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August 12, 1936 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1936-08-12

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Pft~v Two

M1. iJ M l t MX x f t y

WEDNESDAY, AUG. 12, 193(

Official Publication of the Summer Session

Publishec every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
Member of the Western Conference Editorial Associa-
tion and the Big Ten News Service.
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
nt otherwise credited in this paper and the local news
published herein. All rights of republication of special
dispatches are reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second clas matter. Special rate of postage granted by
Third Assistant Ppstmaster-General.
Subscription during summer by carrier, $1.50, by mail,
$2.00. During regular school year by carrier, $4.00; by
mal, $450
Offices: Student Publications Building, Maynard
Street,- Ann Arbor, Michigan. Phone: 2-1214.
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Madison Ave., New York City.-400 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, Ill
Telephone 4925
Editorial Director ................Marshall D. Shulman
Dramatic critic ........ .............John W. Pritchard
Assistant 5ditors:Clinton B. Conger, Ralph W. Hurd,
Jseph '. Mattes, Elsie A. Pierce, Tuure Tenander,
;J"wel W. WNuerfel.
RePorters: Eleanor Bare, Donal Burns, Mary Denay,
R. E Graban, John Hilpert, Richard E. Lorch, Vincent
Moore,- Elsie . Roxborough, William Sours, Dorothea
Staebler, Betty Keenan.
Telephone 2-1214
OREDITS iVIANAGER ...................JOHN S. PARK
Cf'culation Manager .................J. Cameron Hall
Office Manager ............................Robert Lodge
The Five Candidates
n Education.. .
this week gave their views on
public education in answer to a questionnaire
sponsored by The Social Frontier, progressive
teachers' magazine.
The questionnaire included the following ques-
tions: (l) Do you consider the maintenance of a
strong program of public education essential to
a democracy? (2.) In view of the great inequality
anong the various states in their ability to sup-
port an adequate program of public education,
do you believe that the support of such a program
is, today a matter of national concern? (3.) Do
you favor the National Education Association
program calling for Federal appropriation of.
$100,000,000 as an initial step in the development
of a permanent program of Federal aid for edu-
Norman Thomas, Socialist candidate, replied
affirmatively to the three questions.
Earl Browder, Communist candidate, also re-
plied affirmatively and added: "I believe that
free education and financial assistance to youth
must be guaranteed by both Federal and State
aid, with control remaining in the local com-
William Lemke, Union Party candidate,
through his campaign manager, said that he be-
lieves in public education of the "proper kind"
and not the "sort of material which smacks
of propaganda for the s'tatus quo and paid by
Wall Street."
Governor Landon replied: "It is my belief that
questions of such public interest as those you
ask deserve a full discussion rather than a cate-
gorical answer. This has been my policy toward
other issues, and I feel that education merits
equal treatment."
President Roosevelt, through his secretary, said
that he "has encouraged and, will continue to
support programs to improve educational oppor-
tunties for American citizens," and cited as evi-
dence the following record:
1.A bill which increased by $14,000,000,000
the annual appropriations for vocational educa-
tion in the United States.
2. Encouragement of the Office Education's
efforts to develop a nation-wide system of public
forums for. the "free and frank discussion of
public issues."
3. Promotion of educational broadcasting
through the Office of Education.
4. Allocation of $1,000,000 for scientific stud-
ies in ten states of local schools with a view to-
ward Teorganizing administrative units.
5. A thorough survey of educational and voca-
tional opportunities for Negroes.
6. Assistance to hundreds of thousands of

youths, through the NYA, to continue their edu-
cation. .
7. Provision of educational opportunities for
several millions of adults through the emergency
education program.
8. A "steady" enlargement and improvement
of the educational program in the CCC camps
qperated under the direction of the Office of
Dr. George S. Counts, professor of education
at the Columbia Teacher's College, remarked of
Governor Landon: "I would have you note that
he treats education exactly as he treats any
other issue." At least we may say this, in all
fairness to Landon: Considering that he has the
record of having balanced his State budget at a
terrific cost to Kansas schools, we shall look
forward with interest to the full discussion he

