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Then Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
ditorials printed in The Michigan Daily hexpress the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
ZDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1957
NIGHT EDITOR: DAVID TARR
Should the United Nation's
12th Birthday Be its Last?
FOUR BURNING ISSUES:
Turkish Elections -
By WEBB McKINLEY
Associated Press News Analyst
ISTANBUL-Flanked on the northeast by Russian soldiers and on the
southeast by Syrian soldiers with Russian guns, the Turkish voter
plods to the polls Sunday in elections marking a major crossroads in
Turkey's history as a republic.
To the West, long used to the unswerving friendship of its strategi-
cally placed Middle Eastern ally, the Oct. 27 balloting has a'hidden
es . .
TODAY BEING the 12th birthday of the
United Nations, and therefore the day of its
emergence from childhood, it is a good time
to take stock of the organization which began
life with such high hopes and see what it has
and has not accomplished.
It is clear that the world is in worse shape
now than it was in 1945, and the prospects are
it will get far worse before it gets better. The
world bumps merrily along from crisis to crisis,
always inches away from war. This does not
reflect credit on an organization devoted to
world peace, as the UN is.
Two years ago, for its tenth anniversary
celebration,.the UN laid claim to having settled
three major crises in its history. These were
listed as the Kashmir dispute, the cease-fire in
the Israeli-Egyptian war, and the resolution of
the Korean conflict. In a ten-year period in
which Russia Annexed Czechoslovakia, the
Communist Chinese pushed the Nationalists
off the mainland, and Indo-China was the
scene of a ceaseless guerilla war, this is little
enough to boast about.
Yet even these meager achievements have
been shown, in the light of what has happened
since, to have been only temporary. Moslem and
Hindu have fought and still fight each other
in Kashmir, while Ihdia refuses to permit a
plebescite on the final status of the territory;
the United States, in cognizance of the fact
that Korea is not yet a dead issue, has begun
modernizing, arms of soldiers stationed there,
which is something the Communists have been
doing ever since 'the end of the fighting; the
Middle East is in worse shape than ever. Three
achievements in ten years-none of them last-
ing; it is not a record of which to be proud.
THE WORLD HAS tacitly recognized the im-
potence of UN. Outside that body numer-
ous organizations and coalitions have grown
up. On the one 'hand, there are the North
Atlantic and South East Asia Treaty Organiza-
tions and the Organization of American States;
on the other, the Warsaw Pact, with a variety
of others in between.
As an arbiter of international disputes, the
UN testified to its failure almost precisely one
year.ago when it stood by, despite the anguish-
ed pleas of the Hungarian people, and let Rus-
sia crush their rebellion. The delegate from
Ethiopia may well have felt a stirring in his
memory as the UN sent troops to the Gaza
Strip, not the Danube. History, with appro-
priate changes in the cast of characters, has
begun to repeat itself.
Even as a first step to world government, the
:.UN is of no merit. At present, the desirability
of world government is an open question, but-
the possibility of getting the lion to lie down
with the lamb seems at least as remote as
~Judgment Day. World government is possible
only through willing compromise; Russia has
shown no interest in any compromise, and a
world government along the lines she prefers is
infinitely worse than "international anarchy."
ONLY IN ITS subsidiary agencies-many of
them antedating the "parent"-may the UN
claim to have made its own way. Some of these,
(the World Meteorological Organization, the
Universal Postal Union, the International Tele-
communications Organization) have served as
vital coordinating agencies in areas where such
groups are valuable. The merits of others
(UNESCO, the General Agreement on Trades
and Tariffs) are highly debatable, but .on
balance, when they keep themselves free f
partisanship, the smaller organizations are
On the whole, however, the UN is not worth
the space it takes pp or the money it costs. It
has been, like Prhibition, a "noble experi-
ment;" unfortunately, like Prohibition, it has
failed. It has ceased to act on measures of vital
importance to the world, with the single weak-
kneed exception of the Suez affair, which it
bungled. UN has shirked its responsibilities; it
has been timid in crises. The time is not far
distant' when it will go the way of its prede-
cessor; like its predecessor, it has shown it
deserves that fate.
