesting
and enlightening things to say. Mr. Darrah re-
ported, first of all, that the standard of living of
the Italian people is dropping. Ie declared, too,
that Ii Duce's proposed movements in Ethiopia,
which are designed to better the economic lot
af the top crust of the nation, are being vigorously
opposed by the rank and file although no word
of this opposition seeps through the controlled
In some sections of Italy, Mr. Darrah stated,
mobilization is being actively resisted.
Mr. Darrah's employers are conservative men,
and there is quite obviously no reason for this
careful reporter to go about spreading false stories
of the troubles Italy is encountering in its prepara-
tion for aggressive warfare.
'Accepting Mr. Darrah's statements as true, then,
we find some startling facts about the actual oper-
ation of the Italian state.
It appears that the Italians may at last be
awakening to the fact that Mussolini's promises,
especially to the lower classes, were empty ones.
It appears that Italians may resent their dicta-
I tor's shameful affronts to weak nation which
is blessed (or cursed) with fixe stores of petroleum,
gold, silver, copper, and other minerals.
It seems that Mussolini's "postponement" of the
war until the conclusion of the rainy season is an
open secret, and it seems that Italians are "in''
And, lastly, perhaps Italians are learning that
their sons are to be needlessly slaughtered by
savage tribesmen 'whipped into an entirely justi-
fiable fury by a projected invasion of their home-
lind. A projected invasion, it might be added,
clculated to relieve the economic strictures with
which Mussolini's program has surrounded Italy.
Meanwhile - until Septeinber,. probably - Sig-
nor Mussolini grimaces, marches, and orates, while
the Abyssinian soldiers polish their consignments
of rifles from European munitions makers and
discard the picturesque togs which, it is thought,
may impede their "technique" in the coming fray.
Of History. .
N THE YEARS 1834 to 1836 it was as
much as a man's life was worth to
be a militant advocate of the abolition of slavery'
- in the free north as well as the south. A wave
of mob violence sweeping over the nation at that
time spared no efforts to silence those obnoxious
ad dangerous radicals who insisted on a right to
speak freely against what they saw'as a great moral
The more extreme abolitionists, typified by Wil-
liam Lloyd Garrison, openly adjured the Consti-
tution when they were convinced that no com-
promise could be reached between moral scruples
And the protectionrand recognition afforded slavery
by the supreme law of the land. Drowning out the
milder protests of the greater number of northern-
ers who expected gradual amelioration of the slay-
ery problem, these extremists branded the whole
movement with their stamp.
The Garrisonian abolitionists asked only the
rights of free speech, press and assemblage. The
things they wanted to say were violent and in-
flammatory, but they asked only to speak. They
w-,.a ,raul 'with "rnntemnt more hitter. onnn-
threats, and other efforts to educate Negroes in the
north were effectively prevented. Free speech was
suppressed at Lane Theological Seminary in Cin-
cinnati after a debate there on the question of
abolition. At Alton, Ill., an editor saw his presses
repeatedly wrecked, and was finally lynched when
he persisted in the advocacy of abolition. Finally,
the United States House of Representatives voted
by the famous "gag resolution" to shut its eyes to
all petitions offered it.
The excesses of the reactionaries resulted as
years passed in a glorification of the abolitionists
as peaceful martyrs discriminated against by an
intolerant mob tyranny. Garrison made good on
his pledge that no matter what intervened he
would be heard. More and more the bulk of people
in the north, finding it impossible to avoid the slav-
ery issue, joined to a greater or lesser degree the
fight for freedom - not only for Southern Negroes,
but for Northern white minorities as well.
Today - exactly one hundred years later - we
find it easy to forget the price that has been paid
for liberty. The folly of intolerant suppression,
self-exposed in all the pages of history, goes un-
heeded as we seek new means of avoiding unwel-
come discussion. Mob violence has been largely
laid aside, but anti-war demonstrators two months
ago were ducked and assailed with rotten eggs.
By legal enactment, instead, we hope today to sil-
ence those who are obnoxious to us.
Those who have given intelligent consideration
to matters of this sort are fearful above all else
that the forces of change, driven underground by
repressions of any sort, will lose not their strength
but the valuable influence of modifications im-
posed by the more conservative elements of society.