1 ~ ~ - - - I Fq
Letters published In this column should not be
construed as expressing theseditorial opinion of The
Daily. Anonymous contributions will be disregarded.
The names of communicants will, however, be regarded
as confidential upon request. Contributors are asked
to be brief, the editors reserving the right to condense
all letters of more than 300 words and to accept or
reject letters upon the criteria of general editorial
importance and interest to the campus.
Jeffersonian IDenocrats
To the Editor:
First of all, the so-called Jeffersonian Demo-
crats are no more Jeffersonian than the Amer-
ican people are Frenchmen. The appeal to a
great man, like Jefferson, is nothing more than
a political slogan to defeat President Roosevelt
who is one of the greatest presidents America has
had the luck to possess. It is true he does not
have to fight a foreign power like Washington-
what he has to fight are the exploiters. Nor
does he have to free slaves like Lincoln-what
he has to do is to oppose the enslavement of the
people by the millionaires and their followers.
In this connection it is interesting to note that
Ex-Governor William A. Comstock has to say
about President Roosevelt. And first of all he
wants to uphold the Constitution. Was there
not an item in The Daily-I think it was August
7th-stating what Jefferson thought of the Con-
stitution, that is, that he favored changes in that
fine document whenever necessary. Mr. Com-
stock pleads in favor of States' rights. Just see
how the people are starving in New Jersey-
as the result of states' rights. States' rights are
great things for the politicians and the bankers.
Mr. Comstock also wants home rule and indi-
vidual liberty. A reply to this demand is that
we have all the individual liberty we can possibly
make use of. But big business and finance do
want more individual liberty-laissdz faire-in
order to keep and increase their strangle hold
on the American people.
In what way does Ex-Governor Comstock suf-
fer from lack of individual liberty?
To the Editor:
Could you please direct me to the University
printing office? I should like to have them print
several window signs which will be posted in
conspicuous spots throughout the Intramural
Upon one set of signs I plan to have the fol-
lowing command printed in bold letters:
With this command posted, students who do
injure themselves will not embarrass attendants
byrequesting them to procure the sole bottle of
iodine which is kept in the main office's safe.
Today, I had to hop six blocks, clad only in shorts,
in order to treat a fresh wound! In the future,
injured students will walk out, fully clad despite
the danger of irritation, and sneak over to the
Health Service for treatment. This will serve
to decrease the number of modern "Tarzans"
who hop through the streets of our noble city and
leave a trail of blood behind-to the disgust of our
Upon a second series I intend to have a cartoon
of a typical villain who mouths the following:
Perhaps a few signs vf such nature will stop the
growing number of complaints from students
who will find fault with the excellet manage-
ment of the directors of this institution.
Three blocks north and one to the right? Thank
-Solomon Gross, '38L.
A vacationist is a fellow who takes a lot of
snapshots to prove to you that he really had the
good time he only wishes he had had.
-The Daily Iowan.
provide a starting point for a more fundamental

question regarding labor and relief.
The problem of work-relief is first, to get re-
lief into the hands of those who need it; and sec-
ond, to contribute something constructive to the
physical resources of the country. As relief, it
is admittedly less efficient than the dole: as con-
struction, it is too rushed to be of as much bene-
fit to the resources of the country as a project
more carefully planned and executed might be.
The vastness of the program makes some wastes
inevitable, and some projects inevitably foolish.
The aspect we wish to discuss here is the ques-
tion of whether the nature of the work being
done by the WPA is of the most possible benefit.
The advance of machine I technology is re-
placing more and more quickly the type of labor
represented in the WPA. Increasing technolog-
ical unemployment will continue to swell the
relief rolls with unskilled workers, or those
trained in specific tasks, unadaptable to any-
thing else. The argument of economists that ma-
chines really create more jobs predicates a greater
flexibility of labor that really exists.
We believe, therefore, that a better project for
a large part of the WPA would consist of train-
ing men in various, industrial skills, that they
may be more easily absorbed into industry as
wheels begin once again to revolve. Under pres-
ent conditions, WPA workers are learning, if
anything, only how to avoid working too hard.
More than an improvement in physical or ma-
terial resources, we need an adjustment of our
human resources to a technological society. One
of the best methods of making that adjustment
on a large scale is to utilize the period of unem-
ployment for workers as a period of training in