THAT THE UNITED STATES should desert
the United Nations or that the UN should be
dissolved seem to be proposals of the past. Few
serious people now speak of those moves.
Rather, the question now is: The UN has done
considerable, good and little bad; how can it be
revised to be more effective?
If one first understands what the UN is-an
international forum of sovereign states brought
together in the hope they can negotiate and
take concerted action together-the record of
the past twelve years is commendable. The war
in Indonesia was brought to a halt. Granted,
the UN, though it has tried, has not achieved
final settlements in Kashmir, in Palestine, in
Korea and in Suez, but who is willing to argue
those brushfires could have been quenched more
peaceably and permanently if the United Na-
tions was never in existence?
The recent Atomic Energy Agency, the Suez
Emergency Force and the Suez Canal clearance
project are instances of cooperation in the keep-
ing of peace.
While the UN has been most hampered in its
attempts at peace and cooperation by the
reflection of the cold war in that body, and
especially in the Security Council, the United
Nations has served to temper the intensity of
that contest. By providing a forum where the
prized undecided and newly freed nations of
of the world can observe the actions and
rationalizations of action of the two protagon-
ists-Russian (in Hungary) and the United
States (in Turkey)-the United Nations com-
pels each power to fit their actions to world
ALSO, UNITED NATION'S intervention into
a controversial area is oftimes a face-saving
way for iations to extricate themselves peace-
ably from futile actions (Russia during the
Berlin Blockade and both sides seeking an ar-
mistice during the Korean War).
In terms of cheap foreign aid that creates
much good will, it seems a weak argument to
hold that the United States is not getting its
moneys worth in the UN. For less than $50
million the United States is recognized as the
greatest benefactor to the extensive social work
done by the UN around the world. A listing of
the humanitarian, activities of the UN would
be too extensive, but for those interested a talk
with local foreign students from Asia, Africa
or Latin America would convince the most
skeptical that lives are being saved and length-
ened by work done in the health, agricultural
and education fields. Before any man is a
tax-paying American, he is a human being
though we often get our priorities mixed.
But most urgent, the United Nations is a step
in the direction of a work organization governed
by universal law. Nothing is more tragically
true than that the nation-state system has
in the past, and will continue to bring war to
the world. Nothing is more inevitable in this
area than that the world shall someday be
under one system of law. We may have to wait
until after World War III.
A reading of the UN Charter's preamble leaves
most convinced that the UN was founded upon
noble principles and that we must work within,
not retrogress from, the United Nations to
build it for better work.
0UR FAITH and ,cooperation in the United
Nations will indicate if we are:
"determined to save succeeding generations
from the scourge of war, which twice in our
lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind,
and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human
person, in the equal rights of men and women
and of nations large and small, and to establish
conditions under which justice and respect for
the obligations arising froi treaties and other
sources of international law can be maintained,
and to promote social progress and better stan-
dards of life in larger freedom . . AND for
these ends to practice tolerance . . . to unite
our strength to maintain international peace
and security ... and to employ international
machinery for the promotion of the economic
and social advancement of all peoples ...
-JAMES ELSMAN JR.
Prince Philip's Memory
By DREW PEARSON
WITH THE Queen and her
Prince back in England, the
nation's capital has settled down
to the problems of Syria, Sput-
nik, and red tape. Still buzzing
through social Washington are,
tales of the royal couple, especial-
ly Prince Philip's amazing mem-
As he stood in the reception line
at the British Embassy garden
party, greeting 2,000 guests, he
asked casual questions about
where guests came from, what
"What do you do?" he asked
Peter Strauss, son of Nathan
Strauss, housing commissioner
during the New Deal.
