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July 07, 1936 - Image 4

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Official Publication of the Summer Session


. 7W
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
Member of the Western Conference Editorial Associa-
tion and the Big Ten News Service.
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
not otherwise credited in this paper and the local news
published herein. All rights of republication of special
dispatches are reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class matter. Special rate of postage granted by
third Assistant Postmaster-General.
Subscription during summer by carrier, $1.50, by mail,
$2.00. During regular school year by carrier, $4.00; by
mail, $4.50.
Offices: Student Publications Building, Maynard Street,
Ann Arbor, Michigan. Phone: 2-1214.
Representatives: National Advertising Service, Inc., 420
Madison Ave., New York City.-400 N. Michigan Ave,.,
Chicago, Ill.
Telephone 4925
Editorial Director.................Marshall D. Shulman
Dramatic Critic.................-- ......John W. Pritchard
Assistant Editors: Clinton B. Conger, Ralph W. Hurd,
Joseph S. Mattes, Elsie A. Pierce, Tuure Tenander, Jewel
W. Wuerfel.
Zeporters: Eleanor Barc, Donal Burns, Mary Delnay, M. E.
Graban, John Hlpert, Richard E. Lorch, Vincent Moore,
Elsie Roxborough, William Sours, Dorothea Staebler.
Telephone 21214
CREDITS MANAGER ....................JOHN R. PARK
Circulation Manager ..................J. Cameron Hall
Offee Manager .............................Robert Lodge
No One Arms
ForPeace. ...
. BRITTEN AUSTIN, whose work
in behalf of peace is above question,
writes interestingly in the last issue of This Week
magazine refuting the thesis fam'iliar to pacifists
that armaments create war.
As a matter of fact, progress in armaments not
only "made wars progressively less frequent, but
less deadly in proportion to the numbers engaged.
There was no altruism in this. It was automatic."
On the double premise that development in'
armaments have made war prohibitively expensive,
and more incapacitating than murderous, Mr. Aus-
tin declares that "The present wild arms race
is an expression of reciprocal fear rather than of1
determination to start a row. Unless some scared
fool pulls a gun, probably there will be no war
in the near future. Every year without one is a
year gained to peace."
His conclusion is that pacifists ought to turn
their attention from the fight against armaments;
and seekto educate the people to international-;
There are several objections to this attitude.
First: the mere expense of war is no guarantee of
peace, and the fact that improvements in warfare
have tended thus far to make war more expensive
should not lead us to lend impetus to arms man-
ufacture. May it not be in the future that some
scientist will turn himself to the problem of more
economical production of war materials; may not
cheaper nitrate production, for example, be one
such instrument?
Second: the clause, "Unless some scared fool
pulls a gun," is not a minor consideration. Despite
the expense, despite even unwillingness on the
part of diplomats to engage in war, nations are
helpless in the face of an international episode.
Should an incident occur, an assassination, a naval
accident, nations who are armed will bluster, those
who are unprepared for war are tractable. Thus,
because armed preparedness reflects itself in a
nation's foreign policy,;it is a menace to peace.
Third: there are only two ways to achieve world
peace - either through a conquest of the world by
a single power, or through a substitution of world-.
mindedness for nationalism. Let us decide whe-
ther we want to achieve peace the Roman way-
and if we do, the way toward it is indicated by our
last army and navy appropriation. If it is our
intention to secure a world amity, the path toward
it is certainly not to thwart sanctions by increas-
ing our oil exports to a nation which is not only
belligerent, but bellicose. Rather should we throw
our support to any instrument calculated to sub-
stitute arbitration for armed settlements.
Although one would rather be gassed than bay-
oneted, he would rather never have gone to war
at all. If there is to be any improvement, let it not

be in the 'mechanics of war, but in ourselves. The
first step is that we must not elect to national
office any man who does not declare himself will-
ing to support measures such as those suggested
by the National Council for the Prevention of
War, measures which will be the subject of a
future editorial. We should not, of course, cease
our efforts in behali of education in realities, but
we cannot condone, as Mr. Austin would have us
do, our mad armament race at the same time.
The Seeds
Of Struggle.. .
between John L. Lewis' Committee
for Industrial Organization and the "vested in-
terests" of the nation's steel indusatry hecame an I