To the Editor:
There. is a famous page in Victor Hugo's Les
lserables which deals with the past and present.
That page may be aptly applied to our present
political situation when there are those who exalt
the horse-and-buggy age and seem to forget
that we are living in a more advanced state
of existence, and that the world has gone for-
ward and has made considerable progress since
the time when the horse-and-buggy was the
vehicle par excellence. This is what Victor Hugo
"To force the past on the present-this seems
strange. Still, there are people who hold such
theories. These men, who are in other respects,
people of intelligence, have a very simple process;
they apply to the past a lustre which they call
social order, morality, the respect of elders,
antique authority, sacred tradition; and they
go about shouting: 'Look! take this, good people.'
This logic was known to the ancients. The
soothsayers practiced it. They rubbed a black
heifer over with chalk, and said, 'She is white,
Bos eretatus.'
"As for us, we respect the past here and there,
and we spare it, above all, provided that it con-
sents to be dead. If it insists on being alive, we
attack it, and we try to kill it.
"Superstititions, affected devotion, prejudices,
those forms, all forms as they are, are tenacious
of life; they have teeth and nails in their smoke,
and they must be clasped close, body to body, and
war must be made on them, and that without
truce; for it is one of the fatalities of humanity
to be condemned to eternal combat with phan-
tom. It is difficult to seize darkness by the
throat, and to hurl it to the earth.
"In ordinary times, in order to dissolve an
anachronism and to cause it to vanish, one has
only to make it spell out its date. But we are
not in ordinary times. Let us fight, but let us
make a distinction. The peculiar property of
truth is never to commit excesses. Whit need
has it of exaggeration? There is that which it
is necessary to destroy, and there is that which
it is simply necessary to elucidate and examine.
What a force is kindly and serious examination.
Let us not apply a flame where only a light is
-An Alumnus.
Editor's Note
In the last sentence of yesterday's edi-
torial entitled "Newspapermen and the Labor
Dispute," "industrial unions" should be sub-
stituted for "craft unions."
As Others See It
Planters Vs. Share-Croppers
(From the Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch)
THE SERIOUS RIOTING and violence which
have characterized the relations between
planters and share-croopers in Arkansas over a
considerable period are symptomatic of the
troubles which afflict the cotton states.
It will not do to write down the members of
the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union as a group
of Reds, manipulated by snide Bolshevik agita-
tors from New York. Of course, there are rad-
icals among them, and there are also "outside
agitators" in the area around Marked Tree and
other Arkansas storm centers. But the fact
is that the share-croppers in Arkansas and other
Southern states have serious and legitimate
grievances. They were unable to obtain relief
through any other means, so they formed a
union in Arkansas, and they struck.
They struck because they have been in a state
of virtual peonage for decades. Paid 75 cents
for a 10-hour day, under "yellow-dog" contracts
and deeply in debt for the necessities of life,
many of these share-croppers saw no other way
out. They are asking for $1.50 a day.
The reaction of the authorities and the plant-
ers of Arkansas to the strike has been indefen-
sible. The floggings, beatings and terrorism
which have prevailed in the Eastern part of the
state, and which have followed some of the refu-
gees all the way to Memphis across the Missis-
sippi, cannot be excused. The sheriffs and the

judges and the planters should recognize the
desperate plight of the share-cropper and ap-
proach their problems with open minds, instead
of actively participating in, or at least tolerating
the use of extralegal violence to attain their
There is another side to the problem, however,
and that is the plight of the planters. Theirs
has certainly been no bed of roses in late years.
Under the Roosevelt administration prices have
improved tremendously, but even so, it cannot be
assumed that they are able to pay the wages de-
manded by the share-croppers. During the Hoo-
ver administration, they .were heavily in debt,
and many of them are still.
We have, then, a'situation in which the plant-
ers are skating so close to the brink of bank-
ruptcy that they probably cannot afford to pay
much more than they are paying to their work-
ers. At the same time, those workers cannot be
expected to be satisfied indefinitely with 75 cents
a day.
What is the solution? Apparently it lies in a
complete overhauling of the South's agricultural
economy. In the first place, machinery must be
set up by the Federal Government whereby ten-
ants can become landowners. The millions of
dispossessed Southerners must be given-the op-
portunity to till their own farms, as was done
successfully in Ireland and Denmark.
In the second place, the one-crop system must
eventually go. The foreign market for cotton is
shrinking, and there are other reasons why diver-
sification is greatly to be desired.
Until some such remedies as these are made

