it HE MICHIGAN DAILY
SATURDAY. FEBRUARY 19. 1997
THE MICHIGAN DAILY ~ATTTUnAV 1~U~'RRTTA1~V IA I~Y
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World Attempts 'Political Pro
As PreventativeAgainst At
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the sec-
ond in a series of nine articles con-
cerning the atom, atomic energy, its
utilization and the scientists who
contributed to the advancementof
the atomic age.)
which could save life in the event
of an atomic attack-some wild
and improbable-some ridiculous.
Scientists and military men had
said bomb shelters would be of
By GERALD LUNDY practically no use. This was no
Year I of the Atomic Age had orthodox bomb that man had on
its explosive beginnings with the his hand.
surprise atomic attack on the Some suggested that the larger
Japanese cities of Hiroshima and population centers be dispersed in
Nagasaki in August, 1945. the event of some attack.
One crisis-the most desructive As a means of protection one
war in world history-was brought department of the army had sug-
to a sudden end. gested the possibility of "going
But then the same instrument underground" in the event of a
that spelled the doom of the sec- third world war and placing key
and world war, the tool that put factories in natural caves as a
man into a new area, threatened measure of protection against the
the very existence of civilization. A-bomb.
To Prevent a War 'Soften Bomb Effects'
And so the world's nations found Some supported the idea of
themselves forced to find some creating "Linear" or "ribbon" cities
means of protecting themselves to somewhat soften the effects
from or preventing a third world of an atom blast.
war which, if it came, would prob- Some people had even concluded
ably involve the use of atom that old defense measures could
weapons more powerful than those still be used, only more effectively.
of the last world war. The military contended that such
People everywhere devised plans would not be so. "In the case of
UNION THEATER TRIP
Tuesday, February ']9th
Tickets $3.00 (Transportation
to Detroit included)
ts on Sale
T OFFICES 2-5 P.M.
If you are going to have time on your hands during
the next few months you can earn $1.00 an hour for
some of those hours. A large number of people will
be needed to take part in a variety of Behavioral
Science Experiments involving different amounts of
time, from single one- and two-hour sessions to ses-
sions repeated over longer periods. These experiments
will involve no discomfort and require no special abil-
ities. Anyone can sign up. Individuals who have
signed up previously are welcome. All you have to
do is fill in a schedule of the hours you will be avail-
able and you will be contacted for appointment.
Schedules can be filled out at the University Person-
nel Office, Room 3012. Mention this ad at reception
desk or call NO 3-1531, Ext. 387.
an aggressive action by an enemy
nation with atomic weapons, people
can be sure that only a fraction of
those planes detected by radar
and air observers will be stopped.
When and if the air attack comes
it won't be with a single plane as
Need Political Protection I
The need, therefore, was more
for "political" protection because
of lack of any other kind. I
At this time the United States,
Canada, and England were the
only nation possessing bombs.
atomic secrets-the U.S. being the
only nations in possession of the
U.S. Creates Authority
And, the U.S. was the first
a war effort."
we did at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
but hundreds of them that could
cripple this or any other nation in
nation to create a political author-
ity to control the use of atomic
energy within its borders.
1946-Atomic Energy Act
International control of atomic
energy was helped with the crea-
tion of the U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission under the Atomic
Energy Act of 1946.
Under this act a five man com-
mission was to be appointed by
the President with the consent of
the Senate to regulate and- govern
the use of atomic energy in the
Under the pressure of public
opinion the act stressed that these
men be from civilian life rather
than the military as some politi-
A Trend Toward War
People suspected that if the
commission contained all military
men, all atomic developments
would be toward wartime uses.
Such actions were considered in-
jurious to this nation on the
But still politicians recognized
military advice would necessary in
the successful operation of such a
Thusthe Atomic Energy Act
stressed that the new commission
be given a military laison com-
mittee to inform it "of military
atomic research" which would be
to regulate development of atomic
There also is a General Advisory
Committee composed of scientists
which "advises the commission on
Basically, this means by which
the Commission is able to control
atomic energy is "government
Believing that atomic energy
belongs to the nation, the govern-
ment maintains a constant and
rigid atomic energy moponoly.
Itdmonopolizesall atomic patents
and investigations, and all hui-
nesses and industries which use
atom devices must obtain a license1
from the commission.
