"Brother, Let Me Tell You About Tortoises"
Srhw Stri an BauiI
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)pinions Are Free
ditorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DAY, APRIL 15, 1958 NIGHT EDITOR: DAVID TARR
ViveT las Ideas w
raVe in the
Of emoerae' ors the'Amer1cas
* C L
U.S. 'HOTTEST' NATION:
By ALTON L. BLAKESLEE
Associated Press science Reporter
NEW YORK ()-Invisibly, it drifts from the skies. A bit is falling
now. Some fell yesterday; more will come tomorrow. You cannot see
it, feel it, hear it, nor taste it. It is radioactive, mysterious.
It frightens, confuses, agitates millions of people the world over.
This is fallout, the radioactive rain from tests of A-bombs and H-bombs.
The United States has collected more of it than most any other
country-we are the "hottest" nation, says Dr. Willard F. Libby, an
atomic energy commissioner.
But he and others quickly add that this doesn't mean much-that
THEN ONE returns from observing the Cu-
ban situation the most serious and fre-
ently asked question posed by the curious is:
ho should we root for? Our answers are:
>ot against Batista; root with caution for
,stro; and root hopefully that liberal and
n-radical church and middleclass elements-
led by United States encouragement - even-
ally are freely elected to political power.
Batista is .a tyrant, a crook, a murderer. He
egally seized power in 1952, fearing the re-
lts of a free election, and has ruled with 11-
ality and brutality ever since. He cannot be
isted to tolerate a truly free election in No-
rnber, as promised, for his record reveals he
n stomach nothing inimicable to his inter-
s. And how can an election be called free
ien the political sentiments in favor of Fl-
1 Castro can find no expression in the fraud?
e is a tyrant, also, because, with the back-
g of his army and police, he- has in Hitlerite
Shion usurped powers and rights reserved
: the legislative or the people. We found it
rious that in a government which is in theory
far from communism as possible, this re-
tionary regime has come almost full-circle
th its army, secret police, press censorship,
ws iron curtain, and brutal slaying of dis-
nters. It was distressing to see such a won-
rful people, living so near United States
ores, suffering the fear of tyranny.
Batista is a crook who tolerates, directs and
courages wholesale corruption and immorali-
The extent of government-supervised pros-
ution is appalling. Gambling and other vices
r tliefting the tourists' dollars are out of
ntrol. And, while Batista may brag of his
.ghty and showy works, Cuban prosperity has
mne in spite, and not because of, him. A Cu-
n businessman reported to us that by the
ne, Batista has fed the many hands that
pport him, $2,000,000 highway projects cost
uble that much, and so it goes in all spheres
Batista is a murderer, as many Cubans can
1 you in the safety of their homes or here
the University. A Cuban University student
is the story of the cold-blooded machine
nning of three of his former colleagues at
ivana University. People in Santiago can tell
driving to work in the morning and finding
ad bodies - again, many of them youth.-
ewn there during the night by the govern-
ent after * night of Gestapo-like investi.
Now, Castro raised some doubts in our minds
as to his ultimate ambitions. But we are
convinced that he is not now sympathetic to
communism or socialism, and that he does not
covet a dictatorship.. If such were his inten-
tions he could not command the widespread,
though silent for the moment, support which
he does. In short, he is a liberal willing to give
his very life to wrest his country from the fear
and tyranny of a dictator. He is worth taking
a chance on, and we believe the chances are
good that his victory will not bring bad re-
sults - even if Castro wishes it.
But Castro cannot now win a military vic-
ory. In fact the military strength which the
government has shown of late has also cramped
plans for non-military efforts to bring the fall
of Batista. And Batista will not step down
and forfeit his power, a move which would'
both make most Cubans happy and save much.
bloodletting. This is indeed a, dim picture for
there ;seems no hope, but to look for con-
tinued days and months of suffering.-
We would propose one move on the part of
the United States, Which was suggested to us
by an enlightened Cuban in Santiago and
which has surprising support among the Cu-
ban people. This is that the United States, in
the name of our long-time concern for theCu-
ban people and in the name of American re-
publicanism, intervene at first diploMatically
and if necessary politically and militarily to
bring an end to the costly and fr'uitless civil
war and provide for rea';7 free and contested
To date our government has tolerated and
aided militarily the Batista dictatorship. In the
last two years we have sold him 4,500 carbines,
1,300 rockets, twenty armored cars, seven
tanks, and more than $300,000 worth of bombs,
while arresting a rebel group on a question-
able charge of violating our territorial waters.
