THE MlCH GAN DAILY.MAGAZINEi
Sunday, May 4, 1958
Nuclear War and the Future
Kissinger Has Outlined the Problems
the United States Must Resolve
THE MICHIGAN DAILY MAGAZINE
THE MICHIGAN DAILY MAGAZINE
Students' Dett oerca
Provid s Insih o rierCa
By LANE VANDERSLICE
EDGAR ALLEN POE could not
have foreseen the strategic
position of the United States in
But his story "The Pit and
the Pendulum" is strangely anal-
ogous to the present United States
situation in international affairs.
The story concerns a man im-
prisoned in a cell. He faces unex-
pected challenges - a pendulum,
slowly slicing down from the ceil-
ing, red hot iron bars, that force
him to the center of the cell. There
the worst fate of all awaits him--
the pit, an indescribable horror.-
The United States, in turn, faces
the relentless increase of nuclear
technology, the constant pressures
of the Soviet bloc, and the inde-
scribable horror of atomic war.
The analogy doesn't carry much
further but there may be one more
similarity. The man was saved be-
cause he had strength and was
willing to use it. The United States
has strength: if it is willing to use
It in international relations, will
its position improve?
HENRY KISSINGER is a man
who is willing to answer yes.
His position: Russia is constantly
taking advantage of United States'
unwillingness to unleash massive
retaliation in answer to ambigu-
ously presented Soviet threats.
To stop Russia from making
gains, he urges, develop methods
of graduated deterrence-in other
words, suit the firefighting equip-
ment to the fire.
Kissinger's "yes" has been turn-
ed into a book, "Nuclear Weapons
and Foreign Policy." It gained him
both national eminence and a
place on the best seller lists. How-
ever Kissinger wryly admits "Nu-
clear Weapons and Foreign Policy"
may be the least read best seller
Kissinger brought the University
political science department out
in force for his speech in Ann
Arbor last month, "Military Power
and Defense Strategy." As is the
fate of a successful author Kissin-
ger only repeated with variations,
the themes of "Nuclear Weapons."
For Kissinger, the main problem
is formulating a strategic doctrine
that will enable the United States
to face all the dangers of the cold
war-both physical and psychol-
Kissinger is by no means the
only person outside of the State
Department concerned with the
strategic problems of the United
States. In fact, recent years have
seen an increasing number of
young faculty members-like Kis-
singer himself-of many univer-
sities become interested in United
States strategic policy.
They, perhaps more than any
other group, are providing the im-
petus for critical examination of
United States foreign policy. They,
perhaps more than any other
group, are providing the fresht
ideas from which any new United
States policy must come.
AS A MEMBER of this informal
group, Kissinger cannot be1
credited with the origination of
all the ideas expressed in his book.
But' he can be credited, and has
been by many experts, with the
,'best book on the biggest current
problem - the effect of nuclear
weapons on foreign policy. '
It takes the form of formulatingI
a policy of "graduated deterrence,"l
in the jargon of political scientists.
"Bringing our power into balancet
with the issues for which we are
most likely to contend" is the way
he put it in one of the half dozenF
or so times he mentioned the idea1
during his Ann Arbor stay or oner
of the dozen times he says it dur-
ing the course of his book. -
The doctrine of "massive retalia-
Lane Vanderslice, a mem- I
ber of the Daily editorial staff,
reportedMr. Kissinger's visitI
tion" has created difficulties in
many different, important fields.
One of the most currently press-
ing of these fields is that of the
armed services. Kissinger sees the
inter-service dispute as a dispute
over control of nuclear weapons
and the weapons systems that ac-
company them. Are missiles anal-
ogous to artillery because they are
fired like shells, or to aerial war-
fare because they fly through the
air? Who controls atomic bombs?
and what size shall they be? Kis-
singer points out that nuclear.
weapons and weapons systems
have obliterated the traditional
boundries among the services.
HER are several important-
and disheartening -- conse-
quences to be drawn from this. In
the first place, it puts the services
in the position of the automotive
scores the United States propa-
ganda effort. "There is no need to
reply, to every Soviet note until
there are more concrete pro-
posals," Kissinger points out, say-
ing that he would deluge them
with ,concrete proposals of our
He says too that the United
States should also have positive
values for which to contend, and
not . be satisfied with the merely
negative aims of containment.
Kissinger says that United
States policy "clearly" falls down'
in its alliance system. He takes
NATO as a case in point. Kissinger
distinguishes two basic types of
response by NATO nations toward
our policy of "massive retaliation."
The one type of response, which
Britain has adopted as its policy,
leads to building up a strategic
air command. This does not add
much to the deterrent power of
the free world, but is a somewhat
natural result of the emphasis on
strategic striking power.
THE OTHER, a equally natural
result, is one France and other
nations have subscribed to, in
greater or lesser degree. The end
result is little contribution to the
NATO defense effort in Europe.
The rationale goes like this. The
United States Strategic Air Com-
mand is the only effective deter-
rence the free world has.