In addition the Commission was
directed to establish a contnuous
program of atomic energy research.
Thus all directives and powers of
the AEC work in two directions-
toward the public good and gov-
ernment monopoly of atomic en-
But even now the work is only
half done in the struggle for inter-
national control of atomic energy.
In Year III of the atom age the
people wondered what steps other
nations would take in the event
that they unravel the atom secrets.
For International Control
For an effective international
control some advocated that the
U.S. stockpile A-bombs to secure
peace in the world. This, they
thought, would keep the balance
of military atomic power in the
hands of America. The number of
bombs would be the deciding fac-
tor, they thought.
On this Einstein wisely com-
mented, "I do not believe that we
can prepare for war and at the
WUE RT H
The Tom-Tom Beat.. . the
same time prepare for a world
T h e r e were some, Einstein
among them, who maintained that
a world government was essential
for international control of the
Not in World Government
Many others held this to be a
good idea but one which could not
succeed. They supported their ar-
guments saying that nationalistic
feelings would not permit this-
and then there would be the con-
bict between governmental princi-
ples such as those of democracy
World governments, realizing
that atomic energy control on an
international basis lay not in world
government; nor in arms races,
nor fear of the bombs' effects,
turned to the United Nations.
At the instigation of the U.S.,
Britain, and Canada, later joined
by Russia, China and France, an
atomic energy commission similar
to that of the U.S. was established
in the UN to develop a plan for the
international control of atomic
Soviet Bloc Hampered
However, in the early stages of
planning for an effective interna-
tional control, the commission was
continually hampered by the
And now in Year XII of the
Atomic Age the world has not Yet
reached an accepted program for
the control of atom energy on a
However it would be erring to
say that no progress has been
made in the various meetings with
other world powers.
Many meetings and conferences
have shown that the world wants
atomic energy used as it should
be-for the benefit and advance-
ment of man.
In six months the Alumni As-
sociation's student governor plan
has evolved from an idea into an
active group with growing inter-
"Student governors" were or-
ganized to help connect regional
University Alumni clubs with stu-
dents in Ann Arbor. Though still
not completely realized, the Asso-
ciation's wish is to have each local
club represented by two students
Students who are interested in
the plan may appear before a
screening committee at 10 a.m.
on Saturday, Feb. 16.
The screening committee is es-
pecially interested in interviewing
women from Birmingham; De-
troit; Elmira, N.Y.;Long Island,
N.Y.; Mansfield, Ohio; Milwau-
kee, Wis.; New Haven, Conn.;
Philadelphia, Pa.; Pontiac; Roch-
ester, N.Y.; Saginaw; San Fran-
cisco, Calif.; and the Seattle area.
It is also loking for men from
Chicago, Ill.; Grand Rapids;
Louisville, Ky.; Menominee; New
Jersey; and Phliadelphia, Pa.
Upperclassmen are preferred,
but others will be considered.
At the last student governors
meeting, a policy committee was
formed to consider the problems
and goals of the group.
It was also decided to contact
the foreign University clubs about
Leith Found Guilty
Thomas C. Leith, '60, was found
guilty of forgery recently in Ann
Arbor Municipal Court.
He was sentenced to five years
of probation, given a $75 fine with
$100 costs and ordered to pay $15
retribution to University Hospital.
By DIANE FRASER
Beneath the busy classrooms of
Mason Hall in a small laboratory
filled with aquariums, the minute
flatworm planarian is learning to
I respond to various stimuli, accord-
ing to James V. McConnell, of the
Anyone who has taken Zoology
1 is familiar with this transparent
animal, less than an inch in
length, with the remarkable ability
of regeneration. McConnell, as-
sisted by Don Kimball, Grad, and
Al Jacobson, '57, has shown that
the planarian also posses the abil-
ity to learn.
"The planarian is the simplest
animal to posses the same type of
nervous system as higher animals,
the synaptic nervous system," Mc-
Connell began. "By studying the
planarian, we hope to learn more
about the nervous system which
might apply to more complex ani-
mals such as humans."
Initial work on planaria was
done by McConnell and a colleague
at the University of Texas in 1955.
After receiving his Ph.D. in Psy-
chology from the University of
Texas in 1956, McConnell came to
the University this fall and again
began work on planaria.