* Our first move could be to take advantage
of a provision in the Rio Pact of the American
states which provides for discussion of issues
between members, though it must be admit-
ted that this is largely an issue of "domestic
jurisdiction" in the strict sense. There is an
inevitability that liberal ideas will someday-
and recent events in Venezuela and elsewhere
give indication that this movement is hasten-.
ing - triumph throughout America, and it
would be of credit to the United States to be
in the vanguard of this tide of democratic ways.
-JAMES ELSMAN, JR.
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- e9s8 tiiw$$ t ..-r Pese co.
E EA..& . Probed
By DREW PEARSON1
TODAY AND TOMORROW-
North A frica Nettle
WASHINGTON -- Congressman
Manny Celler of Brooklyn has
been conducting a probe of the
"untouchable" of the utility world"
which affects every taxpayer and
telephone user in the nation. The
"untouchable" is- the American
Telephone and Telegraph Com-
pany, which, with assets of nearly
sixteen billions, is ten times big-
ger than the next biggest utility,
Pacific Gas and Electric.
American Tel and Tel not only
dominates the supplying of phone
service to the nation, but also has
been charged with conducting a
patent monopoly through its gi-
ant, wholly-owned subsidiary,
It has also received more gov-
ernment contracts than any other
company except General Motors
and Boeing Aircraft.
MOST INTERESTING aspect
of the Celler investigation is the
manner in which top government
officials became the virtual at-
torneys for the telephone com-
pany and how the phone company
placed its men in key jobs inside
government. A total of 35 A. T. &
T. officials, have served inside the
Defense Department alone during
the Eisenhower Administration.
Some have been in and out of
government like shuttlecocks, but
as of today, 14 A. T. & T. officials
are still in the Defense Depart-
ment, ranging from Deputy Sec-
retary of Defense Donald Quarles
This does not include the A. T.
& T. officials scattered through
other branches of the Adminis-
tration. While these officials have
been working inside government,
here are some of the transactions
that have taken place involving
1) The Defense Department has
been selling off its telephone sys-
tems at military posts to A. T. &
2) The Interior Department has
sold various national park phones
to A. T. & T. affiliates.
* * *
ACTUALLY, the backstage ma-
neuvers to drop the big antitrust
case against A. T. & T. and West-
ern Electric began during the Tru-
man Administration. Truman's
Justice Department had brought
the antitrust case in 1949. But in
the spring of 1952, the last year
of Truman, the phone company
began to get worried about 'going
to trial. They began to realize that
Graham Morison, the tough little
head of the Justice Department's
Antitrust Division, really meant
So A. T. & T. officials ap-
proached Charles A. Coolidge, a
Republican serving in the Defense
Department under Truman, to
try to get the trial postponed.
Coolidge prepared a letter which
was 'signed by Secretary of De-
fense Robert Lovett, another Re-
publican serving under Truman,
and Lovett 'sent the letter to the
Justice Department asking it to
go easy on A. T. & T. because five
officials of the Bell Telephone
Laboratories, including the pres-
ent Deputy Secretary of Defense,
Donald Quarles, were working at
the Sandia Atomic Energy Labor-
atory in New Mexico.
Assistant Attorney General
Morison replied: "That's the same
baloney every big business firm
brings in when they get in a tight
place. The A. T. & T. antitrust
case won't disturb Bell labora-
tories in the slightest." He flatly
refused to postpone or comprom-
ise the case.
