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EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MIcH. * Phone NO 2-3241
"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, MARCH 15, 1958
NIGHT EDITOR: LANE VANDER SLICE
Americans Seek ISA
ONE OF THE SMALLEST mass meetings in
the history of the University was held
Thursday-seventeen people showed up.
The occasion was the first International
Students Association attempt to recruit Ameri-
can members since its recent constitution revi-
sion. The seventeen present included'about half
the ISA officers and committee chairmen, about
half a dozen international students who already
belonged to the Association, and "another half-
dozen Americans who wished to join. The mass
meeting was rather quiet compared to the
scores of middle-aged practical nurses swarm-
ing around in the hall outside. It was almost
The low attendance on the part of officers
and chairmen was due to a number of factors:
illness, conflicting speaking engagements and
the like. The fact that only one or two
per cent of the better than 500 active members
arrived can be largely attributed to failure to
notify them directly by mail as has been done
in the past. But there is literally no valid reason'
for the paucity of American interest displayed.
If the International Students Association
were a tiny organization no one had heard of,
the fact that five or six new members were
signed up in an evening would be encouraging.
If the ISA were not interested in being, as
president Gunay Aktay, '58, pointed out, more
than a "Foreign Students Club," lack of Ameri-
can interest would be inconsequential. And if
the group were a stagnant one which those eli-
gible joined and then ignored, which did noth-
ing of significance -beyond its own doors, no
one, most especially The Daily, could get
the least bit concerned. But none of the former
is in fact the case.
For the present 500-member association was
founded only three years ago and is now one
of the best-known campus organizations. And
despite The Daily style of referring to any
foreigner enrolled here as an international
student, the ISA, members wish the term to
show the international aims of the group. And
most important of all, the ISA is an ambitious
group which in the next year plans to widen
greatly the already wide scope of its services
THE ISA CONSTITUTION lists two purposes
for the organization: First, "to sponsor edu-
cational, cultural, athletic and social events,"
and second, "to represent the foreign students
in issues which involve their interests." These
general statements include such diverse activi-
ties as the Monte Carlo Ball and International
Ball, both campus-wide; debates and panel
discussions on provocative subjects, including
the hilarious balloon debates; a small news-
paper formerly known as the Compass but
now the International Student; and an intra-
mural program for nationality club teams
which ranges from ping-pong to soccer de-
scribed by International Center Director James
Davis as "lethal."
And plans for the next year include "Olympic
Games" to become part of the immensely suc-
cessful International Week. The publications
chairman plans to ask the Board in Control
of Student Publications for permission to pub-
lish a bi-weekly with advertising. And likewise
planned for the coming year was recruitment
of American members. That, due to the wall-
flower interest of American students in meeting
people and doing things, seems least likely of
their goals to be reached. But Gunay Aktay
and his fellow ISA members shouldn't be too
discouraged-~-12 people attended the SGC Ad-
Administrative Wing mass meeting the same
"Mind If We Play Through?"
~WASINGTN MERY- O -RUND
WASHINGTON MERRY-GO-ROUND -
', ::.Dy DREW PEAR.SON
Bus Lines Suffer
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Following is the first of three articles dealing with the
financial plight of the motor bus industry throughout the nation, and its
applications to Michigan and Ann Arbor. This first installment sketches the
decline of the industry from its World War 11 pinnacle.)
By WILLIAM RANSOM
Daily Staff Writer
CITY BUS RIDERS across the nation would do well to tone up their
walking legs - there's a chance that they'll be using them a great
deal in the not-too-distant future.
The reason for this is that bus operators are in financial trouble
and are being forced to sharply reduce service or, in many cases, to
abandon operations altogether.
The problem is coming to be recognized as one that private com-
panies cannot solve on their own.
In Michigan, on which we shall focus our more direct attention,
several bills are now before the state legislature which, if passed, would
exempt city bus operations from
the heavy burden of fuel and
weight tax. A court case is also
pending which could result in a
decision opening the door to the
same ultimate effect.
But there is no assurance that
either of these possible benefits
will materialize. Nor is it certain
that they would adequately solve
the problem. In the meantime, the
duration of bus service in many
cities rests on hope and shrink-
ing fare boxes.
