g chr Ali halt Dail
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hen Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
TUESDAY, APRIL 22, 1958 NIGHT EDITOR: JOHN WEICHER
Promises Strategic Flexibility
"Secrecy? What Secrecy"?"
- icA' "
INTERPRETING THE NEWS
Red 'Bomber' Protest
By J. Mf. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
T HERE ARE a good many angles to be considered and developments
to be awaited, before Soviet charges against United States strategic
air policy can be put down as a fiasco.
Marching up the hill and then down again is a time honored
First, what were some of the results of the sudden charge that
American bomber flights threatened the peace?
Remember the timing. Foreign Minister Gromyko made the charge
at a news conference in Moscow simultaneously with its submission to
AN ALL-OUT nuclear war is the greatest
danger to the United States but the least
likely threat, Henry Kissinger said last week.
He said that the much more likely danger is
that the Soviets will present their challenges
ambiguodsly - in Indo-China, in the Middle
East, and in other trouble spots. Using "massive
retaliation" in these spots to answer this chal-
lenge is not sufficient, Kissinger points out,
because the thought of all-out nuclear war de-
ters us more than it does the Russians, as it
is we who will have to use it first.
In a very real sense this is self-evident. Why
then hasn't the United States formulated a
policy to replace John Foster Dulles' out-moded
doctrine of war?
The United States hasn't for a number of
reasons, most of which center around two spots
the-Congress and the Pentagon. They both
have the same kind of ailment - that of fail-
ing tp see the strategic forest because they
concern themselves with the individual trees.
Congress fails to see it because it has little
grounding in the military policy area and is
concerned also with many other problems.
There are admittedly members of the House
and Senate Armed Services Committee who
would lay claim to having a very detailed
knowledge of the armed services. We would say,
however, that their knowledge was primarily
that of facts and figures and not that of stra-
tegic concepts and doctrines.
T HE LACK of contact that Congress has with
the real military problems of the United
States can be illustrated by one comment of the
chairman of the House Armed Services com-
mittee concerning President Eisenhower's plan
to reorganize the Defense Department. "What
do we need a reorganization of the Defense
Department for? We won the Second World
War, didn't we?" the defense committee chair-
The military fails to see it because they are
too engrossed in their inter-service squabbles.
The feud between the Army, Navy and Air
Force takes three forms. One, each tries to jus-
tify its mission as the most vital one to the
security of the United States. Two, each tries
to assume at least limited authority over an
important new weapons development - wit-
ness the ICBM race.
The waste and duplication are important but
what is more important is that the problems
of the services obscure the overall problem.
President Eisenhower's plan for reorganizing
the Department of Defense is the first step in
the right direction. It frees the Joint Chiefs of
Staff for policy-making decisions and allows
the Secretary of Defense some latitude in mak-
ing appropriations for weapons development.
It must be only the first step, however, insofar
as it does not provide the degree of armed
forces unity necessary to provide an overall,
workable strategic doctrine for the United
x 1' 1 -
44CElt - Per
ev 19 sce -ln
cS Ireo 9,s' s
SAC's RiEg Aron
j By DREW PEARSON
WHAT OTHERS ARE SAYING:
Rockefeller Bros. Report
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following are excerpts
from the opening statements of the Rockefeller
Brothers' report, "The Challenge to America: Its
Economic and Social Aspects."
A GREAT opportunity confronts the Ameri-
The past performance of our economy has
been impressive. Over the seventy-five years
before World War II we doubled our national
output about once every twenty-four years.
Since World War II we have been growing at
an even faster pace: at an average yearly rate
which promises to double our output every
eighteen years. Even our- most recent rate of
advance can be bettered.
Economic growth is meaningless if its bene-
fits are not generally shared. Actually a revolu-
tionary upswing in the distribution of income
and an extraordinary rise in social services have
accompanied our increased productivity. Mil-
lions of families have steadily shifted from
lower to higher brackets.
Our nation is dedicated to economic growth.
It is also dedicated to full employment. Each
of these goals is a means to the other. In an
economy where the labor force grows, capital
accumulates and technology advances, growth
is necessary for the maintenance of full em-
The way in which our free and private sys-
tem works is importantly affected bypublic
policy, which must indeed preserve it, create
conditions for its success and generate a cli-
mate of confidence.
ECESSION contains within it the danger --
not the necessity, but the danger - of a
cumulative downward spiral. If wages and
profits decline and future prospects darken,
individuals and businesses will cut their pur-
chases, which will curtail production, employ-
ment, wages and profits.
