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July 09, 1931 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1931-07-09

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1 I .

Wir $'umm
Published every morning except Monday
during the University Summer Session by the
Board in ontrol of tudent Publications.
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled
to the use fr republication of al news dis.
patches credited to it or not otherwise credited]
in this paper and the local news published
herein. All rights ofhrepublication of special
dispatches herein are also reserved.
Entered at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, post.
office as second class matter.
Subscription by carrier, $1.60; by mail,
Offices: Press Building, Maynard Street,
Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Telephone: Editorial, 4925; Business
Editorial Director..........Gurney Williams
City Editor................ Powers Moulton
News Editor.... . . . .........Denton Kunze
Mui, Drama, Books .... William J. Gorman
Women's Editor............ Eleanor Rairdon
Sports Editor............. H. Beukea
Telegraph Editor ..,...........L. R. Chubb
Night Editors
Denton gunze Powers Moulton
Gurney Williams
ohn Bunting varies C. Irwin
Helen R. arrm Susan Manchester
C. W. Carpenter Carl Meoy
Ldgar Eckert Sher M. Quraishi
Brbara Hall E"dgar Racine
Lidgar Hornik Theodore Roae
P. Cutler Showers
Assistant Business Manager .. Vernon Bishop
Uirculation & Accounts Manager .. Ann Verner
Contracts Manager............ ..Carl Marty
+ as.ng Manager...........Beach Conger
ett Franklin Ralph Hardy
Don Lyon
Last Saturday a total of 139 per-
sons in the United States, while en-
: vo.ing to enjoy a national holi-
diy at lake and mountain resorts,
;ere drowned and many other
Yousands escaped this death only
ome to realize that the ability to
made to realize that the ability to
swim is one of the most necessary
.t .ms in the process of education.
ame of Saturday's victims were
x aubtedly good swimmers,
c;ned in unavoidable accidents,
most of them were, paradoxical-
. peaking, "playing with fire."
a learn to swim is one of the
easiest and most pleasant of diver-
sions, yet thousands of people of
Ann Arbor alone regard swimming
as dangerous or impossible, resting
an the false belief that if an emer-
ency arises, someone will always
'. near to lend a hand. Barton
Pond and the Huron offer students
nd townspeople cool, refreshing ex-
ercise in swimming, but the propor-
tion of persons who enjoy this sport
is small because the ability to swim
is not so inherently a part of edu-
cation as it should be.
The Fourth of July drowning toll
is not one to be "viewed with alarm"
in connection with our modern ed-
ucation system but it does bring up
a question of values. The work of
water education among younger
boys and girls is perhaps the most
important phase of summer camp
activity, not simply because this
knowledge is vital at these particu-
lar camps but because all educators
realize the value of making young-
sters feel at home in the water. In
the upper strata of education, how-
ever, the more basic fundamentals
of knowledge are too often neglect-
ed for higher mental endeavor.
Those in favorof a more extended

athletic development contend that
higher education involves too many'
ries" and "isms" and too lit-
o.. the practical; learned men
state that colleges and universities
were instituted to provide mental
development, taking it for granted
that principles of fundamental ed-
ucation, including physical activ-1
ity, have been acquired in second-
ary schools.
The athletically-minded teacher<
seems rightly to be getting the best
of the argument, as witness the re-
cent tremendous developmeint ofY
athletic plants, but he has thisn
criticism to defend: Why is not
more stress laid upon practical phy-
sical activity? Football, baseball,
basketball, track, crew work all#
build up physiques, but of what use
are these sports to the graduate?1
The business man's physical main-c
tenance must depend upon simp-
ler exercises-and one of the simp-#
lest and most satisfactory is swim-1
This has been realized at thet
University of Texas where at pres-t
ent a strong effort is being made
to place a knowledge of swimming
among the requirements for gradu-
ation. Emphasis upon this pointf
is not so misdirected as might ats
first thought be supposed, for an.
"educated" person who cannot pe&-p
form an activity that is almost sec-
ond nature to man, and one thata
may some day save his or some-t