A few months later, Morison
and the Truman Administration
went out and Attorney General
Brownell came in. Immediately,
the same thing happened. This
time Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, presi-
dent of Bell Laboratories, who
was working inside the Pentagon,
appealed to Secretary of Defense
Charlie Wilson and Deputy Sec-
retary Roger Kyes to drop the
Wilson immediately wrote a
strong letter to Brownell describ-
ing the antitrust suit as a "po-
tential hazard to national securi-
ty" and asked him to see how this
"can be removed or alleviated."
* * *
UP UNTIL this time the strate-
gy of the. giant phone combine
was either to delay going to trial
or get a compromise. In fact, up
until Jan. 19, 1953, the day the
Truman Administration went out
of office, T. Brooke Price, vice-
president and general counsel,
was only asking for delay.
But after Charlie Wilson had
written his letter to Brownell,
Price and the phone moguls
wouldn't even -listen to delay.
They wanted outright dismissal
of the case. On June . ' 1953, six
months after Eisenhower came
into office, Price was so sure of
outright dismissal that he had At-
torney General Brownell almost
pleading with him to agree to a
(Copyright 1958 by Bel Syndicate, Inc.)
fallout is adding only a tiny bit to
mother and her grandfather-all
your ancestors-have always lived
Fallout is at the heart of one of
the great urgent issues of our day
- whether to continue testing
these awful weapons. It involves
military, scientific, emotional, poli-
tical, humanitarian questions and
IS FALLOUT dooming thousands
of future babies to monstrous de-
formity, death or illness? Is it-
right now-giving some of us can-
cer, or stealing away days or years
of our lives?
The questions nag. Experts dis-
agree. Their answers add to our
But there are some points, some
perspectives, to help in under-
standing the problems and the
issues of fallout.
One is that fallout is a very old
thing, indeed. Nature has always
been sprinkling us with a radio-
active rain. That rain made you
and all your ancestors radioactive.
Every minute some 500,000
radioactive atoms explode inside
your body, giving off beta rays
(electrons.) And there's absolutely
nothing you could ever do about
Atomic bullets known as cosmic
rays hurtle in from space. About
1,000 smash and rip through you
* * *
THESE COSMIC rays also create
radioactive carbon high up in our
atmosphere. The radio-carbon
drifts down, and becomes tart of
the carbon chemicals in wheat
and corn and pigs and people-all
More than 2,000 radio-carbon
atoms disintegrate in your body
every second. So do some 5,400
atoms of radioactive potassium,
which was formed when the earth
began and since then became part
of food and people.
In one pound of steak, 2,000
radioactive atoms of carbon and'
potassium explode every minute.
Plants take up some of these "hot"
atoms, and we eat them. They get
mixed up into concrete and bricks.
Live in a brick house, or work in
a cement building, and you get a
good deal more X-ray radiation
than if you lived or worked in a
wooden building. All this is normal
or background radiation.'
-* * *
DON'T PANIC. It's really quite
small. It all amounts to only about
41/2 roentgens in 30 years of living.
That's"equal to about 100 chest
X-rays taken by a very efficient
X-ray machine, or equal to one
X-ray for study of the spine, an
AEC scientist estimates.
Does this radiation hurt you?
Does it doom some unborn babies?
Beyond any doubt, yes, it does,
say most or all genetiists.
This normal radiation also prob-
ably makes us age faster than if
there were not radiation' at all.
It may cause some cancers and
But we've been living with this
natural radiation all our lives
without any fear about it. Partly
because we didn't % know much
about it until recently. Partly be-
cause we can't do anything to
stop it, anyhow.
* * *
FEAR WAS really born when
A-bombs burst over Japan. These
bombs killed by blast and fire, as
did ordinary bombs, but with a
horrible efficiency. And they added
a new and unknown terror-death
and' sickness from this stranger
One thing about this new xadio-
activity-it is made by man; it can
be stopped by man.
The really critical question is
.how much radioactivity it is giv-
ing us, and what this is doing to
us, or may do.