* * *
THINGS were not always such.
During World War II, with high,
centralized industrial employ-
ment, gasoline rationing and a
frozen automobile supply, the de-
mand for bus service attained a
since unequalled level. Nearly ev-
ery schedule met at all hours
what would today be considered
But after the war, the automo-
bile-starved public shifted its al-
legiance to the reactivated auto-
motive market and likewise ex-
panded that to unprecedented
heights. A decline in bus patron-
age was inevitable.
No longer would people be
forced to stand ina jammed, stif-
ling bus, push their way to doors
when they reached their stop, or
ride on to the next one if they
couldn't get to !the buzzer cord in
time. There would be no more
standing in the rain and watch-
ing an over-crowded coach shoot
by without stopping. People now
had cars! The bus boom was over.
* * *
AND SO BEGAN the disastrous
trend to dwindling passenger
revenue and increasing costs.
In the decade following the war,
bus traffic declined by 40 per cent
across the nation. In Saginaw,
one of Michigan's typical "prob-
lem cases," patronage has dropped
74 per cent since 1945.
Looking at the situation from
another angle, we find that op-
erating expenses in the bus in--
dustry have doubled pre-war fig-
ures, while revenues have risen a
mere eight per cent.
In an effort to absorb their
losses, the companies at first
turned to using fewer but larger
buses. They hoped in this way to
cut down on the number of main-
tenance and driver employes,
whose wages claim up to 60 per
cent of the cost dollar.
When this proved insufficient,
they were forced to begin curtail-
ing service and increasing fares.
However, all such changes have
to be approved by the respective
city boards or councils,'"or, in the
case of those companies which
supply inter-city service, by the
state public 'service commissions.
Bus companies are subjected to
this control because they are
granted a franchise and assured
monopoly over the areas they
serve which makes them publid
Responding to indignant piublic
opinion, these govelnmental agen-
cies have generally been slow to
approve the desired measures, ex-
cept in "no-alternative" emer-
gencies. Unfortunately the "pub-
lic" who expresses its displeasure
with fare increases and re-sched
uling has not been so energetic in
expressing a stable demand for
bus rides, and revenues have con-
tinued to plummet.
* * *
IN DESPERATION, some oper-
ators have been dipping into de-
preciation funds and buses which
should be replaced are often con-
tinued in service. As a result,
maintenance costs have inflated
and run down-equipment has
discouraged even more^ riders.
Demonstrating the Inadequacy'
of these moves is the fact that
currently about 100 bus lines per
year are going out of business.
In the fight to stay above
water, the survivors began turn*
ing to the cities and states them-
selves for direct aid, and the ab-
solute emergency of the situation
has evoked some response. Ac-
cording to a United States Cham-
her of Commerce publication, 12
states and 18 cities took action in
1957 to provide some measure of
aid to the stricken industry
through tax relief.
Even the branches of the Na.
tional City Lines, a corporation
controlling approximately 40 city
bus lines across the country, have
found it necessary to resort to
this solution in many instances
in December, 1956, their subs--
diary operation in Jackson en-
tered into what has become, for
Michigan, a very crucial agree-
ment with that city.
A Pause Before We Leap
FROM A VIGOROUS and healthy public par-
ticipation program at Wednesday's Ann
Arbor Board of Education meeting flew a
familiar Fourth of July display, brilliantly pro-
claiming the necessity of more science and
languages in America's public schools. At"once
many were caught up an a flash of patriotic
fervor. We must stay ahead of the Russians!
They are studying English in the fourth grade!
We must study Russian in the third! We must
have more science courses! Throw out home
economics ' and industrial arts - give us
science, math and foreign-languages!
But into the meeting stole a paler but more
penetrating shaft of light-that of the Ameri-
can culture which eventually absorbs all such
blinding displays of idealism and reform, grow-
ing a little bit brighter itself with each of
Whether we like it or not, any bright de-
partures from what in reality IS America must
of necessity return to the whole. The attraction
is too strong. No light can shine brighter than
the sun for very long. Even the gaseous, match-
less off-shoots always return as part of the
Thus, American education cannot glow more
brightly than the culture which fosters it-a
culture which is not yet ready to give up home
economics and industrial arts, or concern itself
exclusively with guided missiles and the langu-
ages of other cultures.