sidered by our own physical edu-
cation department.
What Others Say
(Prom the Minneapolis Journal)
In the mind of the thoughtful
person, as he watches the proces-
sion of young men and maidens
marching to the platform to receive
their diplomas, two questions inev-
itably arise. The first is, how much
do they know? The second, how
much have they learned that is
truly worth while?
To the second of these queries
thei e is probably no answer. None
of us know what is worth while!
In a period of economic confusion,
perhaps a knowledge of Burns and
Shakespeare is more important
than the understanding of sales-
manship and cost accountings. The
study of history may be more es-
sential than that of law or medi-
cine. Only the event can show
whether our college graduates are
better fitted for the world they must
live in than their less fortunate
But the other question is relevant.
dow much have they actually add-
ead to their store of knowledge? How
much of what they have learned
will they retain? To what extent
have the facts they have acquired
been built into an organized and
intelligible unity? To what degree
has the acquisition of knowledge re-
sulted in a surer sense of values?
How far has the student mastered
the process of learning, to the end
that he may in the future avail
Ā£imself of further opportunities for
research? Unfortunately the exam-
.nation which candidates for a de-
gree must have passed, yield vey
uncertain information under these
Modern educational method rec-
ognizes two types of examination,
the "objective" and the "subjec-
tive." The former puts before the
student the facts he is supposed
to know, confused with various
forms of misstatement, and asks
him to disentangle the true from
the false. Or it sets before him cer-
tain paragraphs and asks him to
summarize their content. The ad-
vantage of this type of examina-
tion is supposed to be that it is
a direct test of the accuracy of his
information and his powers of dis-
crimination. The "subjective" ex-
amination requires him to pump
up from memory the desired facts,
or to furnish certain interpretative
summaries. Its advocates insist that
it calls for more independent
thought on the part of the stu-
dent. Its weakness lies in the im-
pressionistic character of the aver-
age answer on the one hand, and
of the instructor's evaluations of
these answers on the other.
The real value of either form of
test depends on the ability of the
instructor to devise questions which
get at the key facts, and which re-
veal the student's genuine grasp of
a given field of knowledge.
A somewhat extended experience
of college classes, both as student
and instructor, indicates that the
two things which the average mind
finds most difficult ate, first to fo-
cus sharply and definitely upon
facts, to know what one knows
when one knows it; and, second, to
acquire the ability to recognize the

facts that are essential and struc-
tural, and to distinguish them from
the more or less irrelevant details.
Most of our knowledge is "rather
more or less." We have a hazy gen-
eral knowledge of many things, but
are embarrassed when asked for
definite, specific information. The
truly educated man is not a walk-
ing encyclopedia. He is the man
who knows, succinctly and accur-
ately, what he does know; and who
knows, moreover, the things that
count, the things that interpret a
myriad of other things, that enable'
us to pigeonhole our knowledge and
make it available for the under-
standing of the world about us. If,
in gaining these two ends, we have
further acquired some knowledge of
the sources of information, if we
have learned how to use the tools
of knowledge, books and laborator-
ies and encyclopedias, then we may
face life unafraid. If we have not
learned these things, degrees and
diplomas will prove of little avail,
when we face the real tests, not of
the examination room, but of life
Brainstorm thought for today:
Prohibition D i r e c t o r Woodcock
said over the radio yesterday that
his bureau "ought eventually to ap-
prehend every commercial violator."
We suggest that he give up his job
and take up some simple occupa-
tion, like counting "up to a billion

Music & Drama
BEETHOVEN: Grand Fugue in B
Flat Major, Op. 133 for String
Quartet: played by the Lener
Quartet on Columbia Records
Maturity-as the ideal end of an
ideal progression-probably means
the attainment of "forms" so in-
clusive that all particular percep-
tions and attitudes of the past,
present, and future, can be precise-
ly understood and evaluated with
reference to them. in art, at least,
this definition of maturity gives the
only precise meaning we have for
the word "Classicism." Judgments
immediately inferred from accept-
ance of this definition are that
Dante is a more perfect artist than
And that Bach is a more perfect
artist than Beethoven? This judg-
ment seems especially unavoidable
in the light of such a commonplace
of Beethoven criticism (everyone
has at some time or other made the
remark) asathehexpressionhof
'amazement at what would have
been the nature of tenth symph-
ony etc. Beethoven, it seems, never
attanied the lucidity of a system;
but died an iconoclast. His wor-
shippers do not lament but rather
enthusiastically admire his unpre-
dictability; they cherish as glorious
Sthat fairly depressing picture of
Beethoven angrily threatening the
heavens in his last moment on
Buththe closer study that has been
paid the last quartets in the last
generation or two has tended to
repudiate this interpretation of
Beethoven as ever-glorious in ag-
gressive iconoclasm. Certainly the
Grosse Fuge - when taken in its
proper context as the last move-
ment of the B Flat major Quartet,
Op. 130-means nothing to me if it
' is not a lucid focal point for that
fund of experience stored up by
Beethoven in those years when his
dogged integrity kept him from
t compromise, kept him faithfully to
the richness of his ideal, urged him
to that revolutionary extension of
musical expression by which he
could realize his ideal. After those
years, Beethoven had been forced
by cruel circumstances into isola-
tion. He always sullenly resented
t h o s e circumstances externally.
But spiritually, this enforced iso-
lation may not have been so unfor-
tunate for him. The removal of all
' the stimuli which now and then
would bring his body and mind into
momentary clarity forced him to
permanently stabilize his being lest
he go mad from the permanent
chaos. He had to fully compre-
hend the self he had been express-
ing with such angry energy. He
was forced into that process of de-
tachment by which one sees one-
self as object. The last quartets, I
take it, reveal that process. Bee-
thoven's classicism was painfully
won, perhaps won somewhat against
his own will. But it is a classicism
and it perhaps includes more hu-
man experience than does the nar-
rower classicism of Bach.
Op. 130, with the Grosse Fuge as
its Finale, illustrates all this. J. W.
N. Sullivan offers, I think, the ul-
timate insight into the interrela-
tion of the movements. He says
that the first five movements of