Any careful reader of the profoundseries of
articles in recent issues of Fortune magazine crit-
ically analyzing policies and practices of the steel
industry must have been convinced long before
now that some sort of declared hostility emergent
in this industry was inevitable-unless-those in
power made revision in their attitude toward those
under their power.
This attitude, accurately diagnosed by Fortune,
was given striking illustration by a letter to steel
workers from Eugene R. Grace, president of the
Bethlehem Steel Corporation, written last Satur-
day in the ominous calm, so to speak, before the
thunderous storm of repressed industrial union-
This letter stated in part: "I do not have any
thought that you desire any change in our pres-
ent relationships or that you will be misled by
any appeal that may be made to you in the
announced campaign.
"My purpose rather is to assure you that we
will assist you in every way to continue the present
proven method of dealing with our mutual prob-
It is just this ostrich-like attitude, this deliberate
denial or ignoring of reality that Fortune, The
Daily and other observers view as the basic weak-
ness of policy in an industry so huge as to make
that weakness a flaw in the whole social structure
of this country.
"I do not have any thought that you desire
any change." What a travesty! How ridiculous
to assume that the C.I.O. is working in a vacuum,
that notoriously the most restless group of Amer-
ican workers is completely satisfied.
Such a policy is, at the least, psychologically dis-
astrous. It is, at the most, the last great stand
of economic stupidity against the slow, persistent,
faltering advancement of economic democracy.
Public opinion will be important in deciding
the outcome of the impending clash within the
steel industry. Public opinion will be entreated
by the logic of collective bargainers and by the
propaganda of collective reactionaries. Whatever
its sympathies, public opinion must be convinced
that there is a basic divergence of interests in-
volved, that change is inevitable and finally that
authority must be granted the government to in-
sure real equality of bargaining, real freedom of
expression amongst all economic classes in our


Program Notes
(Tuesday, July 7, 8:30 p.m.)
Sonata in B Flat (K. 378) Mozart: One of forty-
two works which Mozart wrote in the form, this
sonata for violin and piano was composed in the
summer of 1781, a few months after the composer
had taken up his abode in Vienna, where he was
destined to spend the remaining ten years of his
life. Among the first products of Mozart's last and
greatest period, it bears all of his charm and
grace of expression with none of the gravity and
dignity which came later through the influence
of Haydn, whom he saw for the first time during
the following winter. Buoyant, blithesome, the
first movement particularly is Mozart in his hap-
piest mood. The entire work is attractive not
only in the charm of the melodic material but
in -the contrapuntal skill with which the material
is developed.

* * *


____r__See It
The Heidelberg Funeral
EDTOR'S NOTE: The following is a letter written 1
to the editor of the New York Times.
To the Editor:
With hardly suppressed tears of anger and
shame I have read the splendid accounts by The
Times correspondent of the spectacle of celebrating
the burial of higher learning and scholastic free-
dom at Heidelberg at the conclusion of 550 years
of enviable existence. Today's editorial "Heidel-
berg Obsequies" strikes deep and hard at Hitler's1
enslavement of intellectuality and condemns thej
prostitution of the arts and sciences, morals and1
ethics which all have been "gleichgeschaltet" in
Nazist realization of the totalitarian state.
As an alumnus of Ruperto-Carola I can but grit
my teeth in despair and complete bewilderment at
a learned world's apathy and partial condonation
of the destruction. of universitas heidelbergiensis
and' universalis. In the face of what has taken
place politically, economically and morally during
the past three years of Hitler's reign, it seems
incredible that American educators, unlike their
iEhglish colleagues-Americans supposedly im-
bued with a" spirit of freedom of thought, toler-
ance and learnedness--should accept the assign-
ment of representing their own universities at
this burial of what was Heidelberg.'
Less comprehensible remains the fact that a
number of American universities actually felt it
their duty and privilege (?) to be represented, to
accept the invitation, to be honored through their
attending faculty members by honorary degrees or-
dained by the same powers who have prided them-
selves for dismissing, retiring, exiling, imprison-
ing or killing eminent men because, as your edi-
torial states, "their race, affiliations or beliefs
were objectionable" to Naziism. Degrees handed
out as favors by men who have risen to political
power by fire and sword and who have never
felt the exultation of learning for learning's sake,;
who know but one Latin. phrase, that of Ovidus
Naso: Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori !
"Alt-Heidelberg, Du feine; Du Stadt an Ehren
reich * * "-reads the famous song. "Thou city
rich in honor" -and age and traditions, wiped out,
destroyed deliberately and completely for the con-
forming servitude of this one more cog in the
mighty wheel of Nazi-Weltanschauung! -
There is little left but contempt for the perpe-
trators of the greatest crime of the century, shame
on the heads of those American teachers who
have forgotten their young but nevertheless en-
viable heritage of American, democratic principles,
who have wandered far to help in spading dirt and
earth on a tomb that embraces the work of cen-
turies, of generations, of humanity in its highest
medium of existenceffi all this to theaccompani-
ment of a music that waves flags, marches uni-
forms, rattles sfiabers, salutes and barks com-
mands. Indeed, hail to progress and - humanity!
-Boris Erich Nelson.
Things that happen, however painful they are
at the time, do not matter very much for long.
Only how we behave to them matters.-Phyllis
Sottome, "The Crystal Cup."