UNEXPECTED thunder from the
pages of London's Sunday Ex-
press rattled breakfast teacups all
over England recently. For the
first time since May 1956, Lord
Beaverbrook, proprieter of The
Express but recently in Qanada
and the West Indies, spoke his
mind in a prominent, signed edi-
Impatient with official Ameri-
can objections to a summit con-
ference, Beaverbrook wanted Brit-
ish Prime Minister Macmillan to
(Continued from Page 3)
if. Location of work - State of Calif-
ornia which includes 604 branches
serving over 350 cities and towns. Over-
seas Branches - London,. Manila
Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka, Bang.
kok, Guam. Bank of America (Inter-
national) - New York, Dusseldorf,
Singapore, Paris, Beirut, and Guate-
mala. Representative Offices - New
York, washington, D.C., Mexico City,
Milan, Paris, Zurich, New Delhi, Ha-
vana, Rio De Janeiro, and Beirut. Men
with B.A. in Liberal Art especay
Economics, B.B.A. for 1) Commercial,
2) Trust, and 3) Internationae1 Training
Programs. 4The method of. training' i
formalized on-the-job in their branch-
es and administrative departments un-
der the supervision of the Staff Train-
ing -Section of 'their Personnel Rea-
tions Department. The length of such
formal training is two years, with an
additional three years of planned ex-
perience under the direction of the
Staff Training Section. Their programs
are designed to acquaint the trainee
with the broad general field of branch
banking before any specialization Is at-
tempted. 'Opportunities lead toward
Lending, Branch Operations, Trst, In-
ternational Banking, Methods, Ac-
counting, Personnel Relations, Apprais-
al and other fields. At the conculaol
of training, the trainee is assigned to
a position at officer level in their Lank.
Thurs., April 17
Employers Mutuals of Wausau, Wau-
a u, Wisc. Location of work = Wausa,
Wisc. 1) Men with B.A. In Liberal Arts,.
or B.B.A. for Underwriting Trainees.
Men will spend from 2-6 months In a
training program in Wausa then'
transfer to any of their sixteen
branches throughout the country. 2)
Women with B.A. in Mathematics;
B.B.A. with Accounting Major,or any
degree with .an accounting -minor for
Audit Department. 3) Wonen with any
degree with bookkeeping or accounts
receivable experience for Audit Depart.
Trans World Airlines, Kansas City,
Mo. Location of Principal Terminal-
Los Angeles, Calif.; La Guardia Field,
'N.Y.; Chicago, Ill.; and Kansas City,
Mo. Women with any degree for Host-
esses. Qualifications: Age: 20-27. Height:
5'2" to 5'S". Weight: 100 to 135 pounds
in proportion to height. Complexion:
Clear. vision: 20/100 or better in each
eye without :glasses and 20/20 in each
eye with glasses. Must be single but
divorcees adn widows accepted with-
out children. Girls may remain with
TWA after they, are married..:;
For appointments, contact the, u-
reau of Appointments, 3528 Admn.
Bldg., ext. 337I.~
Representatives from the following
will be at the College of Engineering:
Wed., April 16
City of Dearborn, Dearborn, Mich.-
B. S. and M.S. In C. for Design and
occasional field assignment. Must be
a U.S. citizen and men only.
Thurs., April 17
Bay County Equalization Commissio ,
gay City,"Mich. - Summer only - Ta
survey. Sophs or Jrs. in C.E. or any
other engineering program. Must be
a U.S. citizen and a non-resident of
Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
Atomic Power Division, Pittsburgh, Pa.
-M.S. or Ph.D. in Ch.E. or Nuclear for
Research, Development, and Design.
General Electrdc Company, Pittsfield,
Mass. - Ph.D. in A.E., E.E., IE., ME.,
Ch.E., E. Mech.,Met., Nay. & Mar., and
Nuc. for Rsearch, Development, Design
Fri., April 18
Westinghouse Electic Corporation5
Pittsburgh, Pa. - Dbetoral Program.
Ph.D. candidates who have a B.. or
M.S. degree in Met., Physics or Mathe-
matics. Must have an interest in atom.