Only the United States can set
it in action. The United States
will be more inclined to set it in
action to defend Europe if the
troops attacked in Europe were
American. Therefore fewer foreign
These are some of the problems
as Kissinger sees them. What are
his answers? It would not be much
of an injustice to Kissinger to ex-
press his position in two words:
"Be tough - minded." From this
stems his interest in doctrine
(which he insists is only a first
step, in answer to critics who say
he puts too much stress on doc-
trine) and especially that of limit-
ed nuclear war.
WITH the smaller nations this
toughmindedness should take
the form of leadership, instead of
trying attempts to build popu-
larity. Kissinger argues that neu-
trals "will not surrender their non-
alignment" but may be willing to
follow the United States in pur-
suit of common interests. "In the
uncommitted nations, popularity
may be less important than re-
spect," as he puts it.
He points out that it is to the
advantage of the United States to
be insistent on its own position if
nleutrals are going to balance half-
way between the American's posi-
tion and the Soviet's.
But eventually, any concept of
graduated deterrence must depend
on an adequate policy of fighting
a limited war. This is so because it
would be foolhardy in most cases
-especially a limited nuclear war
-to fight a limited war without
knowing if wars can be limited.
Does Kissinger think that any-
one has developed a practical
policy of nuclear war today?
"No, including myself," Kissin-
ger says. His criticism of his own
policy: "too mechanical."
A GROUP of University foreign students spent a
weekend in Detroit's Negro community last
month. They found it "interesting," even "inspir-
ing": "the type of thing every student ought to have
the opportunity to do."
The 21 from foreign countries and two from the
United States were the guests of the Second Baptist
Church, which was observing its 122nd anniversary.
A second Negro church, Christ Baptist, also located
families for the students to live with and invited
them to its service.
During an afternoon the students toured Negro
businesses in metropolitan Detroit, traveling in
buses loaned for the occasion by a white church.,
They visited a radio station, a newspaper, two fu-
neral homes and a housing project.
THE STUDENTS ate dinner and spent the night
in the homes to which they had been assigned.
They noted a certain "American" quality of frank-
ness and generosity which they were surprised to
find predominate over feelings of being members
of a minority.
The students attended church with the host
families, including Bible classes and services. Some
found the service quite like other Protestant services
they had seen, others noted an "emotionalism" in
the service which they said they liked.
After church the students and their hosts ate
dinner together at a large Chinese resaurant, fol-
lowing which the bus returned to Ann Arbor. But
according to many, the effect of the weekend was
much more lasting. --Thomas Turner
dent David B
the Second B
MEETS NEGRO STUDENTS-Amber Van of the sponsoring Protestant:Foundation
for International Students talks with children who live in the housing development
the group visited recently.
COFFEE TOGETHER-University student Mrs. Tamako Tobe
chats with the director of Christian Education of the Second Bap-
tist Church. The students commented afterward they felt their
hosts had a certain "American" attitude which they liked.
RELAXING IN HOME-A University student stretches out in an
easy chair in his hosts' home and watches television after a hard
day of touring finished off with a home-cooked meal.
MISSILES - ICBM's will add
less to our strategic power than
the Soviets, Kissinger says, be-
cause our present weapons sys-
tem is more adequate than the
big three, each competing for their
share of the budget dollar with
bigger and better weapons and
concepts for defense. Thus the
Navy, for example, has played up
its big carrier program and played
down its less glamorous sister -
anti-submarine warfare. -
And the interservice squabbling
has tended to reinforce the other
disadvantages. Each service, ac-
cording to Kissinger has become
parochial in its outlook, tending to
stress only what will benefit that
service This, especially since the
Joint Chiefs of Staff are directly
involved in the controversy, often
leaves no one for overall military
The other main disadvantage of
the doctrine of "massive retalia-
tion" is that the United States has
tended to conceive of diplomacy
and force as separate, which has
had two serious effects. It has
made our force useless, because we
are unwilling to unlease it.-It also
makes our diplomacy useless, be-
cause the Russians respect diplo-
macy only when there is force be-,
hin'd it-a point that Kissinger
very clearly makes and documents
in "Nuclear Weapons and Foreign
THERE is no arguing that if
nuclear' wars could not be.
fought, it would pull the rug most
of the way out from under Kis-
singer's theory of strength. It
would not eliriinate taking a
stronger attitude toward the So-
viets, it would just vastly increase
the danger in doing so.
Kissinger feels that the Depart-
ment of Defense could do what
he has not been able to do. "I'm
no military expert," Kissinger
says. "I'm concerned with devel-
oping defense strategy only so far
as it pertains to international re-
So, in a very real sense, the
issue is unresolved. But Kissinger
has taken steps toward resolution
by narrowing the question from
HOST MINISTER-Rev. A. A.
Banks, Jr., of Second Baptist
Church was observing his 11th
anniversary at the church con-
FREE NEWSPAPERS--Visiting the offices of t
the students were given copies of the paper. T]