Poeme - Chausson: Like a number of other
composers of the later nineteenth century, Ernest
Chausson received his early training in a field
other than music. Born in Paris in 1855 of moder-
ately wealthy parents, he obtained his lawyer's
degree before turning to the serious study of music,
which he began in 1880 as a student of Massenet
in composition. Unsuccessful in an attempt to win
the Prix de Rome, he left Massenet for Cesar
Franck, under whom he studied sedulously for
three years. From Franck he received the solid
structural training which became the foundation
of his own individual style-a style highly sensi-
tive and refined, typically French in its lyrical
charm, and pervaded by a gentle, graceful melan-
choly which is entirely his own. The Poeme, writ-
ten in 1896 for violin and orchestra, is a poetic,
even dramatic, work of lofty sentiment, betraying
well the melodic gift of the composer.
* * * *
Sonata in A, Op. 47 (Kreutzer) - Beethoven:
"For pianoforte and obligato violin, written in the
style of a concerto." Such were the words in-
scribed by Beethoven upon the Ms. of this sonata,
dedicated to the German violinist Rodolphe Kreut- 1
zer, and one of the outstanding works of its
kind. Lofty in sentiment and eloquent in expres-1
sion, it shows little evidence of the fact that it was<
written to order, for a joint concert given May 17,1
1803 by Beethoven and the English violinist,1
Bridgetower. Owing to the composer's accus-
tomed procrastination, the second movement was
only completed at literally the last minute, and
Bridgetower was forced to perform it at sight--
reading from Beethoven's scratchy, blotted manu-
Tzigane-Ravel: This rhapsody for violin and
piano by the leading contemporary French com-
poser was written only twelve years ago and has
not as yet become very well known, this being its
first performance in Ann Arbor. Written in the
traditional gypsy style, its melodic and harmonic
idiom nevertheless bears the stamp of the com-
poser's individuality.
Tragedy In China
(From the New York Times)
THE balance between peace and war in China
remains precarious. In the south, large forces
of Nanking troops exchange raids with forces
from the Provinces of Kwangtung and Kwangsi.'
In the northeast and Inner Mongolia, Japanese
military preparations and demonstrations grow
more ominous. In Outer Mongolia, a mutual as-
sistance pact has recently been concluded with the
Soviet Union. To the northwest and the west
the great regions of Sinkiang and Tibet are subject
to foreign control and are in the throes of political
unrest. While millions of peasants are starving
or on the verge of starvation in famine-ridden ar-
eas-chiefly in the Provinces of Honan and Sze-
chuen and in Inner Mongolia-Chiang Kai-shek
announces on behalf of the Central Government
the expenditure of $375,000,000 for military prep-
arations during the next twelve months, and one
of the war lords in the south is reported to have
spent nearly a quarter of a million dollars on the
wedding of one of his relatives
Few of the great hopes which marked the estab-
lishment of the republic in China more than two
decades ago have yet been realized. Western
parliamentary institutions, American and Europ-
ean trained Chinese students, Western advisers,
the adoption of "civilized" military method's and
machines-none of these "reforms" have appar-
ently been able to retard the internal forces of dis-
integration or to check the political and military
encroachments of foreign powers. Such funda-
mental movements as that for mass education, the
rise of a vigorous nationalism, and the widespread
acceptance of radical doctrines which have been
labeled communistic have lacked in a central,
effective leadership. Chiang Kai-shek, who rose
to power through the support of these elements,
has recently devoted much of his energy and re-
sources to their suppression. While thus engaged
on the one hand, he has on the other hand been
a complaint instrument in the continuous and ad-
vancing Japanese aggression in Manchuria and
beyond the Great Wall, until now it would occasion
no surprise if the whole territory north of the
Yellow River, including Shangtung, were-under

the guise of establishing an independent regime-
separated from the body of China.