Ic power. Must be a U.S. citizen ane
rank in the upper ten per cent oftheir
U.S. Department of Commerce, bu.
reau of the Census, Washington 25,
D. C. has4 a program for summer sta-
tistical work and training for those
intereted in' acareer in therFederal
government as a Statistician, Econo-
mist, Sociologist or Demographer. Ap-
plications must be submitted before
P. . Mallory & Co., Inc., Indianapo-
lis, Ind. are seeking a recent graduate
or an alumnus who is interested in the
internal auditing field, For a recent
graudate, an accounting 'maor Is e-
quired with a background in finance,
and budgets. For an alumnus, must
have public 'ccounting and/or intern-
al auditing experience. Travel would be
required about 50 percent of the time.
Age: Up to 40 yrs. of age.
General Telephone Company of Cali-
fornia, Santa Monica, Calif. - The fo.
lowing positions are open for June
graduates: For Men: Management
Trainee, Commercial Representative,
Administrative Clerk, Engineering As
sistant, Engineering. Fieldman, Xngi-
neering Analyst, Management Trainee
in Technical ffelds and Engineer. For
Women: Service Representative, Gen-
eral Qlerk and Stenographer.
For further information, contact the
Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Admin.
Bldg., ext. 3371.
Summer Placement Notices
Representatives from the following
camps willabe'-here interviewing for
counselors this week in the Summer
Placement Bureau, Room D 528, Stu-
dent Activities Building.
Tues., April 15
Camp Conestoga, Leonidas,. Mich. Mr.
Stephen Baumann will be interviewing
counselors, both men and women..
Jackson County Girl Scout Camp,
Jackson, Mich. Miss Janet Hayes will
be interviewing women for counseling
the radIoactivity which your grand-
By WALTER LIPPMANN
rP'ERE IS AT THE MOMENT a no more
thankless assignment for an American news-
paperman than to put together his impressions
of France in her relations with North Africa.
For if he takes things as they appear to be,
the conflict is irreconcilable and the problem of
finding a solution is hopeless. The crucial ques-
tion for a foreign observer is to decide how
much he can discount of what he hears, how
much he' can dare to think that there is a
compulsion in events which will override opin-
The 'situation in its elemental form consists
of a guerilla war in Algeria with which the bulk,
of the French Army is involved. It is a war
which almost certainly cannot be won and
which in military terms will surely not be lost.
The public life of metropolitan France is domi-
nated, indeed obsessed, by this horrid, cruel,
indecisive and interminable war. The obsession
has produced a political condition in France
in which no government believes it can survive
if it considers a negotiated settlement. All this
has reached a point where there is the gravest
doubt as to whether the legal government in
Paris really controls the whole of the Army or
its own appointed officials dealing with Algeria
in Paris and in North Africa.
The political climate in North Africa, as I
saw it in Tunisia, is verging on desperation.
President Bourguiba, who certainly is the most
moderate and the most.Western of Arab lead-
ers, believes that if there is no settlement of the
Algerian war in the near future, he may be
overwhelmed and destroyed by the fanaticism
which follows Nasser. Tunisia, having no army
to speak of, is incapable of policing its long
frontier with Algeria. But even if Tunisia could
be neutral, it would not dare to be neutral, so
great is the solidarity of the Arabs.
The political climate in Paris is oppressive. It
reminded me of Washington in the heyday of
McCarthy, when man after man in high place
would deplore the terror privately and appease
it publicly. Under the French version of Mc-
Carthyism anyone who disagrees publicly with
the official policy as administered in Algiers
has a good chance of being called a traitor. It
resembles the time when to express doubt about
Chiang Kai-Shek was for an American politi-
cian like expressing doubt about the United
States. There is, moreover, in France an admix-
ture of race feeling so that a political advocate
of negotiations in Algeria is rather like a
white man in Little Rock advocating integra-
tion in the nih1i' shnnls
fact, having gotten out of 'the atmosphere of
Paris, I find myself feeling-not, I think,
through any congenital optimism-that events
may not follow the horrid logic of the apparent.