KNOWN for his simplicity, and de-
mand for it, in an age which likes
to keep itself hypnotized by the ob-
scure, Arthur Guiterman may (or
may not) be writing in self defense
when he tosses off what he. calls "A
Memorandum for Poets," in his new
collection of light verse, "Gaily the
Troubador" which Duttons are re-
leasing in October. He says:
If you are clear, you shall be
scorned by all,
Especially the critical consistory;
So be obscure, and they will throng
a hall
And gape while you expound your
That he doesn't need defense is
amply shown by the hundred witty
rhymes which carry you through his
new book, the first since his more
serious, a Valentine it is, but that not
nam," published a year ago. There
are many verses here, gay and grace-
ful, wise and gentle, which will be
welcomed by Mr. Guiterman's admir-
ers everywhere. And only one is
serious, a Vaentine it is, but that not
much. Mr. Guiterman pays his re-
spect to "Humor" in this volume, ask-
ing his many friends to--
Let austerity desert you
For a while;
Let your virtue cease to hurt you
When you smile.
In the ever-sad-and-solemn
Something cracks,
So the stiffest spinal column
Must relax.
Since amid our strife and bluster
Tender mirth
Make men kindlier and juster
Here on earth.
Who shall question that hereafter
Up above
There'll be humor ,which is laughter
Mixed with love!
* * *
THk National Association of Man-
ufacturers is sending a robot on a
lecture tour. The point of the lecture
which the robot delivers will be that
machines do not displace men but,
rather, have created more jobs. As
we visualize the scene on the lecture
platform, trying to imagine what sort
of gestures the robot uses, all we can
thik of is that the N. A. of M. is
displacing a man by a machine to
prove that machines do not displace
We doubt if the robot will say this:
Until we devise a method of absorb-
ing displaced workers in self -respect-
ing occupations without serious or
protracted periods of unemployment,
we cannot speak of social progress
and the substitution of men by ma-
chines in the same breath." Eliza-
beth Faulkner Baker says it is dis-
placement of men by machines, re-
cently published by Columbia Uni-
versity Press. And she should know,
for she spent most of her.time during
four years making a careful study of
the effects of technological change in
commercial printing.
* * *
STAY AWAY from Hollywood, says
Max Miller, who went there. You
won't have a cent when you leave
anyhow. In his new book, "For the
Sake of Shadows," announced by
Duttons for publication in Septem-
ber, Max talks out to young writers
whose eyes are turned that way. He
"Too many young authors are
drawn here (Hollywood) after their
first success, and hence are lost to the
country forever. They came intend-
ing to remain only a year to lay a
stake for future writing of their own.
Such a resolution is a joke. They
live up to their income, they become
so accustomed to living with such
a large overhead, that to make a
break for it and to live in a shack
again becomes absurd ... These writ-
ers become only too soon poor fren-
zied slaves donating their life's few
1 hours to obtain a suporfluity of
things they do not need, do not en-

joy, and which in time will be
snatched from them anyway . . .
"No mercy is shown for honesty,"
in Hollywood, says Max, "only for
cleverness. And here more than else-
where one must forget immediately
to hold as precious those quick
thoughts which come to him when
shielded by the soft walls of dark-
ness. Such thoughts, the epitome
of one's possessions, may be written
but cannot be photographed, and so
are no good here."
Fate Takes A Hand
(From the St. Louis Post-Ditpatch)
NAZI GERMANY is going to great
lengths to make a favorable im-
pression on visitors to the Olympic
games. The reliable Manchester
Guardian quotes a "confidential cir-
cular" issued by R. Walther Darre,
minister of Food and Agriculture in
the Hitler regime, as follows:
It is necessary to make specialI
mention of the fact that there
may be Jews amongst the for-
eigners, for the German govern-
ment have given the Interna-
tional Olympic Committee a
pledge to guarantee the protec-
tion of all Olympic guests. Pos-
sible Jews must therefore be
treated just as politely as Aryan
In no case must Jewish "provo-
cateurs" get a chance of creat-
ing incidents which will add grist