"I work., for the ILO," replied
PROBABLY not more than half
a dozen people among the 2,000
who passed through the line
would have knon that ILO stood
for International Labor Office;
nor would have known where its
offices were, nor its head. But the
"Do you work in Geneva or
Washington?" he asked, refer-
ring to the ILO's two chief of-
"Then you must work for
Morse," observed Prince Philip,
referring to David Morse, head of
the International Labor Office.
One reason for Prime Minister
Macmillan's anxiety to confer
with President Eisenhower imme-
diately rather than wait until
next winter was to head off an
Eisenhower conference with Mar-
An Eisenhower-Zhukov confer-
ence, the British fear, might pave
the way for a sort of American-
Russian understanding regarding
various parts of the world, which
would leave the other NATO allies
out in the cold.
This spectre of a close Russian-
A me r ic an understanding has
hung over the British ever since
the war years, has sometimes giv-
en them the diplomatic heebie
jeebies. It began during the war
when Stalin proposed to Churchill
and Roosevelt that there be a di-
vision of the Balkans; Britain
having a sphere of influence over
Greece and Yugoslavia, Russia
taking Bulgaria and Rumania.
Significantly, Russia has now
bitten off exactly the same two
countries Stalin wanted - Bul-
garia and Rumania.
* * *
ALSO during the war, Stalin
proposed that Russia take a
sphere of influence over Asia; the
United States over all Latin
America. Roosevelt said no. The
Kremlin, however, K4as proceeded
to bring a good slice of Asia under
its red wing, anyway.
Lately, repeated noises have
been coming out of Moscow, sug-
gesting that the USA and USSR
could decide the world's problems
if they operated face-to-face.
This was suggested during last
s u m m e r 's disarmament talks;
again more pointedly during the
worsening Near East crisis.
So far Secretary Dulles has
spurned Moscow's overtures. Some
of his advisers, however, plus
many American military men,
think the United States might
make real strides for peace by
talking to Russia direct - with-
out deserting our allies.
Congressman John Blatnik of
Minnesota came back from Yugo-
slavia the other day where he
found that, despite momentous
events, the United States lacked
either an ambassador or a No. 2
man on the job.
The ambassador, Jimmie Rid-
dleberger, has been in Washing-
ton, sitting on a board to decide
on the promotion of career diplo-
mats. The Counsel of Embassy,
Norris Chipman, recently died.
In the interim, Tito had a vi-
tally important visit from Mar-
shall Zhukov, Commander of the
Red Army and the man who will
probably succeed Khrushchev.' No
top United States diplomats were
on hand to report back to Wash-
* s *
MEANWHILE, also, Yugoslavia
decided to recognize East Ger-
many, thereby causing West Ger-
many to break -diplomatic rela-
tions. No American ambassador
was on de'ck in Belgrade to make
Tito realize the consequences.
Blatnik found out from his own
sources that Tito was at his hunt-
ing lodge preparing an important
statement. The unmanned Em-
bassy assured him, however, that
Tito was simply hunting.
It turned out that the congress-
man, who had been in the coun-
try only a few days, was better in-
formed than the American Em-
bassy. Shortly thereafter, Tito
released an important statement
declaring Yugoslavia's intention
to recognize East Germany.
(Copyright 1957 by Bell Syndicate Inc.)
-though Turkey's ties with the
not been seriously questioned by any
one of the most severe tests of
friendship with the West any
country has faced.
The Turkish voter-for all his
fighting reputation-would have
to be deaf not to hear the provoca-
tions aimed his way. There is
shooting on his southern border,
where Syrian guards are brandish-
ing newly acquired Russian arms.
There is shouting from the over-
powering north, where Nikita
Khrushchev keeps warning Turkey
-under threat of missile attack-
not to take arms against Syria.
* * *
THE THINGS the Turk has in
his favor are important too.
The United States 6th Fleet, and
hence U.S. military aid, is close by.
Turkey's strategic position is his-
torically important, and her grip
on the Dardanelles keeps the great
part of Russian Black Sea naval
strength out of the Mediterranean.
