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August 14, 1936 - Image 2

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#AGE TWO.

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IMMAY, AUG. 14: 1934

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Offcal Publication of the Summer Session.
T H_____~~

Publishect every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
Member of the Western Conference Editorial Associa-
tion and the Big Ten News Service.
MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
not otherwise credited in this paper and the local news
ublisahed herein. All rights of republication of special
d ispatches are reserved.
se:ntered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second cias matter. Special rate of postage granted by
Tpird Assistant Postmaster-General.
Subscription during summer by carrier, $1.50, by mail,
$2.00. During regular school year by carrier, $4.00; by
mail, $4.50.
Offices: Student Publications Building, Maynard
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Phone: 2-1214.
epresentatives: Natirnal Advertising Service, Inc., 420
Madison Ave., New York City.-400 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, Ill
EDITORIAL STAFF
Telephone 4925"
MANAGING EDITOR ............THOMAS E. GROEHN
ASSOCIAL EDITOR ............THOMAS H. KLEENE
Editorial Director ................Marshall D. Shulman
Dramatic critic ........ .............John W. Pritchard
Assistant Editors: Clinton B. Conger, Ralph W. Hurd,
Joseph B. Mattes, Elsie A. Pierce, Tuure Tenander,
Jewel W. 'Nuerfel.
Reporters: Eleanor Barc, Donal Burns, Mary Dglnay,
D$: E Gaan, John Hipert, Richard E. Lorch, Vincent
Moore, Elsie Roxborough, William Sours, Dorothea
Staebler. Betty Keenan.
BUSINESS STAFF
Telephone 2-1214
BUSINESS MANAGER ........GEORGE H. ATHERTON
CREDITS MANAGER ...................JOHN S. PARK
C culation Manager.................J. Cameron H81
Oft -Manager...........................Robert Lodge
A Campaign
Paradox.'..
T HE NEW REPUBLIC has consis-
tently maintained that President
Roosevelt is the greatest friend of capitalism
in the country, in that he is patching up the
capitalistic system so that it will, at the very
least, work. Ralph Thompson of the New York
Times writes of the New Republic's supplement
"A Balance Sheet of the New Deal":
"Hardly a reform has been introduced (by the
New Deal), the editors point out, that even so
much as whispers socialism; the efforts of the
administration have peen aevoeaL to ne rescue
of capitalism. Yet these efforts have been re-
5isted by the capitalistic beneficiaries, and in al-
most every instance successfully."
Alice Duer Miller, in accepting the chairman-
ship of the authors' committee for the re-election
of President Roosevelt, made the following state-
mient, one which corroborates in an interesting
Way the paragraph above:
"I am for Roosevelt because I approve of the
continuance of the capitalistic system and it
seems obvious that this system has a better
chance of continuing if it is ameliorated and
adapted to modern conditions along the lines
initiated by the present Democratic administra-
tion."
If this be true, why is it that the left of the
country is supporting Roosevelt while his most
bitter opposition is coming from those who stand
to benefit by the preservation of capitalism?
There are several reasons. First, socialists,
as Dorothy' Thompson says, "think that the
quickest way to socialism is via President Roose-
volt, although they know perfectly well that the
President is not a socialist." That is, while the
reforms of the New Deal may not whisper so-
cialism in the sense that they have not before it
an avowed ideal of common ownership, yet it is
true that such reforms as social security, mini-
mum wage and maximum hour laws, are among
those immediate objectives that have been dear
to the heart of Norman Thomas for years. Whe-
ther or not it is true that they are intended to
point in the direction of collectivization of in-
'dustry it is impossible to say, because President
Roosevelt for reasons that are obviously tactical
has not t'eclared himself.
Second, capitalists know only that the re-
election of Roosevelt means further curb on their
'rights of "free enterprise." If Roosevelt is elect-
ed, they fear that he will impose new and drastic
taxes, and all believe J. P. Morgan's observation
-that no great American fortunes will be left in
thirty-five years if Roosevelt is re-elected. "At
recent money-raising lunches in New York," re-
ports the New Republic, "normally rational bus-
iness men are reported to have talked much as

if they were French aristocrats of 1793 awaiting
the tumbrils to carry them to the guillotine."
In other words, they do not recognize that unless
,they submit now to moderate regulation that
will guarantee a fair return to other factors of
production than capital, conditions will grow in-
ereasingly intolerable for the great majority of
people and force will be applied to secure not
only a just return, but complete control. Or,
if the Chamber of Commerce should realize that
changes are necessary in the way of regulation,
they are faced with the same dilemma as labor:
"How far does Roosevelt intend to go with his
program of regulation? Will he stop short of
ownership, or will he be able to if he wants to?"
Most business men fail to be reassured by the
change in Roosevelt's philosophy now as against
three years ago, a change about which we have
commented in previous editorials: whereas his