In the long-term perspective we face anoth-
er grave danger to growth -- inflation.
The American business man has today an
unparalleled opportunity and challenge. In
spite of the increase in unemployment, consu-
mer incomes for the nation as a whole are still
high and accumulated savings are higher than
ever. Consumers have shown their willingness
to buy when offered attractive values. Funds
for investment are available at lower cost than
a year or two ago.
OF THE anti-recession measures available
to the Federal Government, tax reduction
can be effective in the shortest time.
This panel believes that a tax cut would help
overcome the current recession and expand
PETER ECKSTEIN, Editor
JAMES ELSMAN, JR. VERNON NAHRGANG
Editorial Director City Editor
DONNA HANSON ............... Personnel Director
CAROL PRINS.................... Magazine Editor
EDWARD GERULDSEN .. Associate Editorial Director
WILLIAM HANEY.....................Features Editor
ROSE PERLBERG.....................Activities Editor
JAMES BAAD............... ........ Sports Editor
BRUCE BENNETT............ Associate Sports Editor
JOHN HILLYER .............. Associate Sports Editor
DIANE FRASER ... .. Assoc. Activities Editor
THOMAS BLUES .........Assoc. Personnel Director
BRUCE BAILEY ................ Chief Photographer
employment. The precise amount should be de-
termined by the Administration and Congress
in the light of the best information available
when the tax cut. is made.
We urge that the following principles be fol-
lowed and implemented in the tax cut:
A tax reduction program should affect all
taxpayers and stimulate individual and corpor-
ate enterprise, with the objective of creating
The reduction in tax rates should benefit
Individuals throughout the income scale, with-
out favoring any special interests or eliminat-
ing any large group from the rolls.
The tax reduction should have no time limit.
It should be regarded as a first step in a per-
manent tax policy which regularly lowers taxes
during recessions and restores them to neces-
sary levels once full employment is regained.
When an increase in taxes is required it should
be consistent with the long-term goals of tax
In addition, business firms should be allowed
to depreciate at a more rapid rate capital im-
provements begun in a reasonably short period,
say within the next twelve months.
THE LONG lead-time between the planning
and execution of public works calls atten-
tion to the importance of creating a permanent
shelf of projected public works.
To combat the current recession we recom-
mend that the Government continue its ef-
forts to accelerate public works under way.
Only useful projects that can be quickly start-
ed - say within three months - and complet-
ed within a reasonable period - say another
twelve to eighteen months - should be initiat-
ed as part of the immediate anti-recession pro-
We urge the Federal Reserve System to move
to increase the supply of money and credit as
long as the economy is declining.
Experience in the current recession under-
lines the need for emergency action. We agree
that temporary Federal supplements to unem-
ployment compensation under state systems
Effective anti-recession policy requires de-
cisive, continuous action reflecting a balancing
of conflicting considerations and choice among
alternative instruments. The same is true of
anti-inflation policy and is more than doubly
true of the real problem, which is to avoid
both recession and inflation.
We believe that consideration should be given
to broadening the representation of the in-
formal group which has been meeting during
the current recession with the President to in-
clude the Cabinet officers concerned especially
with foreign affairs and the human aspects
of our economy. The implications of stability
are broader than fiscal and monetary consid-
erations and should benefit from the counsel
of those who have direct responsibility for such
interests. There is need, we think, for an in-
formal advisory committee, to meet at the call
of the President and under his direct leader-
ship, at such intervals as may be necessary to
consider and advise on stabilization policy, eith-
er anti-recession or anti-inflationary as appro-
THE EFFECTIVENESS of this program will
depend on prompt action in the applica-
tion of the proposed remedies. Delay may make
r~npc* fipandln +iAn W .., to1 rl fl 0 e.Iiat
WASHINGTON - Here are the
real facts regarding the
"Alert" operations of the Strate-
gic Air Command now protested
by Foreign Minister Gromyko be-
fore the United Nations.
The fact is that one-third of
the SAC is always on a 15-minute
alert. This means that the planes
are on the end of the runway,
fueled with gas and with hydrogen
bombs aboard. They can be in the
air in 15 minutes.
Whether they go into the air
depends on the following factors
which face the United States 24
hours of the day, and which must
be the subject of constant deci-
sion by U.S. Air Force officers:
1) EVERY known flight pattern
is communicated to the SAC in
advance, and when these are
sighted on the radarscope there is
no attempt to investigate or take
off from the runway.
2) If an unknown flight is sight-
ed in the distance, jet fighters
scramble to identify the plane.