Contracts to Light
The study is based on the as-
umption that "if this type of ner-
vous system is necessary for any
true learned behavior to occur,
this organism should be the lowest
species to demonstrate such be-
havior," the psychology instructor
explained as he opened the door
to the small basement lab.
"The planarian is first given
two seconds of light and then one
second of light and shock; he con-
tracts to this shock. As learning
takes place, this contraction moves
forward in time as he responds to
the stimuli of the light alone."
150 Trials Needed
The experimentor said that it
takes approximately 150 trials to
condition an animal. The criterian
for learning is to make the cor-
rect response, a contraction to 23
out of 25 trials.
These "educated" planaria are
then cut in half and each section
allowed to regenerate or grow into
a complete planarian. McConnell
then tests these regenerated ani-
mals to see if they have retained
the previous learning.
"If cut in half, both sections of
the planarian remember the con-
ditioned response which is incred-
ible," McConnell observed. "You
presume that learning takes place
in the brain yet when the 'tail'
section grows a new brain, the
new brain remembers what the old
Change In System?
McConnell believes that this
could indicate that learning oc-
curs not only in the brain but as
a change in the entire nervous
system. "To stretch a point, this
could be applied to learning to
drive an automobile, the learned
reaction is not just a brain change
but traces of learning are found in
the whole nervous system of the
body," he said.
"The first control in our expei-
ment is to see if learning is equally
retained by the regenerated and
the original planarian," McCon-
nell explained. "The second con-
trol is to cut unconditioned ani-
mals and to control for any effect
fromthe cutting on their learning
"If it takes the usual 150 trials
for these unconditioned, regener-
ated animals to learn, we know
that the cutting alone makes no
difference in their responding to
the light," he continued. "This is
the part of the experiment we are
now working on."
Figure 5 average words to a line.
Classified deadline, 3 P.M. dily.
11:00 A.M. Saturday
Phone NO 2-3241
MICHIGANENSIAN needs photogra-
phers! Good pay, good working con-
ditions. Supplies furnished, your own
equipment is not needed. Inquire at
420 Maynard or call Glenn Kopp, NO
2-4401, 113 Lloyd House or Ensian
Edit office, NO 2-3241. ) H89
WANTED-Cab drivers, full or part-
time. Apply 113 S. Ashley. Ann Arbor
Yellow and Checker Cab Company.
Phone NO 8-9382. )H20
WANTED: Camp counsellors for eight
week YWCA summer camp. Open-
ings on waterfront, camp craft, and
recreational areas. Located25 miles
from Ann Arbor Contact YWCA
Mrs. Gross. NO 2-2581. )H87
2 ROOM SUITE for 2 with piano, kitch-
en and laundry privileges-near cam-
pus. NO 2-7990. )C78
BRAND NEW 3 man apt. Electric
kitchen, disposal, air cond. $28. NO 5-
SIX ROOM unfurnished house located
in Dexter available for immediate oc-
cupancy. To apply you must have a
full timeracademic appointment.
Contact Mr. Mehuish, 1056 Adm.
Bldg. or phone NO 3-1511, Ext. 3311.
WANTED: I male student to share
basement apartment with two. Across
street from campus. NO 2-0981. )C76
TWO ROOM SUITE for two male stu-
dents. Sleeping porch and study
room. $7 each per week. 1227 So.
State. NO 3-1650. )C67
ONE MAN to share 4-rm. apt. with
two others. NO 3-6311. )C75
TWO-ROOM furnished apartment. Pri-
vate bath; couple preferred; $85 per
month. NO 2-0342. Call after 5. )C71
EXPERT FOREIGN and Sports Car
Service. Nye Motor Sales, Inc., 514
E. Washington, NO 3-4858. )J19
TYPEWRITER REPAIR & service, pick-
up and delivery. Moseley Typewriter
Service. 204 N. 4th Ave. NO 35888.
RE-WEAVING-Burns, tears, moth holes
re-woven. Let us save your clothes.
Weave-Bac Shop, 224 Nickels Arcade.
WASHING AND IRONINGS done in my
home. Reasonable price. Free deliv-
ery. Phone NO 5-2376. )J49
TEACHER of singing and speaking.