Letters published in this column should not be
construed as expressing the editorial opinion of The
Daily. Anonymous contributions will be disregarded.
The names of communicants will, however, be regarded
as confidential upon request. Contributors aregasked
to be brief, the editors reserving the right to condense
all letters of more than 300 words and to accept or
reject letters upon the criteria of general editorial
importance and interest to the campus.
Americanism
To the Editor:
The true American spirit-"Americanism"-is
expressed in a determined and magnificent hu-
man struggle to achieve democracy, justice and
liberty.
Democracy means an equality of opportunity.
Justice means the equality of all before the
law. Neither democracy nor justice is possible
without liberty.
Liberty demands freedom of speech because
without freedom of speech there can be no search
for the truth. Freedom of speech includes free-
dom of inquiry, freedom of discussion, and-most
important-freedom of education. The freedom
of teachers to teach facts without bias and of
scholars to learn facts without bias must never
cease.
Never was it more necessary than now for all
Americans to support their right to freedom of
speech and freedom to listen and learn.
Believing in freedom of speech, Americans
practice tolerance. It is well for present-day
Americans to remember that in America, as else-
where in the world, some of the most sincere
patriots have been abused by the intolerant of
their own day who made no effort to understand
them.
Americans are not afraid of change. A society
which does not permit change does not permit
growth or improvement. It is dead.-From a
booklet by Cyrus LeRoy Baldridge for the use of
the Americanism Committee of the New York
County American Legion.
P.S. Not approved by William Randolph Hearst.
-Observer.
War
To the Editor:
1. No one has stated it more explicitly than
the German philosopher Fichte who, having de-
clared that in the relation of states, "there is
neither law nor right, except the right of the
stronger," then went on to say not only that de-
ception "is the natural and necessary course of
things," and that a government might well adopt
the principle: "Promise peace that thou mayest
begin war with advantage."-Hitler is a disciple
of Fichte.-Walter Lippman.
2. "Tht war of 1914 was not imposed upon
the (German) people but demanded by the whole
nation."-Hitler: Mein Kampf, Edition 1933,
pp. 176.
3. World War: The imperialist carnage left
a mountain of bones on a hundred European
battlefields.-The Nation, Dec. 7, 1932.
4. Universal conscription and modern science
have made wars utterly destructive to all con-
cerned including the civilian population. Europe
lost some ten million men and suffered infinite

material damage and moral deterioration through
four years of conflict. It is now a truism that
another such conflict would threaten the very
basis of our entire civilization. -Frederic R. Cou-
dert, in The Living Age.
5. War, commerce and piracy go indissolubly
together.-Goethe: Faust.
6. The roots of war are almost invariably eco-
nomic in nature.-Harold Laski.
7. Above all, Fascism proclaims the necessity
and excellence of war. War and the preparation
of war are- to become the most sacred duties of
human life. Men must find in death and mu-
tilation the true purpose of their lives, and women
must rejoice to exhaust themselves in childberth
that ever new generations of men may take their
places upon the battlefield.-John #Strachey, The
Menace of Fascism.
8. According to the New Leader (London), on
an average of six men were killed every minute
during the World War.
-M. Levi.
Philadelphia Racing Form
(From the New Republic)
STUDENTS of our society will find plenty to
think about in the purchase of The Phila-
delphia Inquirer by Mr. Moses L. Annenberg.
The Inquirer, the oldest paper in Philadelphia,
with a circulation weekdays of 275,000 and Sun-
days of 600,000 now falls into the hands of a
former Hearst circulation manager, who is chiefly
known to fame as the publisher of Daily Racing
Form, a racetrack tipsters' sheet which appears
simultaneously in eight cities. He denies that he
is buying the paper on behalf of Mr. Hearst, but
in all publishing principles the two undoubtedly
see eye to eye. Several hundred thousand Phila-
delphia homes will henceforth view the world
through the eyes of Mr. Annenberg, a man whose
vision is bounded, if we may judge his future
by his past, by more and bigger race tracks, black
reaction in all political and social affairs, and a
general level of intelligence substantially below
that of a thirteen-year-old. Nobody can esti-
mate the harm a man like Annenberg can do,
year by year, to a city like Philadelphia. True,
he is by no means the worst of American pub-
lishers; and true, he bought the paper on the open
market for a good round sum. We are not blam-
ing Mr. Annenberg particularly; we are merely
noticing the crazy civilization that puts such
vast power into the hands of anybody who can
get together enough money. From the long-time
point of view, it would be far more sensible to
give a machine gun to a child of six and encour-
age him to turn loose with it at high noon, in a
crowded street.
The Summer Texan has its suggestions for re-
vised definitions, according to a University of
Texas columnist:
"A good speaker is one who can spill the gab
so eloquently that you begin to wish he was
right even if you know he is wrong."
"A so-and-so: A male gigolo who plucks his
eyebrows and tries to grow the difference on his
upper lip."
"Parental backsliding: Reading questionable
literature and then raising hail and more hail
when they catch their children reading the
same stuff."