More power to those fervent outbursts for
science or math or prohibition or rock and
roll, as long as they are contributory to the
whole. But let them remain contributory. Must
we try to force something on ourselves all at
once which has to be assimilated gradually?
Indeed, do we want a culture whose light is.
only that of the flaming exhaust of a rocket
We'd prefer to stay in the consistently and
more naturally rising glow of the culture. that
IN THEIR last session with ex-
Commissioner Richard Mack,
the Harris Committee was about
as gentle with him as the Senate
Interstate Commerce Committee,
which confirmed him in the first
place. They virtually kissed him
on both cheeks, did not bother to
cross-examine him on various in-
teresting points, including how he
happened to have Thurman
Whiteside's law associate, - Earl
Barber, planted right inside his
Whiteside not only paid Com-
missioner Mack various sums of
money, but sent Barber upto
Washington to serve as Mack's
assistant. Thus Whiteside had a
double check on Mack.
Barber in turn used $200 of the
taxpayers'money to phone a bar
girl in Miami, Joyce Cook. Barber
placed the calls from the FCC to
a phone booth alongside the bar
where Miss Joyce worked -- paid
for by Uncle Sam.
The Harris Committee didn't
bother to go into any of this.
* * *
GETTING the country out of
an economic recession can be
pretty nerve-racking, President
Eisenhower told congressional Re-
publican leaders the other day,
particularly when the White
House is beset with as many cura.-
tives as are currently under study.
"I'm being pulled from all
sides," reported the President.
Some of his advisers, he said,
think an accelerated public works
program will be sufficient to lift
us out of the ri1t, while others, in-
cluding Vice-President Nixon,
think a tax cut is essential. In
addition, Ike said, there is the
question of what public works -
reclamation, public housing, post
offices ,roadbuilding and so on-
are best suited to the recovery
"As far as I am concerned, the
primary aim is providing jobs,"
the President declared. "Not just
spending a lot of money, but
spending it in a way that will get
as many unemployed back to work
at useful occupations as soon as
possible, preferably within the
next three months."
"WELL, NOTHING puts people
back to work like building houses,
Mr. President," suggested Sen.
Homer Capehart of Indiana. "We
can do this as fast as we want
to. If it now takes an average of
four men to build a house in a
year, why not build it in six
months with eight men? If we
build a million new houses this
year, it will mean a million new
heating units, more furniture
making, plumbing and .other re-
lated activities, in addition to the
work provided for carpenters,
bricklayers and electricians."
Capehart maintained that one
reason for the lag in housing was
the refusal of bankers and build-
ing and loan groups to carry
mortgages on veterans' (GI)
homes at four and one-half per
cent interest. If the GI interest
rate was closer to the FHA loan
rate of five and one-quarter per
cent, it would greatly stimulate
The President said he agreed,
but that Capehart might have
difficulty getting the interest hike
through the Democratic-con-
trolledCongress. He added that
he was having some difficulty
himself trying to expedite the
super-highway program, which
has been delayed by differences
over the purchmse of rights-of-
way through various cities.
Real estate tracts needed for
the highway rights-of-way are
purchased by state governments
and the latter are not greatly
concerned in keeping down the
cost, Ike pointed out, as long as
the Federal Government foots 90
per cent of the bill.
"SOMETHING will have to be
done about this," he remarked
testily. "I don't want the high-
way program tied up by a lot of
costly real estate deals. We've got
to speed up these road-construc-
tion projects if we are going to
realize some real employment
benefits from the program in the
next few months."
The President said he would not
oppose a tax cut if all other re-
cession remedies proved inade-
quate. However, he said he was
inclined to agree with Sen. Ed
Martin (Pa.) and some others at
the conference that the effects of
a tax reduction might not be felt
soon enough to materially relieve
(Copyright 1958 by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN.
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
The Non-Western World
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
C IVIL WAR in Indonesia emphasizes one of
the most difficult problems of the 20th cen-
How do you meet the demands for indepen-
dence by politically inexperienged peoples in a
world where the major powers are struggling
Military operations against the rebels in
Sumatra serve merely to climax what has been
going on in Indonesia for years, with repeated
challenges of Central government authority.