the quartet represent a presenta-
tion of various attitudes (typical
of Beethoven) more or less consid-
ered, ordered, and evaluated in the
light of a single inclusive attitude
(the Grosse Fuge, the last move-
ment) which is their fusion or res-
olution. All five of the movements,
from the point of view of substance
(so far as that can be abstracted),
can certainly be identified with
other movements throughout the
early Beethoven. But there is
something in the texture through
which these familiar emotions are
presented that is new. It is per-
haps a quality of resignation; if
so, it is the resignation of under-
standing. There is balance and
precision in the presentation. His
melodic lines are more supple and
more subtle. There is none of the
early explosive dynamic vigour and
pelting energy; none of the insis-
tence on the importance of his emo-;
tions that is so irritating in the
early Beethoven. In fact, the"
movements don't seem to have the"
quality of immediacy at all. They
seem to be reminiscence.
An immediate change is felt with
the Grosse Fuge. This does seem
to be an immediate experience. It,
seems to be the experience whicha
enabled Beethoven's memory to be
so clear, his style in the first five'
movements so precise and balanced.
It would, of course, take many and

Skipping lightly over the neaa-
lines the other day I came upon
the sad story of Sir Hubert Wil-
kin's misadventures with that old
hulk of a derelict he calls the
NAUTILUS. I was so touched by
the story, and yet so profoundly
sick and tired of hearing discourag-
ing reports about the spasmodic
progress of Sir Hubert to the North
Pole that I sat down and wrote him
a letter which I carried around in
my pocket for days, waiting for him
to settle some place where my mes-
sage would reach him.
Now I've lost track of the gent,
so today I shall beg your indulgence
while I print the letter in this
space. The circulation of The Daily
is such that it is quite possible Sir
Hubei t will run across a copy of
this issue somewhere. At least, if
he ever gets anywhere with that old
tub of his he'll be signed up to
come out here on an Oratorical As-
sociation program and then I can
show him The Daily files.
* * *
Dear Sir Hubert:
I'm very sorry to hear that you've
come to g ief again, but you've been
trying so hard to get somewhere
with the NAUTILUS that I guess
coming to grief is better than noth-
ing, isn't it? What with being dis-
abled by that snowstorm near Cam-
den, N. J., held up by engine trou-
ble in mid-Atlantic, and flounder-
ing off the coast of Ireland with-
out running lights or periscope,
you've had a time, haven't you?
I hate to throw cold water on the
NAUTILUS, Mr. Wilkins, but don't
you think it's about time you gave
up this North Pole idea? It's very
nice of Rear Admiral Bloch, of the
battleship WYOMING, to tell you
by wireless when to turn right or
left as the case may be but sooner
or later he's going to get tired of
sitting up in that radio shack for
hours on end arid then where will
you be?. I realize, of course, that
you wouldn't need running lights in
the Arctic but what about your
periscope? It's far too cold up
there for you to be poking your
head out every five minutes to see
where you are, and as fast as you
nail new periscopes on the NAUTI-
LUS they'll be knocked off again.
Besides, you must realize that
youre raising ned with the subma-
rine business. People are getting so
they won't go down in the things,
and horses are coming back into
favor. Is that progress? If Mr.
Lindbergh went up in his ship and
the running lights, periscope,
bridge, starboard engine and fuel
and air compressors all went on the
bum I'll bet he'd come down fast,
and either get a new ship or change
his occupation.
It would be a big blow to you,
I know, if you didn't get to use that
ice boring gadjet but if you came
back to New York you could use
the NAUTILUS for subway work,
which would compensate in part for
your disappointment. You could
mount your submarine on wheels
and run it down under the street
and bore holes upward until you
were just sick of it. It would save
the men from working on the sur-
face these hot days and besides, if
anything went haywire, you could
simply climb out of the ship and
forget your troubles at a speakeasy.

And, who knows-perhaps you could
get the reputation of being the big-
gest bore in New York.
Sincerely yours,
* * *
One student, so the report goes,
was suspended and another will be
required to take an extra semester
for graduation. This is equivalent
to a fine of $500 or so, when you
stop to figure it out, so be careful
where you drive that family hack
the focus for Beethoven's classic-
Columbia deserves the highest
praise for issuing the Grosse Fuge
It is certainly the most important
issue this year. At the time of its
composition, it was thought un-
playable and unintelligible (and
Beethoven was forced to write a
new Finale to Op. 130). Grove in
his dictionary fifty years later re-
frained from comment on it be-
cause it was never played. Now,
a hundred years later, it is played
very infrequently and almost never
in its proper place as a last move-
ment. The Leners play it very mar-
vellously. It is probably their
greatest achievement to date. They
also have recorded the B flat major

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