*..BOOKS ..
"ALONG NEW ENGLAND SHORES,"
by A. Hyatt Verrill; (Putnam).
IT WOULD be an A-class error to
think of A. Hyatt Verrill's "Along
New England Shores" as merely an-
other travel book.
Mr. Verrill does not write that sort
of thing. He is not interested in
how many miles it is from Salem to
Portsmouth; he is interested in the
saltier anecdotes of those two munici-
palities.
Some of the things he has learned
about our Puritan forefathers will
give pause to the recent movement
to whitewash their sins. The pretty
Indian custom of scalping is not, he
declares, an Indian custom at all.
The red men did not begin the habit
until a bounty had been offered for
scalps by the Puritans themselves!
Most of the torture used by the
New England Indian, he asserts, was
learned at the same source. It was
the Puritans who pressed old Giles
Gory to death for refusing to plead
one way or another to a charge of
witchcraft. Giles' eyes "did popile
from oute their sokettes," a literate
observer writes, only to be "pressed
back into place by ye Governor with
his staffe."
It also may amuse some to know
that indirectly the Plymouth colony
owed its survival to the fact that here
had been an English settlement in
Maine 14 years before the Pilgrims
landed.
So it goes with Mr. Verrill. He
writes about the first submarine, built
at Saybrook, Conn. And about the
astonishing "republic" on Moncogus
Island, off Maine, which maintained
from 1860 to 1935 that it. was inde-
pendent and did not belong to the
United States; it capitulated in order
to get a post office! And about No
Man's Land, and the man who is paid
to teach lobsters to dive, and so on
through 298 delightful pages.-J. S.
Lincoln Steffens... . .
"YOU'RE printing a rotten maga-
zine," said S. S. McClure to his
youthful managing editor. "Get
away from the office, go out and get
acqauinted with the people, see what's
happening, and theni come back and
tell them."
Lincoln Steffens went out. He
toured the country. Hhe mantle of a
magazine editor's dignity dropped
from his shoulders. It was never re-
sumed. He was back in journalism,
where he had first made a name,
where he always belonged, where he
always after remained, whether as
lecturer, publicist, autobiographer, or
mellowed watcher of events from his
scholarly retirement at Carmel, where
his death has occurred.
With the peremptory blessing of his
veteran publisher, Steffens exposed
municipal corruption in a series of
burning articles subsequently collect-
ed in book form as "The Shame of
the Cities." The disclosures rocked
the nation. They were factual report-
ing. They told what was being done
and who were doing it. No one was
spared. Never a punch was pulled.
The cirmucstances of corruption, in
all their ramifications and connec-
tions, were spread in blasting detail.
The philosophy of bossism was com-
pressed in a phrase: "Addition, divi-
sion, silence." The unholy alliance
of business and politics was terrify-
ingly pictured, functioning in various
ways as varrying conditions and tem-
peraments demanded, but everywhere
performing the same vicious job of
betraying the public.
Thus was founded the school of
militant periodical journalism to
whose activities Theodore Roosevelt
applied derogatively the term "muck-
raking." Eminent names were en-

