THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Methods followed in the making of
a dictionary were described by Prof.
C. E. Fries of the English depart-
anent in a recent School of Educa-
tion afternoon conference.
"Language scholars now regard
the function of a dictionary to be
the recording of facts of usuage
rather than the setting up of a
standard of correctness," Professor
Fries said in discussing the change
in attitude from the time when the
books were regarded as establishing
standards of language.
Most cases in which dictionaries
define words as being either correct
or incorrect are cases of prejudice,
he said. The Oxford English Dic-
tionary, however, is built upon the
.principle of a scientific view of the
language. It does not attempt to
legislate concerning the use of words
but aims simply to record all ways
in which the words have been used,
Professor Fries said.
Five million quotations gathered
during the 20 years. ofnpreliminary
work on this dictionary represent the
effort to ascertain facts concerning
the practice of users of English, he
Professor Fries called the Oxford
English Dictionary the most import-
ant document in the scientific study
of any language.
"The soundness of a dictionary and
its value as a tool depends, there-
fore, on the breadth of its survey
of the language uses upon which it
is based and the accuracy of its rec-
ord of the facts found.
"It is obvious that with such a con-
ception of the function of a diction-
ary that there is no end to the mak-
ing of them on the present language,
for our language is constantly chang-.
ing and such records of usage as are
now contained will soon pass out of
date," Professor Fries conluded.
THEY RAISED A STENCH
ZIEGLER, Ill., Aug. 3.-(P)--No
street lights burned in Zeigler last
night, and there were prospects that
they won't be relighted until a dis-
pute between two garbage collectors
William S. Kilgore long has had
all refuse-collecting privileges. In re-
turn he contributed to the street
Lee S. Hall, however, obtained an
injunction against the monopoly.
Kilgore ceased his contribution be-
cause his revenue was reduced.
-Associated Press Photo
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt and her business partner, Nancy
Cook (left) hang up the sign of the "blue eagle," symbolizing adher-
ence to the national recovery administration code for shorter work
hours and higher wages, in their furniture shop near Hyde Park,
eces esed A 'fAre Replaced By Intellectuals
The modern school teacher no long-
er needs to be a fighter, strong enough,
to fling the big boys out of the build-
ing, Warren R. Good, of the educa-
tional psychology department, said
yesterday afternoon in one of the
series of afternoon conferences con-
ducted by the School of Education.
Our fathers tell us of many a phys-
ical challenge in the old-time schools,
he said. A teacher was successful if
he could keep his pupils from eject-
ing him and passed the crisis of his
school career when he proved he
could "lick" the biggest boy in the
Mr. Good then described a number
of changes which have taken place
in schools, attributing them to many
progressive forces. "The most power-
ful of these," he said, "has been the
determination of citizens of the na-
tion to provide better opportunities
for children, to make them happier,
more comfortable, and to educate
them for better places in the social
Educational requirements for teach-
ers have been constantly raised, he
continued, and the public school sys-
tem 'has been extended upward so
that a high school education now
represents the common minimum of
desired scholastic accomplishment.
"Enabling more people to learn
more things does not require a weak-
ening of education, but rather a
widespread improvement of it," Mr.
Good pointed out.
In order to give all the people a
broad education it is fundamental
that, we learn to teach whatever we
teach well enough to enable the stu-
dent to learn it, he said. Charle-
magne, 1,200 years ago, did not learn
to read or write because no one knew
how to teach him.
Research has been responsible for
a large share of the recent changes in
education, Mr. Good stated. Knowl-
edge of scientific 'method has spread
to many teachers and there .has been
an increasing distrust of mere opin-
ion as final authority.
Most of the research in education
so far was attributed by Mr. Good to.
college professors in the field.
He explained, however, that it was
his feeling that the studies should
primarily be made by public school
teachers, who are closer to the sub-
"Each year higher institutions ac-
cept more than 3,000 graduate theses
as evidence of ability to do research
work in education, and most of the
students return to high school teach-
ing, but at this rate it would take
more than 100 years to give all teach-
ers such training.