(Of the Geology Department)
4T WOULD PERHAPS be too much
to expect an impartial biography
from the late sensational publicist of
the United States Army, nor is one
disappointed in this forecast.
The subject of this biography, Gen-
eral Adolphus W. Greely, at the age
of 17 entered the volunteer army of
the United States in 1861 as a pri-
vate and died at 91 years, a retired
major general in the regular army.
During the Civil War, Greely passed
through many severe battles and re-
ceived several wounds, and this was
followed by a brilliant career as chief
of the Signal Service of the Army,
which he largely organized, and in
connection with which he built many
thousands of miles of telegraph and
telephone lines within frontier coun-
tiry, both in times of peace and of
war. His permanent fame will rest
largely upon theseachievements, for
which he received from Congress
within a year of his death the Medal
of Honor, not, however, an honor
given only twice before-a form of
misstatement which is common in
the book. How this was brought
about through the biographer's effi-
cient management is duly set forth
in the pages of the biography.
To the general public Greely was
chiefly known as the leader of the
most disastrous and tragic exploring
expedition, with a single exception,
that ever went into either polar re-
gion from any country. Among ex-
plorers generally this is explained by
the fatal blunders of the leader and
by his entire inability to cope with
Arctic conditions. Of the twenty-five
men who composed the expedition
six only returned alive, and had the
Suffrage In France
(From the St. Louis Pest-Dispatch)
THE LONG FIGHT for rights for
women continues in France. With
a bill to make women eligible to vote
and to hold elective office indorsed by
the Chamber of Deputies by the
overwhelming vote of 488-to-, the
issue is again on the doorstep of the
Senate. This latest approval by the
Chamber was in response to the re-
quest of the nationalist dleader, Dep-
uty Louis Marin, for a unanimous
vote to "force the hand of the Sen-
ate by a new manifestation of the
Chamber's feelings."
It is one of the peculiarities of Eu-
ropean politics that France, which
has made civil rights of citizens a
fundamental of its system of govern-
ment, has for so long denied its
women the privilege of voting and
holding office. Women have voted
in Finland since 1906, in Norway since
1913, in Denmark since 1915, in
Russia since 1917, in Sweden since
1921 and in Spain since 1926. The
Chamber of Deputies, which is the
popular, in the sense of readily re-
sponsible, branch of the French par-
liament, first voted for woman suff-
rage in 1919 and has repeated this
action eight times. It is the Senate,
whose members are chosen not by the
voters but indirectly through depart-
mental councillors, and for nine-year
terms at that, which has stood in the
Thus the course of the woman suff-
rage movement in France is much
like that which it experienced in the
United States. A resolution seeking
to do what the Nineteenth Amend-
ment finally accomplished in 1920
was favorably reported in our House
of -Representatives as early as 1883.
The House had given the proposal
the two-thirds majority necessary
for submission to the states early in
1918, while the Senate was still re-
jecting it. In midsummer of that
year, President Wilson, who had re-
versed his stand on the question,
wrote to Senators Baird of New Jer-
sey and Shields of Tennessee, urging
them to support woman suffrage on
the ground that favorable action was
needed to win the war. In September,
after the Senate had debated the issue

hotly for five days, Wilson made a
personal appearance in'the Senate to
plead for adoption. In less than a
1 year, the Senate had approved, 56-
It will be interesting to see what
the French Senate does with the
Chamber's bill. If the Senators re-
ject it, they will reject the virtually
unanimous mandate of the elected
representatives of the male voters.
Such a floutifig of public opinion can-
hot stand indefinitely.
Japanese Trade Menace
- (From the New York Post)
DURING the last five years, it is
said, Japan has been "flooding"
our market with cotton piece goods.
Retaliations are advised.
Japanese sales to this country of
cotton piece goods during the past
five years total $2,333,000; Japanese
purchases of raw cotton from this
country during the past five years,
Japanese purchases of raw cotton
from the United States were 198 times
the value of the cotton cloth Japan