Mrs. Kenneth N. Westerman, NO 8-
CHILD DAY CARE - Licensed home.
Northwest location. References. Call
NO 2-0410. )J46
Buy your typewriter
Rent your typewriter
'And have your typewriter repaired
At a typewriter store.
314 South State NO 3-2481
FASHION Illustration and layout.
Small group Instruction by Profes-
sional fashion illustrator and art di-
rector. Call NO 2-2683. )J48
WASHINGS-Also ironing separately.
Specialize in cotton blouses and
washed skirts. Free pick up and deli-
very. Phone NO 2-9020. )J23
BUTTS & SWISHER CO.
FOR ANN ARBOR WOODS
(Washtenaw at Stadium)
Models Open Daily 10-8
Phone NO 3-0800 )R-
HI F ISTUDIO
Specials on new and used:
Short wave radios
Short wave communications receivers
Table model Hi Fi phonographs
1217 & 1317 So. University
NO 2-9595 )B225
MEN'S ENGLISH BIKE, good condi-
ti6n, $30. 607 E. Ann, Apt. 1. )B224
BALDW I N PIANOS
Used spinets and uprights
508 E. William
NO 3-3223 )B210
wool throw rugs - assorted colors
27x18-$1.00 and 27x54-$3.95
While they last
SMITH'S FLOOR COVERING
207 E Washington
Open Monday evening until 8:30
HI-FI SYSTEM includes changer, Amp.
Spkr. ste. Call Hillman after 6 P.M.
NO 3-8508. )B
33 PT. RIVER diamond ring for 70%
of value. References. R. E. Taylor,
120 N. Ingalls. )B216
CAMERA SPECIAL-Argus C-3 Camera,
with case and flash, Reg. $69.50, Now
$49.95. Complete line Photographic
supplies, cameras, etc. Purchase from
PURCHASE Camera Shop, 1116BS.
University. Phone NO 8-6972. )B219
WASHINGTON & LINCOLN
Helped lead to good government,
good way of life. Let us help you
celebrate with our special cakes
CAMPBELL & SON BAKERY
219 N. Main
Call NO 8-9880 )B211
DIAMOND RINGS-Complete selection
of wedding rings, bands, birth stone
rings and men's diamond rings. 55%
off. Direct from factory. We can not
be beat. Written guarantee. Money
refunded if not satisfied. At NO 2-
* Bozak 0 Garrard Fairchild
" Electro-voice * Connoisseur
" Fisher 0 Rek-O-Kut * AR-1
Hours: Mon - Fri.: Noon - 8 P.M.
Sat.: 9 - 1
Audio Supply Lab. showrooms
334 Nickels Arcade.
(above Bay's Jewelry)
NO 2-7767 NO 2-9425
MONKEYS $35 ea.
Tropical fish, ragmop guinea pigs,
hamsters, parakeets, baby turtles,
aquariums and supplies.
328 E. Liberty NO 3-0224
Open daily except Thursday
ARMY-NAVY type Oxfords - $7.25;
socks, 39c; shorts, 69c; military sup-
USED CAR SPECIALS
1954tChevroletrgordor; radio and
heater, powerglide, exceptionally
1949 Ford; 1 owner, tudor, black,
radio and heater. $175.
1953 Dodge V8, tudor, blue, a ar
well worth $200 more. Our price
JIM WHITE Inc.
Your Chevrolet Dealer
Open 'ti 9 P.M. Daily, Sat. 'til 1 P.M.
2 Big Lots-Cor. Washington and First
Sts, and 'Cor. Ashley and Liberty Sts.
Phones NO 2-5000, NO 3-6495, NO 3-3321
4-DR. Blue Plymouth Sedan, 1951. Ex-
cellent condition. Phone NO 3-6295.
1949 PLYMOUTH Fordoor sedan, $100.
It Goes! . .. NO 2-8653. )N91
CAR SERVICE, ACCESSORIES
Big trade-in for used tires
601 Packard - NO 8-9429
For the Best in
Tires, Batteries, and Service
So. University & Forest
WANTED TO RENT
LOOKING FOR a male grad student
to share room with cooking privi-
leges, half block from campus, 417
E. Liberty. )L11
HOW CAN THEY give away magaznes
at such low rates (Time-6c) when
the paper and the postage and your
commission cost so much? Our an-
swer: they lose money on each stu-
dent subscription but treat it as a
special promotion. Conclusion: order
now subscriptions to Time, Life, etc.
now. Student Periodical, NO 2-3061.