rolled. Ida Tarbell matriculated. So
did Ray Stannard Baker. The school
grew. It set a fashion. Magaznies
were launched in frank imitation of
the McClure's leadership. The search-
ing inquiry, the high purpose, the in-
tellectual integrity of the Steffens-
Tarbell-Baker group were wanting in,
most of the camp followers. The era
of indictment passed. But the school
of which Steffens might, perhaps, be
called the headmaster, was an insti-
tutional contribution to the arduous
cause of reform.
St. Louis was the first city Steffens
visited on his historical tour of ex-
ploration. St. Louis was merely typ-
ical. Corruption was rampant in all
the larger cities. The final degree
was conferred on Philadelphia-
"Corrupt and contented."
Always there was the boss-boss-
ism, bribery, boodling. Boosism, as
Steffens showed, is niisgovernment'
for graft, by graft. That was true
in Steffens' time, and it is true today.
"The Shame of the Cities" is a
monulment to its author "more last-
ing than bronze." As a text-book it
implants the lesson of "lest we for-
get."
Flyer Flouts Jinx,
Almost Loses Life
MT. PLEASANT. Aug. 13-()-

S PRESIDENT of the Carnegie En-
dowment for International Peace,
Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler has just
made a report to the trustees of that
organization on the state of the na-
tions. It is a disturbing message, de-'i
Glaring in effect that the world stands'
on the brink of another war and that
collective action is imperative to pre-
vent the worst effects of another eco-
nomic collapse. Dr. Butler recom-
mends that the United States take the;
initiative in calling an international
economfic conference in an effort to
avert the threatening catastrophe.
Dr. Butler does not exaggerate the
critical situation, and his diagnosis is
undoubtedly correct. At bottom, the
world's troubles are economic. Un-
derneath all the political turmoil is
the distress of masses of peoples and
the precarious financial condition of
the various governments. All nations
have about reached the limit of bor-
rowing to stave off disorder, made in-'
evitable by disruption of international
trade and normal activities.
But when Dr. Butler proposes an
international economic conference, to
be initiated by the United States,
he seems to be getting away from
realities. He is asking a Democratic
administration to make a gesture in
the field of international affairs that
would be politically dangerous and
might do more harm than good under
existing conditions.
The present administration is now
under fire because it has made a first
step in the direction of reviving inter-
national trade through reciprocal
trade pacts. The Presiden and Sec-
retary Hull have literally aken their
political lives in their hands to ad-
vance this cause, which the Repub-
lican platform is pledged-to reverse.
It should be apparent by now that
a complete new start must be made
in dealing with the international
problem. As Dr. Butler suggests,
there must be a new approach, and it
should be along economic lines. From
all accounts, the statesmen of Europe
realize this, and the more responsible
leaders are seeking a new way out of
the morass. This has been forced
upon them by conditions which are
constantly growing worse.
We are not much better off, al-
though we are enjoying recovery of a
kind. None of the major problems
facing the country has been solved
by President Roosevelt and will not
be solved by anything he has so far
proposed. This is true of the Repub-
lican party and of Gov. Landon. If
Gov. Landonshould be elected and
carry out the platform adopted at
Cleveland, we would soon be worse off
than we are today. The reason is
simply that, in this interdependent
world, no nation can have lasting
prosperity or be secure from the
danger of another war so long as the
world at large is suffering from grave
economic and political disturbances.
* * *
The United States, because of its
prestige, its wealth and remoteness
geographically should today be pro-
viding the leadership needed to bring
about stabilization and order. What
are the obstacles in the way? Why is
it that the United States is unable
to take her proper place in the world
and by doing so help her own people?
Because we have been misled and the
relationship between this country and
the world has been misrepresented
ever since the World War.
If the world is to be put to rights
and another war averted, the United
States must take the lead or at least
co-operate wholeheartedly in any ef-
fort that is made. But this entails
a lot of work to change public senti-
ment here. In plain words, this
means combatting the propaganda of
William Randolph Hearst and those
who are day by day preaching the
misleading doctrine of economic na-
tionalism and isolation.
* - *
I Atythis time when the Republican
party, as Dr. Butler recently said,
has adopted the most reactionary
platform in its history and all of civ-

