THE MIC HIGAN D0AILY
Psychologist Takes Topic
From Paper He Read To
"Some Phases of Psychology" was
the topic of Prof. John F. Shepard
of the psychology department yes-
terday in an afternoon conference on
the School of Education series.
Most of the material used in the
talk was drawn from a paper deliv-
ered by Dr. Shepard before the Na-
tional Academy of Sciences last year,
the subject matter of which was
"Higher Processes in the Behavior of
The experiments which were briefly
described concerned what Dr. Shep-
ard called reasoning in the rat. They
involved giving adaptive reactions,
where such reactions could come
about only from combination, in ad-
vance of the reaction, of factors from
separate experiences, and where such
experiences involved essential con-
tradictory elements which had to be
Experiment Like Maier's
The first experimenttwas an ex-
tension, in terms of the: enclosed
maze, of the type of situation used by
Maier in his study of reasoning rats,
Dr. Shepard said.
He then described the control of
available cues in the enclosed maze
and pointed out that it has been ex-
tensively used in other studies, and
continuted with a description of the
physical aspects of the maze itself.
"The rats were allowed to explore
the maze thoroughly each day," Dr.
Shepard said. Each day the rat was
shown food in one of the boxes and
the experiment was to determine if
he had sufficient reasoning powers to
go directly to the box in which he
had seen food without wasting time
in the other sections of the maze.
Contention Is Upheld
"Someone will probably suggest,"
Dr. Shepard stated,r"that in such a
situation the rat merely sets up a
motor tension when run to food in
one of the boxes, this tension de-
pending upon the association of the
specific box with the starting field,
and being such as to govern the
rat's movements appropriately when
he is placed at the starting point."
In order to point out that this
could not be the explanation, Dr.
Shepard then cited a number of oth-
er experiments that he had made.
"The most striking experiment of
reasoning is as follows," Dr. Shepard
said. "Suppose, in a maze with long,
involved, dead-end blinds, the end
of one blind is placed next to a sec-
tion of true path coming, much later
in the maze. After the animal has
learned the maze to a high degree
the end of the blind is removed so
that the former blind might consti-
tute a short cut to the later true
"The animal is placed in the maze,
passesthe blind as usual, but pauses
when he comes to the new opening.
He explores a few inches into the
former dead-end and proceeds to
the food box.
Experiment Is Success
"He is then removed and placed at
the starting point again. Success is
shown by his ability to turn at the
appropriate junction, through the
former blind alley, and direct to the
food box," it was explained.
Continuing, he pointed out that it
is of fundamental importance that,
while individual differences in all
reasoning tests are quite uniform,
there is apparently no relation be-
tween such differences and the abil-
ity to learn a maze with unique units
- that is, a maze in which the pat-
terns of alleys from junction to junc-
tion are all different.
"Now it is found that a few rats
that are able to learn the unique-
unit maze are unable to learn the
unit-alike maze," he stated.
"Among those which are able to
learn the latter there is little appar-
ent relation between the rapidity of
such learning and the results with
reasoning," Dr. Shepard said. "But,
so far, all rats that have been unable
to learn the unit-alike maze have
stood at the lower end of the scale
in the reasoning experiments."
The News Of The World As Illustrated In Associated Press Pictures I
President Roosevelt, Hugh S. Johnson, the man behind the
national recovery administration, and Mrs. Johnson are shown in
the executive offices in Washington when the President appealed to
the nation for unified action to spur recovery. In a frank, vigorous
appeal Mr. Roosevelt urged his countrymen to subscribe to the
emergency industrial code and thereby put millions back to work
As a result of the government's war on kidnaping throughout the nation four -members of the
Roger Touhy gang of Chicago were under arrest in Milwaukee charged with the kidnaping of William
Hamm, Jr., St. Paul brewer. The four held are shown below. Left to right: Willie Sharkey, Gustave
Schaefer, Edward McFadden and Roger Touhy. In two widely separated sections two prominent men
were still held by kidnapers. They are Charles F. Urschel (lower right), wealthy oil man, who was
snatched away from his home in Oklahoma City (above) and John J. O'Connell, Jr., (left), scion of a
powerful Albany, N. Y., political clan.
Place advertisements with Classified
Advertising Department. Phone 2-1214.
Thekclassified columns close at three
o'clock previous to day of insertion.
Box numbers may be secured at no
Cash in advance-11c per reading line
(on basis of five average words to
line) for one or two insertions.
Minimum 3 lines per insertion.
10c per reading line for three or more
Telephone rate-15c per reading line
for one or two insertions.
14c per reading line for three or more
10% discount if paid within ten days
from the date of last insertion.
Minimum three lines per insertion.
By contract, per line-2 lines daily, one
4 lines E. 0. D, 2 months........3c
2 lines daily, college year........70
4 lines E. o. D., college year......7e
100 lines used as desired.........c
300 lines used as desired..........c
1,000 lines used as desired..........ic
2,000 lines used as desired........ 6
The above rates are per reading line,
based on eight reading lines per inch.
Ionic type, upper and lower case. Add
6c per line to above rates for all Capital
letters. Add 6c per line to Above for
bold face, upper and lower case. Add
10c per line to above rates for bold face
The above rates are for 7' point
Seven Cents a Page
Leave Name and Address
REASONABLE RATES--Quick serv-
ice. Phone 2-1988.