SO FAIR A HOUSE, by Welbourn
Kelley (Morrow).
fHE week has produced two valu-
able southern novels, James Mc-
Connaughey's "Village Chronicle"'
and now Welbourn Kelley's "So Fairl
A House." Of the two, "Village!
Chronicle" is probably the best job
technically, and certainly it makes its
points more simply and with highly
commendable economy of words. But
probably Mr. Kelley's "So Far A
House" must be called more "im-
This is because Mr. Kelley gets into
the labor war before he is done. His
southern town lives on mills rather
than on a university as in "Village
Chronicle." And even when the mill
owners have as little actual connec-
tion as Bartow Bradford had with his,
Mr. Kelley does not let them escape
trouble. Bartow spent his time writ- I
ing fiction for the slicks at $30,000
a serial, and regretting the fact that
his Rose had run away and left him
with three charming children-the
youngest of whom, a little scamp
named Singer, was not Bartow's son.
Thus Mr. Kelley has a strained
family situation on his hands, com-
plicated by the fact that Swanee,
his oldest child, insists on marrying
a man nearly three times her age
whose reputation is not as good as
his bank account. He has also a cen-
tral character who is abnormally
weak in many respects, and curiously
strong in others. He has in addi-
tion trouble which is festering be-
neath the mill chimneys, and is
further irritated by an injection of
northern literary-radical virus. And
he has a group of subsidiary char-
acters, revolving around in an occa-
sionally confusing set of subsidiary
This is a good deal for one novel,
but the author shoulders his cross
bravely and bears it nobly. Most of
the writing is first rate, full of local
incident and southern color which
seems authentic. The manner in
which the town handles the northern
invasion is part of this last. The
three Bradford children are amusing
and heart rending by turns. Perhaps
the lack of clarity through most of
the novel comes from the fact that
Bartow Bradford is himself a mud-
died, confused and thwarted person.
In any case there is a lack of clarity.
--J. S.

! Notices
Faculty Concert: Prof. Wassily
Besekirsky, violinist, and Prof. Joseph
Brinkman, pianist, will present the
following program in Hill Auditorium
this evening at 8:30 p.m. The public,
with the exception of small children,
is cordially invited to attend, with-
out admission charge.
Sonata, B-flat major (K. 378)
. . . ..' .. .. . -. .... M ozart
Allegro moderata
Andantino sostenuto
Poeme, Op. 25 .............Chausson
Sonata, Op. 47 (Kreutzer) ......
Adagio sostenuto-Presto
Andante con variazioni
Tzigane (Rapsodie de Concert)
.......................... R avel
Mr.d .0. Courtright is planning to
divide his Extension course in golf
into two sections. One section of the
class will meet on Monday and Wed-
nesday at 4:45 p.m. and the other
will meet on Tuesday and Thursday
at 4:45 p.m. The class meets at the
practice tee of the University Golf
Course. The number of students in
the class is limited, but there is room
for a few more students in each sec-
Stalker alil: Group leaving Stalker
Hall today at 5 p.m. for steak roast
at the Island. Price: 25c per person.
Call Stalker Hall, 6881 for reserva-
A reception will be held at the
home of Dr. H. W. Nordmeyer ,1416
Granger Ave., this evening from 8 to
10:30 p.m. for the members of the
Summer Session staff of the German
Department and students in the ad-
vanced courses in German. Members
of the German Table group are also
cordially invited to attend.
Registration in the Bureau of Ap-
pointments and Occupational Infor-
mation for Seniors and Graduate
Students interested in being consid-
ered for teaching or business place-
ment will be held Tuesday, July 7,
through Friday, July 10, from 10-12