3) If a big unknown flight for-
mation is sighted on the radar-
scope, the big U.S. bombers of the
SAC may go up. Usually, however,
they don't. There have been cases
when a meteorological formation
will cause the big bombers to take
into the air but not often.
4) If they do get into the air,
they fly toward a geographical
barrier or invisible fence which is
called "Fail Safe." In other words,
an invisible line is placed around
Russia and the bombers are in-
structed never to fly beyond this
line unless they get orders to do
5) The only occasion when
these bombers can fly beyond the
"Fail Safe" invisible barrier is in
case of war. In this event, the or-
der can come from only one man
-the President of the United
This "Fail Safe" invisible fence
is fairly close to Russia and yet
far enough away so there can be
no argument that American
planes have flown anywhere near
Russian soil. The Russians, how-
ever, are quite able to pick up
these flights on their radarscopes
and know all about them.
A s s
PROBABLY, however, it is not
these flights which Gromyko is
complaining about, but rather the
rotational exercises of the Strate-
gic Air Command. For a good
many years, General Curtis Le
May, father of the Strategic Air
Command, now vice-chief of the
Air Force, has sent his bomber pi-
lots on training missions as if
they were about to bomb Moscow.
Then, shortly before reaching
Russian territory, they turn at
right angles and come home.
This training exercise is con-
sidered necessary to keep the
United States from suffering an-
other Pearl Harbor, which in mod-
ern warfare would hit, not distant
Hawaii, but the industrial heart
General Le May deserves credit
for doing an amazing job of or-
ganizing and training the Paul
Reveres of the atomic age. Be-
cause Russia is ahead of us in
planes, this type of training is
These rotational flights have
been known to the Russians for
a long time and throw the Soviet
defenses into a tizzy. Soviet de-
fense chiefs see these planes on
their radarscopes heading straight
for Soviet territory, and obviously
must wonder whether they will al-
ways turn off, or whether they
may continue coming. It undoubt-
edly gives them an uneasy feeling.
However, the exercise has been
taking place almost ever since
World War II, so that Gromyko's
protest at this particular time is
obviously for psychological dip-
lomatic reasons. I have written in
general terms about the work of
the SAC on my trips to Greenland,
and last Christmas described the
"fifteen minute alerts" of our B-
47's in Morocco. Other newspaper-
men have done likewise.
* * *
THEREFORE, Foreign Minister
Gromyko was probably trying to
head off Amperican missile bases
in Western Europe by lodging his
protest at this time.
In all these practice flights, the
H-bomb is divided in two parts---
the bomb itself and the hydrogen
pill. Each is kept in a separate
part of the plane. One member of
the crew, a "weaponeer," goes
along to marry the pill and the
bomb in case they are to be used.
The two are never married except
in practice flights over very bar-
ren areas or over the ocean. The
wedding of the pill and the bomb
is governed by a little black box
called the "go-no-go" box, in
which a light shows if the bomb
There have been occasions when
these bombers cracked up or lost
their bombs, but no occasion when
a bomb exploded on a practice
(Copyright 1958 by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
the United Nations Security Coun-
cil. He was just beginning meet-
ings with the Allied ambassadors
to discuss plans for a summit con-
The United States has been very
cool toward a summit conference.
The Russians, too, have shown few
signs of considering it as more
than a good forum for propaganda.
EUROPE is always more hopeful
about such things because, con-
sidering its position in an atomic
war, it must be hopeful about
Europe was already nervous
about the possibilities of accidents
from bombed-up patrol planes as
well as the provocational aspects.
If Europe could be made more
nervous and the United States less
inclined toward a summit confer-
ence, their differences would be
widened. That is a cardinal ob-
jective of Soviet foreign policy.
The Soviets went into it from
the same standpoint that they
went into last fall's charges that
Turkey, spurred on by the allies,
was preparing to attack Syria.
THERE WAS nothing to it, and
they knew it. But they could plant
the seeds of worry and suspicion
in neutral minds, and in the minds
of the whole Middle East which
still remembers Turkish rule, and
then drop it after the first profit-
able propaganda effect.
The Russians did not come to
the United Nations with the
bomber charge under any false
hope that it would find support
there. They came expecting to ex-
tract a profit from a beating.
« « «
THEY HAVE been pretending
since the end of last summer's
London disarmament conference
that it is useless for them to try
to promote peace and disarma-
ment against the anti-Communist
lineup in the UN. Now they hope
they have given the innocents an-
The Soviets have played the
game so often there may not be
so many innocents any more.