In addition, the Turk has a fero-
cious mien. He earned his most re-
cent battle respect as the scream-
ing, ear-hacking warrior of the
Turks are concerned with four
burning domestic issues that could
determine the course of Turkish
democracy and hence the stability
of Turkey herself.
First, there is Premier Adnan
Menderes himself. This tough,
dynamic man has been overwhelm-
ingly the most important force in
Turkish affairs for seven years.
Now 58, he is still dark-haired and
amazingly vigorous. He became
premier in the Democrat landslide
of 1950, and was re-elected in 1954.
He is inseparably identified with
the all-out economic devopment
program which has tripled Turkish
production in the past seven years,
greatly raised standards of living
in Anatolia, but which has brought
the country deep into financial
crisis. His enemies call him dicta-
torial and given to wilful action.
* * *
SECOND, there are very serious
shortages of consumers goods and
sormeindustrials. Its foreign ex-
change spent in the development
program, Turkey has no hard
money to import automobiles, cof-
fee, tires, spare parts, paper, medi-
cines, film, machines or luxury
Third, inlation is squeezing the
economy. Statistics are unreliable
here, but by various estimates the
cost of living has risen 16.7 per
cent or as much as 33 per cent in
the past year.
Fourth, civil liberties have be-
come burning issues. The leader of
one opposition party is in jail for
insulating Paliament. Four jour-
nalists have been jailed under a
press law forbidding insults to gov-
ernment officials or offices, and six
others are free only on appeals.
Yet it is notable that all of these
issues are domestic. Democrats and
their opponents-People's Republi-
cans, and followers of the Freedom
and Republican Nation parties-
agree on fundmental foreign is-
sues. They believe in alliance with
the West. They support NATO, op-
pose Communism, and warn that
Britain, if it leaves Cyprus, must
agree to partition the island be-
tween Turkey and Greece.
Atlantic Pact and America have
candidate, the vote is nevertheless
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan for which the
Michigan Daily assumes- no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1957
VOL. LXVII, NO. 32
Showing of secondary school mathe-
matics films Thurs., Oct. 24 at 4:00
p.m. In 451 Mason Hal.
International Center Tea, sponsored
by International Student Association
and International Center, Thurs., Oct.
24, from 4:30 to 6:00 p.m. at the Inter-
Fuibright Applications and all sup-
porting material must be received in
the Graduate School, Room 1020, Rack-
ham Building, by 4:00 p.m. Mon., Oct.
28. This is the closing date for the
1958-59 competition and the deadline
will not be extended.
Late Permission: All women students
whoattended the lecture at Hill Audi-
torium on Tues., Oct. 22, had late per-
mission until 10:40 p.m.
Coffee Hour for students, sponsored
by the Office of Religious Affair, at
Lane Hall, 4:15 p.m. Fri.
The following students sponsored so-
cial eVents are approved for the com-
Oct. 25, 1957: Phi Delta Phi.
Oct. 26, 1957: Acacia, Anderson, Al
pha Epsilon P1, Chi Phi, Delta Theta
Student Council, Greene House, Hele
Newberry, Kappa Sigma, Lambda Chi
Alpha, Martha Cook, Michigan Rouse,
Mosher, Nu Sigma Nu, Phi Delta Phi,
Phi Rho Sigma, Reeves and Scott, Sig-
ma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Alpha Mu,
Sigma Kappa, Sigma Nu, Tau Delta
Phi, Tau Kappa Epsilon.
Oct 27, 1957 ,,Phi Delta Phi.