President Sukarno, after a visit to the United
States, returned home almost lyrical about
what he had learned.
BUT AFTER a visit to Russia he decided that
only the rich could afford American insti-
tutions; that underdeveloped Russia had pio-
neered the course for the poor. Proponents
of democracy were aroused.
Rebellion spread from the less important
outlying area to important production centers.
The world woke up when a rebel government
was proclaimed on Sumatra, long known to
the West because of its commercial importance.
Indonesia was a vast conglomeration of
islands around Java, the terribly overpopulated
center. The only cohesive there had been Dutch
rule. The only new cohesive was anticolonialism.
This new cohesive was carried to the point
where the political leaders cut themselves off
from Americarl and other well-wishing aid.
NOW THE SO-CALLED nation is coming
Elsewhere among the new countries there is
Pakistan is saying that she must have more
Western help or else take it from Russia.
First elections in the Sudan nroduced no
Burma has been in constant turmoil.
The wave of independence without regard for
stability is sweeping across Africa.
There is no need to say that, given time
and peace, these people will work out their
problems, unless you mean an indefinitely long
time. Latin America, which led the anticolonial-
ist movement is a case in point.
Struggling peoples have little chance as long
as the great powers are fighting over them.
Air Force Trial
THE AIR FORCE refusal to reverse the 33-
year-old verdict against Brig. Gen. Billy
Mitchell must have been one of the most
difficult decisions that service has been called
upon to make.
Billy Mitchell was convicted of insubordina-
tion by an Army court martial in 1925 for
carrying his plea for air power over the heads
of his superiors, despite their orders to the
contrary. That verdict was upheld Monday by
Air Force Secretary James H. Douglas after
Gen. Mitchell's son attempted to have it nulli-
The irony of this situation undoubtedly did
not escape Air Force leaders-the fact that
Mitchell's original court-martial was perforce
handled by the Army. For there was no Air
Force. That was precisely what Mitchell was
trying to create.
However Sec. Douglas' decision, difficult
though it may have been, was absolutely neces-
sary. For although few today will dispute the
wisdom of Billy Mitchell's predictions, that was
not then and is not now the basis for his
LETTERS TO THE, EDITOR:
Guarding Our Freedom
RedF ights *
To the Editors
MR. MANNING'S letter in The
Daily of March 11 raises a
number of points of great interest.
I do not think that his interpre-
tation of the origins of govern-
ment, as a voluntary contract
among absolutely independent in-
dividuals, would be acceptable to
modern historians and anthro-
pologists, no matter how it may
have appealed in the days of
Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau.
More probably government grew
out of the family, broadening first
into the clan, and then into the
tribe, and finally into the state.
But this is a minor matter. We
are not so much concerned with
how government arose in the past
as with what it ought to be in the
present. Mr. Manning prefers our
own system to the Russian, as I
do and nearly everyone else in this
country does. But, unless I mistake
his meaning, he thinks that we
must limit and curb the freedoms
which constitute the very essence
of "the American way of life" lest
enemy hands snatch these free-
doms from us altogether.
To a very limited extent he is,
of course, obviously right. We
purpose? Russia forbids those
things to capitalists, and with
reason, for her enslaving govern-
ment is so unstable that it cannot
tolerate either the free vote of
majorities or free criticism of
minorities. But God forbid that
America should ever be in such a
Ever since Milton and Mill, it
has been a truism to all liberal
minds that falsehood is best com-
batted by truth, not by censorship.
Communists in this country have
not the numbers, the wealth, the
intelligence, or the strategic posi-
tion to overturn our institutions.
Any freedom that we allow them
will be a tribute to our strength,
not a sign of our weakness.
I have not space here to enter
on a much more important ques-
tion, but I cannot refrain from a
passing reference to it; the real
harm McCarthy and his ilk did*
was not to the microscopic Com-
munist minority in this country,
but to people who were not Com-
munists at all, but who were false-
ly branded with that label.
Professor of History
Coincidence? . .