ilization faces a crisis that may bring
another war, the Carnegie Endow-
ment for International Peace might
examine its own record and methods
to see if it has been following the
course best calculated to further the
cause to which it is committed.
As we see the problem, the policy
of the United States is the most im-
portant single factor in the world sit-
uation. We have a President pledged
to the policy of the "good neighbor"
and a Secretary of State who has
worked earnestly and courageously to
promote peace and economic rehabili-
tation. But neither the President nor
Secretary Hull can move faster or go
farther than public opinion will per-
mit. It is all very well to say that
they should boldly seek to lead the
world aright; but Woodrow Wilson
tried to do just this and failed trag-
ically.
The task ahead is to educate the
American public to the point where
it will support an enlightened foreign
policy. This cannot be done by
starting with campaigns forthe
League of Nations and World Court
or even for international stabilization
of e>>rrAn ou Th ,-c mn a

sociation" and "League of Nations As-
sociation" and begin all over in a
commonsense effort to show Amer-
icans that it is to their interest to
cooperate with the rest of the world
in order to put men to- work in the
United States.
* * *
We need to begin all over in our
seaport cities, on our farms and in
our industrial centers and attempt to
show that the surest way to provide
employment for Americans, to make
subsidies unnecessary and avoid "reg-
imeptation" in agriculture and indus-
try is to go back to the normal ways
of trade that have always served to
advance the general welfare. This
normal progress was assured through
the building up of foreign trade for
our surplus goods. This means na-
turally that we must take foreign
goods in return. It does not mean
free trade or anything like it, but it
does mean freer trade.
In this work, the Carnegie Endow-
ment for International Peace could
perform a real sereice. The place to-
work for peace is here in America, not
in Europe. The way to do it is not
by trying to entangle the American
people in foreign politics but by ap-
pealing to their self-interest. Few
people understand the complications
of economics or foreign exchange, but
all mature Americans understand
what is meant by trade. Before we
have another economic conference,
American public opinion should be
mobilized behind the administration
so that it could provide real leader-
ship in such a gathering.
Crooked Vote Methods
(From The Chicago Daily News)
PERMANENT registration, the new
honest-vote law, is now formally
in effect in Chicago and nine sub-
urbs.
Fortune magazine, in its current
issue, lists 13 ways-apart from the
bestowal of patronage privilege or
immunities from the enforcement of
the law-by which a political ma-
chine may seek to control afi election
dishonestly:
1. Intimidation and violence, ex-
ercised upon voters and upon workers
or watchers of the opposing party.
2. Buying the votes of legally reg-
istered voters-"sometimes for cash;
sometimes for a drink of rotgut, good
brandy, or even a sandwich."
3. False registration. "Including
the .voting of flophouse floaters who
swear to false names or who adopt
the names of registered dead men or
of voters who have moved away. If a
political worker doesn't trust his
floaters he will steal a ballot early in
the morning, fill it out for the or-
ganization, hand it to the first "sting-
er,' as a voting floater is called, tell
the stinger to deposit it in the box.
The stinger must bring back an un-
marked ballot before he can collect
his two-bits. And the unmarked
ballot is then filled out for the or-
ganization, and the process repeated,
making up an endless chain. Sting-
ers may obviously vote as repeaters
by moving from precinct to precinct."
4. Voting the illiterates. That is,
a judge gives "assistance" to a voter
who claims he cannot read or under-
stand the long ballot.
5. Manipulating the line. "The
art of permitting only the right vot-
ers to move up toward the polling
booth."
6. Stuffing the box, "The method
is arbitrarily to check off the names
of voters and fill in the ballots for
them. When the checked-off voter
turns up later in the day he is told
that he has already voted."
7. Weighing the box. Election of-
ficials, in collusion, "simply decide,
without opening the box, just who
is to get what, and by what mar-
gin."
8. Checking on the count. "Done
by tearing and otherwise spoiling bal-
lots." The short-pencil expert, with

a pencil lead concealed in his hand as
he manipulates the ballots in the
count, "will mark an organization X
at the top of a split ballot and sim-
ply count that X."
9. Erasures. The ballots are al-
tered by erasures before the count.
10. Spilling the ballots. The lights
go out conveniently, or a box is "ac-
cidentally overturned, and in the mix-
up other ballots are substituted for
those originally in the box.
11. Substituting a new tally sheet.
The correct tally is destroyed after
the count, and a false tally is filed in
its place.
12. Substituting a new ballot box.
Before the count, the right box is
stolen, and later destroyed. Another,
loaded in advance with false ballots,
is substituted.
13. Indirect methods. Under this
heading, Fortune magazine lists "par-
ty control of the county judge, who
may be compliant in the selection of
judges and clerks of election"; also,
"the tacit or open bribery or com-
pulsion of the police force to over-
look election day irregularities."