P uiation in the Bulletin is con tr ucti e notice 1toall numbers of the
Ui o.i .Colpy receved at the otl'ic of the Summer Session, Room 1213
Angn ia 11 until 3:30: 11:00 am. on Saturday

Is Collee A Machine?
-How Northwestern Turns 'Em Out-

EDITOR'S NOTE: The following ar-
ticle, by the D~ean of the College of f
Liberal Arts at Northwestern Univer-
sity, is reprinted from the Summuer z
Northwestern News Magazine. It orig-
inally appeared in a more expanded
form inthe Northwestern Alumni News.
THE mechanical nature of educa-
tion often has been emphasized.
"College," we've been old, "is a ma-
chine into which students are poured, '
the faculty turns the crank, and out
come more graduates!" Each alum-
nus is supposedly trade-marked by
his institution. Thus we have, thet
critics say, "the Yale Man," theI
Princeton Man," the "Harvard Man."t
American education is emulating in-
dustrial mass production. "You arej
"big business."
This frequent charge is well-known1
to every faculty member. And I, forc
one, willingly admit that professorsc
and administrative officers have been
irked-so irked, in fact, that for the
past decade their chief efforts have
been directed toward individualizing
How if those responsible for our
educational institutions have listenedf
to this general comment, made by the
populace should learn what colleges
have recently been doing to render
the charge untrue.
The first American colleges knew1
just what they were to do--educate!
the few for the dignified professions.
This constituted the "ick" period in
American education. Every student,
a century ago, did go through the
same mill. Certain "disciplines"--
the "ick" subjects, logick, mathemat-
icks, rhetorick,and the classicks--
formalized higher education to meet
a narrow view of what constituted a
gentleman's education. Then fol-
lowed, about forty years ago, the3
"free elective" period ,introduced by
President Eliot of Harvard. Under
this scheme, students were allowed to
range pretty much where they
would. Here was freedom with a
vengeance. This second period as-
sumed that four years in which the
student "took" almost anything the
college had to offer, equalled "one
college education." The first period
was rigidity itself-the second free-'
dom itself.
But neither one worked happily.
Freedom, it was found, might be as
fallacious as rigidity. Something
more was necessary. Individual needs
and capacities must be studied to in-
sure that type of education for which
the student has a particular bent.
With this realization came our pres-
ent "stage" in American education-
individual attention.
To meet the earlier charge of ed-
ucational mechanization by offering

All colleges, today, endeavor< to of-z
fer the student free and constant con-
sultation with professors. From the
freshman's first days, the spirit is
one of helpfulness and collaboration,
Each institution worth its salt has a.
system of advisers or counsellors who
hold office hours ,and often invite
students to their homes. Tutors in the
dormitories are available when mostf
needed. Counsellors stand ready to
help in matters of social adjustment
and vocational information. Rarely
are students compelled to seek out
these officers; they may make suchT
use of this help as they wish. Andt
the student who does utilize this as-
sistance, constantly makes new ad-
justments in interests and habits,
which become a vital part of his ex-
perience. The purpose is not tot
check, but to help the student dis-
cover his own weakness and powers.
The curriculum today, is neither
so rigid as a hundred, nor so free as
forty years ago. It is proportionedJ
roughly into thirds: a required third,s
usually in language, literature, sci-
ence and the social sciences; a third
in free electives, and a third in some
"field of concentration" to insure
familiarity with the broad aspects of
one realm of learning. "Diversifica-1
tion with concentration" are the
watchwords here.
To secure attention to individual
capacities, some of the frequently
used devices are:
1. Proficiency examinations. By
this means students who have ad-
vanced skill in special subjects are
encouraged to take examinations. If
sufficient command of the subject is
established, the student is excused.
from taking the course.
2. Comprehensive examinations.
To insure something more than a
memorized command of the subject,
the student must evince power of
coordination, synthesis, and original
3. Independent study. The more
able are encouraged to follow up a!
subject through original work in the
library or laboratory. For this they
are granted "credit" toward a degree.
1 4. Reading periods. In the upper-
class years, students are frequently
dismissed, for short periods, from the
formal classroom, for reading, corre-
lation, and conference-work in a par-
ticular subject. This gives reign to
independence and self-reliance.
5. Fields of concentration. To in-'
sure command of some one phase of
learning, colleges offer large units of
related work and encourage the elec-
tion of some one of these, for which
the student's enthusiasm and capa-