"The teacher who lacks training in
the fundamentals is handicapped in
matters of interpretation as well as
performance," Mr. Good said.,
With such training, he concluded,
increasing numbers of teachers may
be expected to be able to conduct
reliable investigations and to do so
without radically upsetting the nor-
mal course of school events in the
J~b~e5 YouthVirginia's Governor, Pollard And bride
Of Minnesota }O
To Receive Aid ~~
ST. PAUL, Aug. 3.-(AP--A project........ ..... ,.......
was under way today to improve the
lot of 225,000 youthful Minnesotans,
many of whom have hunted work in s
vain, by furthering their education.*
State officials believe it is the first
undertaking of its kind.
Terming the young people "guar-
dians of the destinies of the Ameri-
can people," Gov. Floyd B. Olson has
appointed a committee of 31 state
leaders to study methods of solving
the problem of jobless youth.
He suggested that in the absence
of opportunity for jobs, some means
be found to send them to school.
Lotus D. CoiTman, president of
University of Minnesota, has estimat-
ed $50,000 would cover the cost of
sending the unemployed young peo-
ple to public or private educational
rstitutions during the coming winter.
"There are about 225,000 young
people in Minnesota between the
ages of 17 and 24," Gov. Olson said -Associated Press hoto
in announcing appointment of the Gov. John G. Pollard of Virginia and his bride, the formerViolet
committee. "These young people in Elizabeth McDougall, shown after their wedding in Winnipeg, Cana-
a few years should be ready to take da. Mrs. Pollard is a native of Canada. The wedding took place while
theirnplaces asdcitizens of our state Mr.'Pollard was returning from the governors' conference in Califor-
and nation and as guardians of the la
destinies of the American people. The
great majority of them are unem--
ployed. yStudents To Have Steak BODE STILL DOESN'T SLEEP
"In the absence of opportunity for BARNHART, Tex., Aug. 3.-(P)-
employment, means should be fur- Roast At Church House Bode Owen's sleep was made restless
nished to enable them to'supplement by the "Who-o-oot" of an owl out-
their ductio.e hmt p mn Presbyterian and Methodist stu- side his ido.
The governor said he would attempt dents in the Summer Session will The boys downtown told him a
to obtain federal funds for this pur- gather at 6 p. m. today at the Pres- guinea fowl was what he needed to
pose on avisit to Washington. He byterian Church House on Washte- keep the owls away. He bought a
was in Chicago today en route to naw Ave. for a steak roast, accord- lonesome guinea hen.
Washington. ing to an announcement made yes- The next night he found the hen
n toayn annodead. The owl continued to "whoo-
Eastern Tennis The group will go to Whitmore -Bode gt two steel trs set the
Lake later in the-evening to swim, near the spot the hen was killed and
Tourney Enters or, in case of rain, will dance at the went to bed. The next morning he
church house. Host and hostess will found an owl in one trap, a rattle-
Qr r i s be Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Lee Klaer. snake in the other.
SOUTHAMPTON, N. Y., Aug. 3.-
(RP)-The annual Southampton invi-
tation tennis tournament moved into
its quarter-final round today with a
Frank'Shields of New York and Wil-
liam T. Tilden, 3rd, of Philadelphia
holding most of the honors so far.
Just as Shields gained an outstand-
ing position in the singles division,
young Tilden dominated the first two
rounds of the doubles play yesterday.
Playing with B. G. Calvert as his
partner, Tilden, a nephew of the fa-
mous "Big Bill," displayed a deadly Saturday -
overhead game and a will to winh that
carried him to one of the day's big- STORE HOuRs
The Philadelphia pair defeated
Henry Culley ' of Santa Barbara, 8:30 A. M. to
Calif., and Joseph tOughlir of Los
Angeles, who have won the doubles:-
crowns of the Agawam Hunt 6dub,
the Longwood Cricket club and the
Crescent-Hamilton Athletic club tour-
neys in the past month, in a first
round match. The scores were 6-1,
3-6, 9-7. They were well on their way
to another' victory when rain stopped
The quarter-final singles matches
today sent Parker, the brilliant Mil-
waukee youngster, against Dick
Murphy of Utica, N. Y., Wood against
the intercollegiate singles champion,
Jack Tidbad; Mhilds agcaion , M
Diarmid and Mangin against the
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