Research Seminar of the Mental
Health Research Institute. Dr. Nicholas
Rasbevsky, professor of" mathematical
biology, University of Chicago, will
speak on "Topological Biology" on
Thurs., Oct. 24, 12:45-2:45 p.m. at the'
Conference. Room, Children's Pyh-
C oRecitalby Sidney Giles, As-
sistant University Carillonneur, 7:15
p.m. Thurs., Oct. 24: Prelude No. 1 by
van den Gheyn, Ballet by Edward
Loos, Dutch Holiday by Ferdinand Tim-
mermans, and Sonata (for a carillon
of 30 bells) by Percival Price; Stephen
Foster's O, Suzanna, Cherny'3 The Bells
of Avalon, MacDowell's To a Wild Rose,
Rasbach's Trees, and Mozart's Turkish
Graduate Students In' Lingustis:
Preliminary examinations for the doc-
torate in Linguistics will be given on
Nov. 8 and 9. Students intending to
take the examinations should notify
Prof. Marckwardt, 1613 Haven Hall on
or before Mon., Oct. 28.
Applied Mathematics Seminar -
Thurs., Oct. 24, at 4:00 p.m. in Room
246. West Engineering Bldg. Prof. R. k.
IRitt will continue his talk on "The
Non-Self Adjoint Differential Opera-
tors Associated with Acoustical Scat-
tering." Refr~shments at 3:30 p.m. in
Room 274, West Engineering.
401 interdisciplinary Seminar on the
Application of Mathematics to Social.
Science, Room 3217, Angell Hall, Thurs.,
3:30-5:00 p.m. Oct. 24. Harry Goode,
Department of Industrial Engineering,
"Computers and Systems.
Seminar on Relativistic Quantum
Theory Thurs., Oct. 24 at 5:00 p.m. in
Room 3212, Angell Hall. Conclusion of
discussion on Action Principle led by A.
Siegel, Discussion of groups by Pro-
Analysis Seminar. Prof. N. D. Kazar-
inoff will speak on "Elementary Prob-
lems in Geometry." The lecture will be
perceded by a brief problem solving
period. Meeting will be in 3017 An-
geli Hall, Mon., Oct. 28.
Interdepartmental Seminar on Ap-
plied Meteorology: Engineering. Mon.,
Oct. 28, 4 p.m., Room 307, West Engi-
peering Bldg. Robert N. Swanson will
speak on "Weathering of Exposed Sur-
faces by Moisture" - Chairman: Prof,
Leo L. Carrick.
Doctoral Examination for Lewis Jo-
seph Leeson, Pharmaceutical Chemis-.
try; thesis: "Decomposition of Aspirin
in the Solid ,State," Fri., Oct.' 25, 2525
Chem-Pharmacy Building, at 2:00 p.m.
Chairman, A. M. Mattocks.
Doctoral Examination for. Phyllis
Agnes Caulfield Morrison, Education;
thesis: "A Study of Certain General
Education values of Typewriting in;
the Junior High School," Fri., Oct. 25,
2203 University High School, at 3:00,,
p.m. Chairman, J. M. trytten.
Doctoral Examination for Barbara
Eleanor Wykes, English Language and
Literature; thesis: "An Edition of
Book I of The Scale of. Perfection by
Walter Hilton," Fri., Oct. 25, 2401 Ma-
son Hall, at 4:00 p.m. Chairman, S.M.
P1dWA01P A0 I
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
American Arms Aid Helps Maintain Peace
Wright ccentric But Effective
To The Editor:
MR. THOMAS DAVID'S attack
on the United States foreign
policy - his third through The
Daily, if we recall his efforts last
year -- as "naive and myopic" be-
trays the author as a willing and
happy victim of his own misin-
His argument is that American
arms aid has touched off an arms
race in many areas, forcing some
countries to turn to Russia for
purchase of military equipment
(as Syria), or diverting their own
resources to military use, as done
by India. Both, arguments are
American military aid is noth-
ing new. It was a major factor in
saving America's allies during the
Second World War from defeat.
In the cold war, it started with the
Truman Doctrine and eventually
helped to save Greece, Turkey,
Iran, the Philippines, and many
other countries from Communist
control. It was and. is a major
contributor to the defense of the
free world and to the maintenance
NEITHER SYRIA nor E g y p t
purchased Soviet equipment be-
cause of supposed American arms
aid to any of their "enemies."
nue on defense since independence
ten years ago. Her defense ex-
penditure has been twice the total
revenue of Pakistan, and more
than three times the amount spent
by Pakistan on her defense.