The change - if needed - cannot be prevented. It
may be made easier.
Letters published in this column should not be
construed as expressing the editorial opinion of The
Daily. Anonymous contributions will be disregarded.
The names of communicants will, however, be regarded
as confidential upon request. Contributors are asked
to be brief, the editor reserving the right to condense
all letters of over 300 words and to accept or reject
letters upon the criteria of general editorial importance
and interest to the campus.
Excursion Into The Wilds
To the Editor:
My message concerns a subject dear to the hearts
of intrepid nature lovers, "An Excursion Deep Into
the Wilds About Ferry Field Tennis Courts, or Lost
in the Deep."
I am not a tennis player of great note. Around
home they call me "Sock 'Em Jesse, the Base-line
Killer." However, I do like tennis, and so the
facilities of Ferry Field appealed to me. But yes-
terday, when I began to stroke in my accustomed
fashion, I found that I was confronted with some-
thing quite foreign to tennis.
At least foreign to tennis as it was originally con-
ceived, although I must admit not wholly novel
in my game.
About the courts there must be a full season's
growth of hay, absolutely defying penetration in
search of lost balls. But to make penetration im-
possible there appears to be growing there a species
of natural matting somewhat resembling a morn-
ing glory but a perfect protection, with the grass,
for all those balls of mine which have an inclina-
tion to hide from the terrifying punishment which
I am prone to administer.
So closes my story for today -it has no ending
as it has little beginning, but I do wish something
As Others S e
Job Dodgers On Relief
IN THE OPINION of Harry L. Hopkins, Federal
relief administrator, there are few persons re-
ceiving public aid who would refuse a job if they
could get one. Average experience insists that Mr.
Hopkins must qualify his statement. He did so in
regard to domestic servants, alleging that wages
offered them are frequently below the level of a
decent and tolerable living. But there are many
others who find it more desirable to live on a little
relief than to work for a little more, particularly
among those who have limited understanding of a
citizen's duties and responsibilities.
There seems to be no reason why Mr. Hopkins
should discourage the efforts of those who are try-
ing to reduce the relief rolls by identifying the
drones and punishing the "chiselers." Local au-
thorities can check cheating on relief but not in
the face of too much Federal interference.
There has been sufficient cheating, certainly, to
affect the public mood toward the relief problem.
Public sympathy with the unemployed is damaged
by every case of "chiseling," job-dodging and de-
liberate loafing that comes to light. If the Federal
management wants the support and approval of
those who pay the bills, Mr. Hopkins and his asso-
ciates must harden their hearts and deal justly
but firmly with the responsibility of reducing the
relief rolls to the necessary minimum.
Philadelphia Public Ledger.
THE RECEPTION accorded Capt. Anthony Eden
in Rome, when he arrived there Sunday on an
important diplomatic mission, was "cool." The
representative of the Italian Foreign Office who met
Capt. Eden at the station did not even wear the
customary top hat, without which it seems impos-
sible for diplomatists of a certain school to diplo-
Angered by lack of British sympath for his
Ethopian adventure and resentful because Great
Britain entered into a bilateral naval agreement
with Germany without consulting him, Signor
Mussolini thus gave Great Britain the snub direct.
The effect should be as profound as that of a
small boy sticking out his tongue at a big boy, who
is going about his own business.
When Mr. Ramsay MacDonald came to this
country to talk things over with Mr. Hoover, they
went into the woods, sat down on a log and there
did their talking. Whether they wore top hats on
that momentous occasion, we do not know, but
they carried on their conversations in the bus-
inesslike manner of two men who had serious
problems to solve. They had no time or use for the
garments of diplomacy: they were concerned with
The absence of top hats to greet its envoy in
Rome is more likely to strike Great Britain's sense
of humor than to arouse its ire.
-Detroit Free Press.
could be done for the better upkeep of the courts
during the summer.
Tomorrow, I may discourse on another subject,
dear to all tennis devotees with tender feet, who
are forced to play on the concrete courts because
of the horrible cracks in the clay courts. I shall
cloak the subject with mystery until then.
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SINGLE and double rooms and suites
for men. 825 E. University. Near
School of Education. Reasonable.