WILL-Pay cash for used ladies' bi-,
cycle. Write Box 5, Michigan Daily.
WANTED TO BUY MEN'S OLD AND
new suits and overcoats. Will pay
3, 4, 5 and 8, 9 dollars. Phone Ann
Arbo, 4306 Chicago Buyer. 34c
STUDENT-And Family laundry,
Good soft water. Will call for and
deliver. Telephone 4863 12c
All Students Meet to
Nightly except Monday
Gentlemen 40c ® Ladies 35c
The crowds are coming from
all parts to hear this new sen-
sational Dance Orchestra-
and his famous orchestra, di-
rect from engagements at Chi-
cago, Milwaukee, Cleveland and
M-23 to Grand River then right
MADRID, July 27. -(P) -The'
Spanish President and Cabinet de-
cided today to extend recognition
to Soviet Russia.
It also was reported that Leon
Trotzky, Communist leader now in
exile, might make his peace with
Moscow and become the Soviet Am-
bassador to Spain.
Newspapers published reports from
France that Trotzky, min event he
becomes the Soviet envoy, may later
be named Ambassador to the United
States if'therWashington Govern-
ment extends recognition .to Moscow.
The dispatches said that Trotzky al-
ready had conferred with Foreign
Commissar Maxim Litvinoff at Royat,
The decision to extend recogni-
tion was taken at a meeting of the
Cabinet with President Miceto Alcala
Zamora. The President approved.
Several days will elapse before the
definite form of Soviet recognition
is decided upon, as a series of ques-
tionnaires must be exchanged be-
tween the two Governments.
It was said that the re-establish-
ment of relations will mean that
there will be a Russian Ambassador
and Consul-General in Madrid.
All Of State Represented
At Education Conference
Reports on the attendance ot the
recent three-day conference on read-
justments in education, released yes-
terday by Prof. Thomas Diamond of
the vocational education department,
show that representatives were pres-
ent from all parts of the state and
from all branches of education.
Among those who were at the con-
ferences were 75 superintendents and
50 principals4 of schools in all the
principal cities of the state; 15 col-
lege faculty members, excluding those
from the University of Michigan fac-
ulty, there being 30 representatives
from here; 70 classroom teachers; 25
directors and supervisors; five mem-
bers of boards of education; and 15
county commissioners of schools.
Landscape Designers To
Camp Over Week-End
A camping pasty of about 14 stu-
dents in the landscape design de-
partment will leave here today by
auto for a week-end at Hubbard
Lake, it was learned yesterday from
Prof. Harlow O. Whittemore, who
4will direct the trip.
The tour will combine recreation
with study of trees, shrubs, and vines
used in landscape design, Professor
Whittemore said. The group, which
will travel north in three cars, will
stay in tents and ,a cottage during
the week-end, and will return to Ann
Arbor Monday afternoon. Mrs. Alfred
J. Hall, of Detroit, will chaperone
Just. A Couple
Wire- - Pullers
NEW YORK, July 27.--(')- Two
crows built a nest with wire in April,
1933, at the top of an iron electrical
transmission tower near Colenso,
The nest weighed 20 pounds, says
Ernest Warren, a scientist who re-
ports the details in "Nature," the
official British science journal.
He measured the wires and reports
use of five kinds: No. 8 hard drawn
copper, Nos. 8 and 6galvanized iron,
No. 141/2 baling, No. 2 strand barb
The wire was the framework; in-
side the nest was lined with grass,
twigs and branches.
"And," says the scientific report,
"they bent some of the pieces of wire
'round the 2-inch angled iron of the
tower in such a manner as to fix the
nest very securely.
"If nest-building is the non-intel-
ligent and purely instinctive action
that some regard it, how is it that
these crows definitely met a difficulty
by utilizing wire, since twigs and
branches by themselves would have
been insufficient to wedge the nest
securely?" he asked.
After several days in New York, Gen. Italo Balbo led his 24 planes into the air for the return
flight to Italy. They took off from the seaplane base at Floyd Bennett field for Shediae, N. B., 650 miles
away. General Balbo is shown at left going down the gangplank to a launch waiting to take him to his
plane. His officers are shown waving farewell to thousands who gathered to witness the takeoff. IH ___
Meet Future Relief
AUSTIN, Tex., July 27.-(Y)-The
Texas rehabilitation and :relief com-'
mission is spending federal relief
funds for steam cookers, sealers and
millions of cans in which meat and
food will be preserved against the
possibility of calls for relief when
cold weather comes.
The extension service of Texas
A. & M. college is co-operating in
While airplane accidents often
prove disastrous, on the other hand
they have their value. By studying
various crackups engineers have
learned many things that have re-
suited in big improvements in air
At O FeICool RWashed
TW(O FIRST-RUN FEATURE PICTURES
Leader In N. Y.
EW YORK, July 27.--(P)-Maj.
t. John F. O'Ryan, colorful com-
ider of the 27th Division which
>ed break the Hindenberg line,
chosen today to'lead a bipartisan
Cult on Tammany Hall's efforts
lect a mayor in the fall.
group of fusion leaders, com-
d of Republicans and indepen-
t Democrats, offered the fifty-
n-year-old general the nomina-
.after Samuel Seabury had with-
wn from their council. They said
sabury, who conducted a legisla-
investigation 'in the city govern-