American military aid to Pakis-
tan started only three years ago.
Concrete assurance was given that
the arms would be used solely for
defense, not only against Com-
munism, as Mr. David says, but
against aggression, whatever its
shape or form.
If India has at any time feared
aggression by Pakistan, why hasn't
she tried to solve her disputes with
her much smaller neighbor on an
equitable basis? That would place
the two countries on a firm foot-
ing of friendshipsand ,understand-
THE BIGGEST dispute is Kash-
mir. There are about a dozen spe-
cific United Nation's proposals on
this point, all acceDted by Pakis-
tan. Let India accept them too,
and help cure the cancer which
has poisoned the subcontinent for
Pakistan in 1950 suggested to
India that the two countries should
enter into immediate negotiations;
that if these fail, they should re-
sort to mediation; and, if this too
fails, they should refer their entire
India's "P r e s e n t economic
plight" is indeed tragic-as indeed
it is of Pakistan. But Mr. David
should not blame the Americans
for the mess that is creation of his
He should be grateful to the
American people whose taxes, con-
verted into billions of dollars of
economic aid without strings, have
saved them from the disastrous
consequences of their ridiculous
policy of hostility toward smaller
--Mohammed Azhar Ali Khan,
Vicious Circle ...
To The Editor:,.
THERE APPEARED in the Octo-
ber 17 issue of The Daily two
strange articles. One, after an
array of misty reasonings, gave a
wrong diagnosis of the real symp-
toms of that much contagious ail-
ment of conformity infecting the
general American scene. The other
suggested a wrong cure to the
Writing under 'Vigilant Genera-
tion', Mr. James Elsman Jr. may
be right when he claims that stu-
dents adequately appraise them-
selves of the various issues con-
stand up and swim against the
popular tide, even though they
may have fully informed them-
selves of the issue and, feel that
what .is being done is wrong. And
then they try to find self-justifica-
tion in the feeling that their lone
vpice will be lost like 'the lone cry
in the wilderness' and serve no
Such complacency of self-justi-
fication is totally unwarranted, be-
cause somebody along the line has
to stand up and face the initial
brunt of criticism, 'unpleasant
consequences', social ostracism or
even death before the less ardent
slowly rally around.
And in the article, "Faculty,
Arise -- Take up the Challenge,"
the authors strangely enough rest
complacent by throwing the
gauntlet to the faculty and chal-
lenging them to set an example
by themselves first attempting to
break "this growing cult of yes-
manship in'- which security be-
comes a craven disguise for serv-
This is merely playing in-a vi-
cious circle and dallying as to who
should be the scapegoat to take
the blame. And besides, one may
ask, "If the young and 'proud'
blood of a nation can't rise to the
challenge, how can you expect the
old and su te t do it? "
ANYONE ELSE would be called peculiar, even
Frank Lloyd Wright is called eccentric. This
is the measure of genius.
But Wright's "eccentricities" are not the
measure of the man, nor are his opinions on
architecture or things in general.
The measure of the man is the way he pre-
sents these opinions, what he expects to gain
by so presenting them and the degree to which
he has accomplished his ends.
In these respects, he is no longer a cantan-
kerous old man, but becomes instead a shrewd
diplomat striving for a particular effect in
everything he does and says.
becoming unconstitutional." One gets the feel-
ing he wants nothing so much as to induce
people to think-preferably his way.
Aside from all that, however, beyond and
deep down under the cynical wallpaper he
covers himself with, 6ne can see the firm foun-
dation of a dedicated naturalist. Wright con-
siders himself purely jan architect; but he in-
sists that architecture covers almost the whole
of human existence.
This is evident from his secret, surprise talk
to a group of architecture students here Mon-
HI5 COMMENTS, as always, were caustic but