When rescue expeditions on which
General Greely depended failed to get
through the expedition base at Fort
Conger, the fatal decision was taken
to abandon this base, stocked as it
was with provisions for a year, sur-
rounded by a great game country,
with a coal mine in the neighborhood,
and retreat to Cape Sabine some
hundreds of miles nearer to the open
sea. Even the dogs, so essential to
securing game, were abandoned to
die. Arrived at Cape Sabine, with-
out any serious effort made to com-
municate with the Eskimo settlements
across the Sound, the expedition set-
tled down to wait for the rescue which
did not come until too late.
Other explores of the Arctic have
supported their base parties by hunt-
ing, Peary throughout a score of
years of exploration, several of which
were based within a few miles only of
Cape Sabine. Moreover not once but
many times Peary crossed the straits
from Cape Sabine to the Eskimo set-
tlements and he sledged tons of sup-
plies between Cape Sabine and Fort
Conger. With brutal frankness Peary
wrote of Greely's starvation camp:
"The saddest part of the whole story
for me was the knowledge that the
catastrophe was unnecessary, that it
might have been avoided ... The hor-
rors of Cape Sabine were not inevi-
table. They are a blot upon the rec-
ord of American Arctic exploration."
Only less severe have been the crit-
icisms of other explorers notably the
famous Danes, Rasmussen and Freu-
When Greely deserted Fort Conger,
the delicate scientific instruments,
the scientific specimens and large
supplies of food, instead of being left
in the house were stored under frail
lean-tos, where all were found ruined
when the fort was reoccupied by
Peary fifteen years later. Even the
oiginal scientific records were left
behind, and these were sledged out
by Peary.
General Greely always claimed that
his expedition was an outstanding
success, and in Mitchell's account it
occupies about one-half of the book
where the characteristic Greely atti-
tude is set forth, as already brought
out in Greely's autobiography which
was issued in 1927.* Mitchell cites
the general as follows: "The Greely
expedition was an extraordinary suc-
cess. The relief expeditions, managed
from Washington, were ghastly fail-
ures. That 19 out of 25 of our men
perished was due to the incompetency
and to the desertion of the relief
commands, both military and na-
Due to the splendid work of Lieu-
tenant Lockwood a new "Farthest
North" on the Coast of Greenland was
attained, and in a later sledge journey
Lockwood pushed westward to and
beyond the head of a fjord from the
west which was named Greely Fjord.
This was npt, as is stated, twenty
miles from Axel Heiperg Land which
was later explored by Sverdrup, but
nearer a hundred and twenty. These
successes of his splendid subordinates,
and Lockwood was one of the victims
at "Starvation Camp," Greely was
accustomed to refer to as though
they were his own personal achieve-
As in the Greely autobiography,
Mitchell's book is full of charges and
slurs against the men whom Greely
regarded as his enemies, and among
these was Peary. Until the verdict
against Dr. Cook at Copenhagen,
Greely espoused Cook's cause, and
then, regarding Peary as second only
at the Pole, he wrote of him: "His
plans and equipment were perfect, his
execution faultless, his success com-
plete and unquestioned." When Cook
had been discredited and Peary ac-
claimed, Greely changed his attitude
and until his death in all his writings
tried to discredit Peary and his great
achievement. In Mitchell's book this
is echoed persistently.
The failure of geographers to ac-
cept Greely's Schley Land, which was
found to have no reality, made the
explorer very bitter, and Peary who
later explored the area omitted the

name from his map. Curiously enough
in his autobiography Greely charges
this to Sverdrup, who was not in -the
area in question.
Mitchell cites Greely in adverse
criticism of Sir Hubert Wilkins and
his plan to explore by submarine
within the area, of the Arctic Ocean
as follows: "Wilkins has not seen that
Arctic ice and I have." This can be
explained only as a speech from an
old man whose mind was no longer
clear, for certainly no man living
has had so much experience with the
sea ice of the Arctic Ocean as has
Wilkins, and it is equally certain that
Greely had never seen it at all. These
examples are among many errors.
They show the false atmosphere of
the book and its glaring errors, and
the biographer sometimes forgets
that he is writing a life of Greely and
devotes many pages of his own per-
sonal exploits.
Bad as the book is when considered
from the point of view of serious biog-
raphy, its very positiveness of asser-
tion will probably give it a wide ac-
ceptance with those who are unfa-
miliar with the subject.

New Account Of Greely Is
SaidByHobbs To Be Partial
GENERAL GREELY, The Story of a rescuing expedition been a day later
Great American, by General Wil- all would no doubt have succumbed
liam Mitchell. Putnam's. 242 pp., to starvation.

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