Tailoring, restyling. Will do fitting in
your home or mine. Experienced,
minimum charges. NO 5-6370.
Pick-up and Delivery
Mending - Alterations. Phone NO 2-
9541 . )F137
NEW LOCATION-MARGARET SHOP
has moved. Uniforms and furs up to
50% off. Restyling. 516 E. Liberty,
NO 5-5729. )F139
ROOMMATE WANTED to share mod-
ern, furnished 3-room apartment
with two girls. Close to campus. NO
CONVERT your double-breasted suit to
a new single-breasted model. $15.
Double-breasted, $18. or new sik
shawl collar, $25. Write to Michaels
Tailoring Co., 1425 Broadway, Detroit,
Michigan, for free details or phone
Woodward 3-5776. )F1
ROOMS FOR RENT
LARGE front room. Linens and shower.
1107 Prospect, NO 2-1981. )D55
ONE BLOCK from campus. Large 2.
room apartment. Also one man to
share apartment with three, same
location. Phone NO 2-1443. )C74
SINGLE ROOM for male student. One
block from Law School. 808 Oakland.
NO 2-2858. )D44
PLEASANT ROOMS near campus for
male students. Considerate landlord!
Call NO 8-7683. )D53
GOOD campus location. Double rooms.
Neat and comfortable. Save money,
$5.50 per week. Phone NO 8-6205 or
NO 2-0035. )D49
ROOMS for 1 or 2 men in large, clean,
2 room suite close to campus. Call
NO 2-5180 or NO 3-0885. )D47
TWO LARGE double rooms for men
students. $7. 406 Packard across from
South Quad. Call NO 3-4096. )D54
LARGE, clean 2 room suite for working
girls or women students. Call NO 3-
WANTED TO BUY
AIR FORCE blue blouse and Trousers,
med. size-will alter. Can use several
outfits. Phone NO 8-7331. If no
answer, Phone NO 3-8009. )K7
Today 7:00 and 9:00
Sunday at 8:00 Only
"FOR ME AND MY GAL"
JUDY GARLAND GENE KELLY
Architecture Auditorium 50c
122 East Washington
ROOM AND BOARD
Ann Arbor Civic Theater
with DIANA MARCUS
Directed by TED HEUSEL
February 21, 22, 23
INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF MUSIC
DIAL NO 2-3136
TONIGHT 11 P.M.
BOARDERS WANTED - good food.
Near campus, reasonable rates. Call
Bob Fisk, NO 2-8312. )E17
N E L SO N INTERNATIONAL HOUSE
(near campus). Room and Board,
$345 per semester, enjoy international
dishes and company. Practice inter-
national co-operation, two vacancies,
males only. call Personnel Chairman,
NO 3-8506. )E16
BORDERS WANTED - Tappan Inter-
national House, NO 5-5703. )E13
TWO SPACES for graduate girls avail-
iable at Tappan International House,
Room and board. 724 Tappan or call
NO 5-5703. )E12
MEALS for women at Medical Sorority
House. Half block from League.
Lunch 60c. Dinner $1.00. Brkfst. 40c.
All the coffee you can drink. 119
Park Terrace. NO 2-1017. )E15
BOARDERS WANTED - Good food,
reasonable rates. Call Brad Barr, NO
LOST AND FOUND
LOST: Working mechanism to ULYSSE
NARDIN watch on 2/8. Please con-
tact NO 3-8508. Reward offered.
Maury Gralnek. )A89
SHOWING FROM 1:30
A Motion Picture For Anyonel
Who Has Ever Loved J
clifford odet's broadway and
A lonely boy.. . a lonely dog!
"GOODBYE MY LADY"
ann arbor's professional arena theatre
masonic temple 327 s. 4th ave.
First Show Today 12:45
Dial NO 2-2513
Even funnierha the
The Teahouse :;.
THE HILLEL PLAYERS
Tfl' VtblTT f u1 ,_E L* Sf ,1 'm .
CLUE NO. 6
Ee gsg msnt
' m ,