Dial 3851. 12
FURNISHED APARTMENT with pri-
vate bath and shower. Double
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ROOM RENT free to student for work
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ATTRACTIVE 2-room suite. Com-
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SPANISH SERVANT REWARDED
LOGRONO, Spain )- Long years
of faithful sercice were rewarded
when the will of millionaire Aureliano
Tejada, dead at the age of 90, was
read. Practically all his fortune was
left to his housekeeper, Jacoba Cha-
varri Ruiz, who had worked for him
for 36 years.
"Goi n To town"
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Rehabilitating Depressed Farmers
This article is hereby reprinted in part from
THE FAMILIAR PATTERN of the settlement of
the United States is being retraced. The im-
poverished farmers transported by the government
from the profitless acres in Minnesota, the Dakotas,
and Michigan to Alaska will, however, be better
provided than were the pioneers who landed from
the Mayflower or their successors who reached
the West in covered wagons or, for that matter, by
The government will provide a 40-acre farm,
a log cabin, livestock and farm equipment for
each family of settlers in Matanulka Valley. The
farmers will give a mortgage for $3,000 to be paid
in 30 years at an interest rate of 3 per cent. A
physician, a dentist and nurse will look after the
health of the colonists. Schools will be established
and if the first efforts succeed, ultimately 76,000
tillable acres will be divided.
The colonists were selected from a large number
of applicants. Those chosen are familiar with
farm work in the harsh climate of the North Cen-
tral United States. All have been on relief because
they could not support themselves and their fam-
ilies at their old homes.
Nobody can guarantee success for the Alaska
colonists on the new farms bestowed upon them by
a well-disposed government. It is safe to guess
that even though the land is fertile and the climate
mild, by Alaskan standards, there will still be diffi-
culties to overcome. Certainly there will be mos-
quitoes to endure. Some years must elapse before
we shall know whether the experiment has suc-
ceeded or failed.
* * * *
Nothing that the administration has undertaken
in the name of the New Deal has, however, called
forth more general approval than the broad ef-
fort to rehabilitate the rural population who for
so long have been engaged in a fruitless struggle
to wrest a livelihood from unfertile and wasted
lands. We differ about many things, but very
few Americans are hostile -to the attempt to fit
these people to maintain themselves decently and
Harry L. Hopkins, Federal Emergency Relief Ad-
the South, and on the less fertile lands of the
West struggle on year after year without surrender
and without victory. Although they are not public
charges, nobody seriously and intelligently con-
cerned about the public welfare can ignore their
The plain fact is that a very considerable pop-
ulation is living on lands and under conditions
which preclude any considerable earnings. Cotton
pickers in parts of the South cannot at any con-
ceivable price of cotton earn nearly enough to pay
for the basic requirements of a decent standard
This is not a new situation. It is a very old
situation. Men and women have been trying to
wrest a meagre livelihood from some poor soil
since the first settlers arrived. But a poverty-
stricken life is out of harmony with modern ideas.
So long as we know how to produce so prodigiously
in the factory and on the industrialized farm,
there is no safety or comfort in mere existence
on sterile land.
How far the government can go in enabling peo-
ple better to take care of themselves nobody knows.
Mr. Hopkins and his associates have developed
brave plans. The government is seeking to buy
some of the worst land so that it may be withdrawn
fon agriculture. Land not fit for farming may be
good enough for occasional pasturage or for wild-
life refuges. moreover, wind erosion, with the con-
sequent dust storms, has reached the stage at which
something fundamental must be done to correct the
folly and neglect of past generations if good land
is not to be injured or destroyed with the bad.
Up to last December, arrangements had been
made with different states to "rehabilitate" 132,-
000 farm'-families. Preliminary agreements had
been made for the purchase by the government of
many millions of acres in various states. The
entire program is imperial in scope. Mr. Hopkins'
reports estimate that about 440,000 families will
have to be moved. On the other hand, he also re-
ported that 125,000 families on relief can be re-
habilitated through advisory services with no cash
outlay, and that about 430,000 can be made self-
supporting in the same lands they now occupy.
To accomplish this great objective calls for
thinking and administration of a sort we have
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