The London Daily Telegraph
pointed out that American air
policy followed Soviet bragging
about what the Russians could do
with guided missiles, and said:
"These may not be the arguments
which the United States will de-
fend herself before the Security
Council, but they are questions
which her allies must ask them-
B rid led
CROWN Prince Faisal, Premier
and new strong man of Saudi
Arabia, has announced that his
country will not join either Nas-
ser's United Arab Republic or the
rival Arab Federation of Iraq and
Jordan, though he wishes both
well and promises to cooperate
This dispels, at least for the
present, the widespread concern
that as a result of King Saud's
transfer of power to the allegedly
pro-Egyptian Crown Prince, Saudi
Arabia would follow Yemen into
the synthetic "republic" and be-
come another Nasser satellite.
SUCH a move would not only
give Nasser control of much of the
Middle Eastern oil. It could also
precipitate a landslide that could
drive all Arab states into Nasser's
camp and thereby put Western
Europe, which lives on Middle
Eastern oil, at Nasser's mercy.
Instead of countenancing such
a move, Saudi Arabia prefers to
remain a buffer between the rival
Arab groups. The fact that this
announcement came on the eve of
Nasser's departure for a visit to
Moscow is not without signifi-
Nor is the Saudi Arabian stand
the only check on Nasser's am-
bitions. To the south, the Sudan
has given an election victory to
the pro-Western Umma party and
pro-Western Premier Khalil is
again head of a coalition Govern-
ment. And to the west, the Premier
of Libya, allied with Britain, is
scheduled to visit London later
this week to talk about further
financial assistance against the
agitation of the "Little Comin-
form" operating out of Cairo.
* * *
THIS does not mean that Nasser
has been stopped. He has resumed
The Daily Official Bulletin Is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan for which the
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 23, 1958
VOL. LXVII, NO. 141
The next "Polio Shot" Clinic for stu-
dents will be held Thurs., April 24, only
from 8:00 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. and 1:00
p.m ot 4:45 p.m., in the Health Service.
All stduents whose 2nd or 3rd shots are
due around this time are urged to take
advantage of this special clinic. Stu-
dents are reminded thatait Is not ne-
cessary to obtain their regular clinic
cards. Proceed to Room 58 in the base-
ment where forms are available and
cashier's representatives are present.
The fee for injection Is $1.00.
The following persons have been se-
lected as ushers for the May Festival,
and may pick up their usher tickets at
the Box Office of Hill Auditorium from
5:00 to 6:00 p.m. on Tues. and Wed., Ap-
ril 22 and 23: Rosamond Bairas. Ruth
Cobb, Glynn Davies, Stanley C. Day,
Marsha-Jo Demarest, Martha Ellen Fire-
baugh, Marcia G. Flucke, Carolyn Grow
Nancy Greenhoe, Nancy Gardner, Don.-
ald W. Honkala, Don Huldin, Lois Hul-
din, Caole Herndon, Erna Kochendorf-
er, Alice Kinietz, Robert D. Leyrer. Gene
Mrowka, Margaret Mc arthy, Dennis
Murray, Paul A. Moore, David L Mile~
Antoine Meyer, Barbara Nicula, Joyce
Paquin, Judith Pike, Caroline Poertner,
Sue Shanklin, Charlotte Schwimmer,
Cary A. Shelds, Shirley Shaw, Kenneth
Shaw, Barbara Shade, Gary Sampson,
Judith Savage, Esther Tennenhouse,
Terry A. Wood, Wesley Wilson, Thomas
Welton, Mary Sue Wiey, Geison R.
Yee, Eugene Zaitzeff.
June graduates may now order their
caps and gowns at Moe's Sport Shop
on North University.
Regents' Meeting: May 22, 23 and, 24.
Communications for consideration at
this meeting must be in the President's
hands by May 13.
There will be an International Center
Tea, sponsored by the International
Center and the International Students
Association this Thurs., April 24 from
4:30 to 6:00 p.m. at the International
Engineers: Copies of "A Guide to Ca-
reer Opportunities" for 1958 are avail-
able at the Engineering Placement Of-
fice, Room 347 w. Eng. Contains a va-
,riety of vocational information. Seniors
and graduate students only.
Agenda, Student Government Couh-
ci, April 23, 1958.
Minutes of previous meeting.
Officer reports: President - letter.
reports; Exec. Vice-Pres. - Honors Con-
vocation, student representatives, Stu-
dent Activities Scholarship, Interview-
ing and Nominating Committee, Read.
ing and Discussion Committee, Ap-
pointments; Admin. vice-Pres. - Peti-
tioning and interviewing; Treasurer.