He seemed to be the one man
who held the team together and
unlike some of the other players,
never gave up when the going got
rough. No one on the team com-
pared to Burton with defensive
ability. Mr. Burton deserved both
to be this year's most valuable and
next year's captain,
Could it be a coincidence that
this year's most valuable and next
year's captain, along with three
other members of this year's var-
sity team, are members of the
same fraternity? Mr. Burton is not
a member of that fraternity.
--John R. Kazmierowski, '60SM
Counseling . .
To Mr. Barton Huthwaite:
WISH to thank you for your
informative and balanced edi-
torial on "Passing the Counsel-
ing." While I recognize--as no
doubt you do-that the counseling
program has its serious shortcom-
ings, I think your editorial did
well to stress students' responsi-
bility for finding their own an-
swers to some of the tougher
questions dealing with their col-
I have often remarked, for ex-
ample, on the failure of most
The Daily official Bulletin is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan for which the
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SATURDAY, MARCH 15, 1958
VOL. LXVIII, NO 118
Honor Residents, General Informa-
tion meeting, Thurs., March 13, 3:00-
5:00 p.m. Michigan League, Hussey
Book Sale: To University. students
and staff, 7000 second-hand books in
the General Library, former Basement
Study Hall. Mon. and Tues., March 17
and 18, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 15 cents
Architecture and Design students
may not drop courses without record
after 5:00 p.m. Wed,, March 19."
Architecture and Design students
who have incompletes incurred during
the fall semester, must remove them by
Wed., March 19."
Dr. George Stoddard, Dean, School of
Education, New York University, will
meet with the Interdepartmental Sem-
inar on College Teaching on Mon.,
March 17, lecturing on "Choice Points
in the Educational Experience," 4:00
p.m., Aud. C, Angell Hall. This is the
third of a series of four meetings. Meet-
ings are open to teaching felows and
faculty of the University.
Student Recital: Jack Seidler, who
studies percussion with James Salmon,
will present a recital at 8:30 p.m.,
Sat., March 15, in Aud. A, Angell Hail,
in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Bachelor of
Music. The program will include com-
positions by Chapi - Green, resler,
Noak, Smetana-Salmon, Dinicu-Heifetz,
Representatives from the following
will be interviewing at the Bureau of
Monday, March 17
New York Central Railroad, Detroit,
Mich. - Men with B.A. or MA., in
Economics for Economists.
International 'Business Machines,
Dearborn, Mich. - Men with B.A. in
Liberal Arts for Sales in the Data Pro-
cessing Division or Systems Analysts
In the same Div. Men withiM.A. or M.A.
in Mathematics for Applied Science-,
Division. Women with B.A. in Liberal
Arts or Education for Systems Repre-
sentatives, Programming, and Instruct-
ing. Women with M.A. or M.S. in
Mathempatics for Applied Science work.
Benton & Bowles, Inc., N. Y. City -
Men with B.A. or B.S. In Liberal Arts
for Store Audit Trainee (Military vet-
eran or exempt and single.) Men with
M.B.A. for Management Trainee. (Mili-
tary veteran or permanent exempt sta-
Tues., March 18
Benton & Bowles, Inca - See Mon
day's listing. /
The Proctor & Gamble Company,.
Male Employment Office, Cincinnati,
Ohio - Men with B.A. or M.A.,in Lib-
eral Arts, B.B.A. or M.B.A. for Field
Supervisor in Market Research Depart-
ment. Must be single. Men with B.A.
or M.A. in Liberal Arts, B.B.A. or M.B.A.
for Trainee Assistant to the Office
Manager. Completion of Military Serv-
ice is required.
Northern Trust Company, Chicago,
Ill. Location of work -- Chicago, ll.
Men with B.A. or M.A In Liberal Arts,
B.B.A. or M.B.A., L.L.B. or Students,
with 1 or 2 years of Law for Commer-
cial Banking, Investment Portfolio
Management, Trust Administration,
Market Research and Development,
Bond Merchandising, Administration.
No formal training program but on-
Boy Scouts of America, Chicago, Dl,
-Men with B.A. in Liberal Arts for
Field Scout Executive.
Wed., March 19
Boy Scouts of America - See Tes-
American Airlines, Chicago, Isl. -
Women with B.A. in Liberal Arts or any
degree, even just two years of college
training for Stewardesses. Qualifica-
tions Include: Single; Between the ages