Kindly call at 201 Mason Hall for
your registration material.
Bureau of Appointments and Oc-
cupational Information.
Freshmen (students who have less
than 24 hours) and sophomores (24
hours to Concentration) in the Col-
ege of Literature, Science, and the
Arts who expect credit for courses
pursued during the Summer Session
must check their present elections
with the limitations on elections for
freshmen and sophomores on pages
60 and 61 of the College Announce-
ment for 1935-36. Courses elected
during the summer which conflict
with the regulations just referred to
will not be credited toward the de-
grees granted by the College. Any
necessary changes of elections should
be made by Wednesday, July 8th.
Erich A. Walter, Acting Assistant
Michigan Repertory Players: The
third play of the summer series will
open Wednesday evening when the
Players will present the comedy-
drama "Post Road." Reservations
may now be made at the box office,
which ii be open today from 10 un-
il 5.
Excursion No. 2 Wednesday, July 8.
The Ford Plant. Inspection of the
various Ford industries at River
Rouge. Round trip by special bus.
Reservations in Office of the Sum-
mer Session, Room 1213 Angell Hall
by Tuesday, July 7, 5 p.m. Private
cars making trip report directly to
the Rotunda Bldg., on Schaefer Rd.
Leave from in front of Angell Hall at
12:45 p.m. Return to Ann Arbor 5:30
p.m. Total cost $1.25.
Tap Class for Men and Women: A
mixed tap class will be offered on
Tuesday and Thursday evenings at
7:30 p.m. in Barbour Gymnasium.
Students in Physical Education:
Men and women students registered
in physical education are cordially in-
vited to attend a luncheon at the
Union on Wednesday, July 8 at 12
New Graduate Students in Educa-
tion: The School of Education is giv-
ing a reception and tea to those spe-
cializing in education who are on the
campus as graduate students for the
first time this summer. It will be
held in the libraries of the University
Elementary School Wednesday after-
noon, July 8, from 5 to 6 p.m.
Students, College of Literature,
Science and the Arts: No course may
be elected for credit after the end of
the second week. Saturday, July 11
is therefore the last date on which
new elections may be approved. The
willingness of an individual instructor
to admit a student later would not
affect the operation of this rule.
Pi Lambda Theta Tea: Thursday
from 4:30 to 5:30 p.m. at the Uni-
versity Elementary School Library.
Members from any chapter are cor-
dially invited to attend.
Candidates for the Master's Degree
in History: The language examina-
tion for the Master's Degree in His-
tory will be given at 4 p.m., Friday,
Aug. 7, in Room B ,Haven. Students
are urged to take this examination if
possible during the first summer
school or semester of their candidacy
for a Master's Degree. The examin-
ation is one hour in length and stu-
dents are requested to bring their
own dictionaries.Copies of past ex-
aminations may be seen in the base-
ment Study Hall of the Library. Reg-
istration for this examination must
be made before July 31 in the History
Department Office, 119 Haven Hall.
A. E. R. Boak.
Summer Session Mixed Chorus
meets at Morris Hall from 7 to 8
p m. All singers in the University and

community are welcome.
David Mattern.
Wanted: Persons to act as subjects
for visual acuity tests, one or two
(non-consecutive) hours daily, 45c
per hour. Persons who will be able
to continue this work throughout the
following academic year preferred.
See Mrs. Donahue, 425 or 4138 Na,-
turalMScience Bldg., forenoons.
Carl R. Brown.
grees. In order to foster initiative and
effort, colleges have instituted "hon-
ors" work, whereby able students are
allowed privileges as to the nature
of the work done.
These various plans, all point to but
one objective-an effort to treat stu-
dents as individuals by providing for
individual capacities.
Colleges are not machines; let's call
them, rather, a sieve through which
the strong and able student is sep-
arated from those who simply go to
college because they are sent.
No college educates the student;
but today, far more than ever, the
college makes available to the stu4
dent, a- chance to educate himself.
Colle es have never "given" learning

The Fruits Of Higher Learning

(From the Detroit Saturday Night)

during his lifetime. He will better the earnings
I nF +, _ : +1" -1, - a - sr 1, 1, -1, -1--I '

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