Committee Reports:National and In-
ternational, report; Education and Stu-
dent Welfare, exam file; Public Rela-
tions; Student Activities - April 23,
International Student Association, de-
bate, "Democracy Is Dictatorship by
Committee", 7:15 p.m., League (Inter-
im action); May 5-9, Jr. IFC, Help
Week; May 8, Engineering Council pro-
gram "Rocket and Missile Advances*
(Speaker approved by Committee on U.
Lectures); Calendaring, student spon-
sored activities - motions.
Prof. 0. A. Saunders of the Imperial
College of Science and Technology, Lon-
don, England, will lecture on "Some
Recent Developments in Heat Trans-
fer," in Aud. D, Angell Hall, Wed., Ap-
ril 23 at 3:00 p.m.
Sigma Xi Lecture: "Michigan Mush-
rooms." Alexander H. Smith, Professor
of Botany Wed., April 23, 8:00 p.m.,
Rackham Amphitheater. Public Invited.
The Political Science dept. will pre.
sent John M. Blum of Yale University
lecturing on "The Presidential Lead-
ership of Theodore Roosevelt." Thurs.,
April 24 at 8:00 p.m. in Rackham Lee-
Speech Assembly, under the auspices
of the Dept. of Speech, today 4:00 p.m.
Rackham Lecture Hall. Dr. Fred Haber-
man, Chairman, Dept. of Speech, Univ.
of Wisconsin will speak on "Spokesmen
Public Lecture, auspices of the Dept.
of Fine Arts, by William G. Archer,
Keeper of the Indian section of the
victoria and Albert Museum in London,
on "Romance and Poetry in Indian
Painting," on April 24, 4:15 pm. Aud. B,
Student Recital: Douglas Lee, pianist,
will present a recital in partial fulfill-
ment of the requirements for the de-
gree of Master of Music at 8:30 p.m.,
CLUE TO THE TREND:
UA W Contracts Have Wide Impact
By NORMAN WALKER
WASHINGTON (AP) - Recession-
worried economists are wait-
ing for the other shoe to drop in
Detroit for a clue to national wage
Walter Reuther's United Auto
Workers has made its profit-shar-
ing and other demands for new
The industry so far has proposed
to continue the annual six-cents-
per-hour pay boosts, plus living
cost adjustments, payable under
present contracts expiring in about
six weeks. But the automakers
may sweeten their offer soon to
try to get a new long-term con-
* * *
MOST ECONOMISTS concede
the auto industry bargaining, how-
ever it turns out, will have its
usual powerful impact on other
abor-management negotiations for
some time ahead.
But it is also claimed that to the
extent that wages rise, the chances
of prices coming down to help end,
the recession, are thereby mini-
prices will be reduced, but whether
steel makers will boost prices to
compensate for the new pay raise.
If Reuther's UAW takes a cheap
settlement-a real possibility in
view of sagging auto sales this
year-other employers could be
expected to use this as a telling
argument in their union dealings.
If Reuther scores the end-around
bargaining play he outlined to an
editors' meeting here the other
day, then other unions would insist
THE CANADIANS, who are the
arm and numerical backbone
of the United Nations Emergency
Force on the Israeli-Egyptian bor-
der, claim it has been totally in-
capitated by the inefficiency of
the UN headquarters in New York.
And they offer plenty of evidence:
nearly 100 trucks, jeeps and scout
cars are out of action because of
erratic delivery of spare parts; a
signal corps request of four walky-
talky radios brought in their stead
four radio trucks; an ordinance
on similar gains in their own con-
So far in 1958, labor contract
settlements have produced about
the same increases, around 10
cents an hour, that were negoti-
ated last year. There have been
some exceptions, but the recession
has so far seen no appreciable de-
cline in the advance of wage rates.
In fact, the January-March
construction industry wage settle-
ments reportedly provided in-
creases averaging 17.8 cents an
hour. This compares with an aver-
age increase rate.of 14.6 cents for
the first quarter of last year and
16.1 cents for all of 1957.
In his speech to newspaper edi-
tors here last week, Reuther said
the key to successful bargaining
is to be fluid and flexible and
* * *
"I HAVE SAT at the bargaining
table for some 22 years with the
biggest corporations in the world,
where a penny-an-hour increase
in wages meant 10 million dollars,
where a billion dollars was a stake
in the bargaining. People bargain