For one thing, though the war cannot now
be settled by a negotiated arrangement, it is
"lot unlikely, I think, that in fact an arrange-
ment will develop. The essence of the Algerian
question is that there are two communities--
one white and European, and one dark and
Moslem-living on the same land. The Euro-
peans are in a minority and, with the growth
of the Moslem population, will become an ever
smaller minority. Yet the Europeans are the
stronger and richer community, and they have
powerful support fronm the French homeland.,
A "democratic" solution is impossible with
this French community outnumbered eight to
one. Therefore, it looks as if the French- will
be driven to do in Algeria what was done in
Ireland, in Palestine, in India-what has been
done so often where there are two communities
Which cannot be integrated and cannot rule
themselves as one nation. There will be in fact,
though perhaps not in name, a partition of
Algeria with the French congregating in the
coastal regions and the Moslems in the hinter-
land. In all probability this will not be peace
in the sense that there will be no more violence,
but it may; mean a barely tolerable arrange-
FOR ANOTHER THING, there will appear,
in fact, there is already appearing, a power-
ful counteracting force to the movement for
independence in the colonial countries. The
North African territories, Morocco, Tunisia
and Algeria, are not capable of economic inde-
pendence. They are to an extraordinary degree
integrated with and dependent upon the sub-
ventions and the protective devices of the
French economy. There are French interests
which profit by the system. But for the French
nation as a whole, the North African territories
are not an asset but a heavy liability.
In the modern world, moreover, the advanced
states are increasingly capable of using for
themselves their own capital savings. The in-
centive to export capital is decreasing, and it
tends to become, except in special cases like
il, a matter not of profit but of benevolence
and of public policy.k
Parenthetically, the American capacity to
absorb capital at home is the underlying reason
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Teachers-A Class Apart
To the Editor:
LLAGREE more and better
teachers we must have. How?
Simple-more money, more re-
spect, more prestige for the teach-
ing profession. To achieve those
ends, however, will not be easy; it
will require new, bold, imaginative
Here is an explosive, effective
idea. Have Congress amend income
tax laws to read, "No income tax
shall be collected on any teaching
I can think of no other single
action that would so shock our
present state of vacillating do-
nothingness into an acute aware-
ness of what education means to-
day in defense of our country.
Favoritism? Of course! Isn't it
about time? How else can we- so
quickly demonstrate our convic-
tion that todays teachers are in
a class apart-shocktroops des-
tined to lead us either to victory
or defeat in that modern arena of
Education (as the Soviet Union
has so helpfully shown us) is to-
day the greatest weapon in a
her scholarly efforts are marred
with two errors.
1) Thailand is a constitutional
monarchy, not a republic. Though
Anna has gone, there is still a
King of Siam.
2) Thailand was not invaded
by the Japanese in World War II,
Indeed, Thailand was Japan's ally.
True to Siamese tradition of poli-
tical expediency, the Thai ac-
qiesced to Japanese demands to
station troops in Thailand and to
cross the country to attack Burma.
Surely, Thailand would have been
invaded had she not done so, but
the point nevertheless remains
that Japanese troops conquered
neither Ceylon nor Siam.
I agree that it is not too much
to ask that Daily revewers keep
within certain bounds of accuracy
in discussing the subject matter
of films under discussion, if I may
be permitted a blatant redundan-
Perhaps it is too much to ask.
of infrequent reviewers of Daily
-Peter Kessel, Grad.
Irritation . .
while politicians in the White
House are getting the pay of the
nation's citizens for exerting them-
selves no more than to trouble
themselves with a thousand lost,
golf balls or to engage in semantic
arguments with the Russians. Or
to bemoan their latest tardiness in
the pr'opaganda war.
But while our dull president and
another dull individual in Wash-
ington shed tears as big as ballots
over being beat by Russia's latest
announcement, there is a small
republic south of here where the
people are delmanding that the
dictatorawhoseized control by
force some years ago be thrown
out on his ear.
There the people are rising up
to demand that the control of
their 'country be put into their
own hands, rising up in rebellion
just as an English colony did some
182 years 'ago, making world his-
Today the age of bigness and
selfishness is epitomized by the
U.S.A. And while millions in this
country are running around like
headless chickens. looking for the
key to success in the propaganda
war as well as something as re-