Ways Toward New And More
EnlightenedForeign Policy
(From the Brooklyn Daily Eagle)

4

t
Summer Study And Winter Salary
-Teachers Can Make Study Profitable In More Than One Way-
(By Prof. Ernest H. Hahne, director of the Summer Session at Northwestern University)

-Reprinted from The Summer Northwestern-
VERY FEW public school teachers on the cam-
pus this summer would freely admit that
they were here.seeking promotional credit to hold
their positions or to increase their salaries. Never-
theless this is a very practical matter. School-
board members would be disgruntled if their sav-
ings, invested in stocks or bonds, did not return
to them dividends of interest. But the summer
session teacher is saving her time, and making
her investment in education all too often without
expecting any distinct or definite increase in win-
ter salary. Summer study in a universty that is
a member of the Association of American Univer-
sities, where high stahdards are assured, is an
investment, and the business man expects a re-
turn upon sound investments..
Business men who are members -of school
boards all too frequently fail to distinguish in sal-
ary increase between the teachers who invest
their summer in education and those teachers
who take delightful trips to snowclad mountain
peaks, or see the grandeur of national parks, or
enjoy the breezy seashore, or rest in the wooded
camps beside northland lakes. Are not these
business men trying to get something for noth-
ing, when they disregard the expenses and heavy
outlays of the teachers in their school systems
who undertake to combine pleasure and invest-
ment in summer session work?
* * -*- *
That summer study would improve the teach-
ing efficiency of their teachers these same
business. men would be the first to admit, but
they hesitate to compensate these same teachers-
by imposing heavier school taxes on their neigh-
bors. At the same time they ignore the indirect
tax that falls upon the school teacher who ser-
iously seeks to improve her teaching efficiency
through summer study-because the expense of
summer study is a sort of tax that a teacher
imposes upon herself for the improvement of
the school work in the particular community
she serves. True indeed, it is voluntarily im-
posed, but that does not relieve the community
of the moral liability attaching to the community
which obtains benefits for which it does not con-
tribute.
There are certain fnrces at mwr + itat +on rt

growth of summer sessions. The country as a
whole is getting more and more summer-session-
conscious. The leading universities, which through
summer study are improving the teaching tech-
nique, educational materials and methods, the
social outlook and educational philosophy of
public school teachers, are gradually improving
the school system in many communities. The
longer this tendency continues, the greater will be
the summer-session-consciousness of American
people.
Another force working in this same direction
is the inter-community competition to improve
schools. Through summer session attendance the
more progressive school administrators and
school boards will discover that higher salaries
not only further improvements in school systems
by enabling their teachers to pursue summer
study, but -also that higher salaries will attract
the better prepared teachers. The more progres-
tive administrators are already recognizing that
a salary increase is partial recoupment for the
expense of summer study, a recognition of the
expense of future summer study, a dividend pay-
ment for the teachers' savings invested in the
improvement of local school systems.
One more factor that relates summer study
to winter salary is the gradual recognition that
the earlier the administration rewards summer
study the better opportunity it will have to
secure the better teachers. For the past few
years we have heard much about the low sal-
aries and the over-production of teachers. But
no one has yet alleged that there is an overpro-
duction of "godd" teachers. - No one will deny
that summer study makes good teachers "better"
teachers, and certainly progressive communities
want the better teachers. To get them the policy
of rewarding teachers for summer study must
eventually be adopted. Promotional credits are
now used in many cities, and during the depres-
sion this system has more than proved its merit,
and will probably spread as attempts are made
to improve the teaching staff.
* * * *
In the meantime the rewards-for summer study
consist in the intangibles of self-satisfaction,
pleasant associations, profitable study with qual-
ified instructors, contacts with eminent lecturers,

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