EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Don't Worry, I Don't Think There's Anything In There" U.S. PROPAGANDA:
How Not To Win A llies
And Influence People
By SOL PLAFKIN
~.,w 'Daily Staff Writer
"WbeI3 Opinions Are !Free
Trutb Will PrevaklI"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
WEDNESDAY, MAY 15, 1957 NIGHT EDITOR: JOHN WEICHER
SGC Has Requisites
To Sponsor Forum
THE LECTURE given here yesterday by John UNIVERSITY LECTURES, sponsored by the
Fischer, editor of Harpers Magazine, was academic departments of the University, are
symptomatic of the state to which controversial often technical, designed for a very limited
discussions have fallen on this campus. audience, and restricted in scope by the desire
.h s.i. n s .c for neutrality and academic needs of the
Fischer is an incisive, often caustic critic of department. The Fischer lecture is a case in
the American scene, and his articles in Harpersd
have occasionally created nationwide furors. point.
Yet when he spoke here yesterday under the Political clubs are another forum on which
Yet henhe pokeher yeterdy uderthe outside speakers might discuss controversial
auspices of the journalism department he gave ius or peent m e is. Ther ae
a routine description of the types of magazines ses or present extreme views. There are
in circlatio today several obstacles to their doing so, however. One
in ciruion tday. is financial. Political clubs are notoriously
The Fischer lecture undoubtedly did what it poor, and have hardly the finances to carry
set out to do-inform students of journalism on their regular activities, let alone pay outside
about the nature of one segment of the indus- speakers. They have been generally limited,
try. But it illustrated the sad fact that even then, to regular party representatives and
when potentially "hot" speakers are invited members of socially-acceptable pressure groups.
to the campus, there is no forum for them to It would be politically and/or financiallyj
enliven the intellectual atmosphere or challenge suicidal for one of the political clubs to sponsor
the thinking of University students. controversial speakers. If it sponsored just one,
the club would be characterized for years with
HE CRITICISM is not of Fischer, but of the stigma of the particular extremist it
the existing system of forums which allows presented. And to sponsor more than one, to
little room for the expression of controversial attempt a balanced presentation, would be
or extremist thought. For that matter, with the even more outside the financial abilities of such
exception of the annual Honors Convocation, agroup.
there is no forum for the discussion of questions W HAT IS NEEDED is a forum sponsored by a
of educational philosophy, policy or directions, student group, which would not be granting
and even the Convocation lspeaker does not the seal of approval of the University by spon-
always discuss educational problems. soring a speaker, but a student group which
These two gaps-educational problems and could enter the area with some position of
controversial issues-are understandable if one neutrality and maintain that neutrality by
examines the existing forums on campus. The sponsoring a balanced program of speakers on
Lecture Series brings the biggest names among controversial religious, political and academic
outside speakers to the campus, but often they issues, and also on questions of educational
are people who are in too responsible a position policy.
to discuss issues, people who have prepared Student Government Council alone has the
superficial speeches for delivery to every kind financial resources, the manpower, and the
of audience in the country and have not neutral position to sponsor such a forum. By
bothered to revise them for the University doing so it could contribute much to the
audience, or people just not in a position to intellectual climate of the University.
discuss anything current or controversial. -PETER ECKSTEIN
'Rise from Misery'
H AVE YOU EVER dreamt of buying a motel? No?, Well, then you
couldn't qualify very easily as an average American, according to
a new film documentary which the United States Information Agency
is sending abroad in 38 languages.
The Detroit News reports the selection from the Detroit area of
ma y . ..w y pi ' i.
W tg$'/ T*Q- W A SI6oA6-F- -) rOIST wr .
business Battles Over Missilesr
By DREW PEARSON
"Across all continents nearly a billion people
seek, sometimes almost in desperation, for the
skills and knowledge and assistance bay which they
may satisfy from their own resources the material
needs common to all mankind . . . We must use
our skills and knowledge, 'and at times, our
substance, to help others rise from nisery, how-
ever far the scene of suffering may be from our
shores. For wherever in the world a people knows
desperate want, there must appear at least the
spark of hope, the hope of progress-or there will
rise at last the flames of conflict." - 1957
Inaugural Address of President Dwight D. Eisen-
AS PRESIDENT EISENHOWER takes his
case for his foreign aid budget before the
people, the visit of Viet Namese President Ngo
Dinh Diem to the United States points up the
most striking vindication of the foreign policy
promised us by the Administration at the 1957
For President Diem, with American aid, has
succeeded in creating the "spark of hope"
necessary in Viet Nam to allay tlie "flames of
conflict" rightly vowed with alarm by President
The expenditure of approximately 400 million
American dollars a. year since 1954, combined
with the leadership of the Diem government,
has turned a chaotic, communist-infested South
East Asian state into one of our firmest allies in
the Far East. It has created a relatively secure
barrier to further comnunist gains in that area
at a time when communism threatened to
swallow up the remains of French Indochina,
and Thailand and Burma as well.
AMERICAN FOREIGN AID to Viet Nam has
enabledPresident Diem to set up a reliable
internal police force and an army of 150,000
men; it has begun to enable the Viet Namnese
to "satisfy by their own resources the material
needs common to all men." It has, in short,
halted communist expansion in a vitally stra-
tegic area and made what may be a permanent
contribution to peace-and American security--
by creating an ally and giving it the potential
to resist future communist aggression.
What our foreign aid to Viet Nam has saved
us in American lives, by eliminating the need
for direct Korea-like intervention in a situation
that seemed for a time to require it, may never
It is clear, however, perhaps even to the
United States Congress, which loudly applauded
President Diem's references to his country's
anti-communism in his recent address to the
combined session of both House and Senate,
that our aid to Viet Nam has certainly been
VIET NAM IS NOT, of course, the only ex-
ample of the worth of foreign aid programs
undertaken by President Eisenhower and past
administrations, but the visit of the Vietnamese
chief of state certainly underscores an impor-
tant success in this area. It is to be hoped that
President Diem's trip to America will impress
upon Congress the importance of providing the
President with adequate funds to give him a
free hand in conducting the sort of foreign
-policy outlined by him at the beginning of his
IF YOU read the full text of the
Colonel John Nickerson secret
memo on guided missiles you can
easily understand why his court
martial has been postponed and
why he may never be brought to
The Defense Department has
the same kind of a bear by the
tail that Herbert Hoover had
when he ordered the court mar-
tial of General Smedley Butler
of the Marine Corps for criticis-
ing Mussolini. The Butler court
martial would have developed into
a trial of Mussolini and was fi-
Likewise, the court martial of
Colonel Nickerson is certain to de-
velop into a trial of Secretary of
Defense Charlie Wilson and his
former firm, General Motors, to-
gether with Deputy Secretary of
Defense Donald Quarles and his
former firm, Bell Telephone.
* * *
WHAT NICKERSON does, in
effect, is accuse them of favoring
their own companies by putting
guided missile development in the
hands of the Air Force, plus Gen-
eral Motors, Bell Telephone, and
Douglas Aircraft, at the same
time boycotting the Army which
does business with General Mo-
tors' rival, Chrysler.
Colonel Nickerson also argued
that lumping guided missile de-
velopment under the Air Force in
southern California put too many
defense plants in that key area as
a target to Russian bombers. The
army's work near Huntsville, Ala.,
where he is a top executive, he
claimed, was less accessible to
The Nickerson memo, which
came into my hands but was
seized by the Defense Department
when we did them the courtesy of
asking for security guidance, con-
tains these significant passages
regarding the battle of big busi-
ness to control development of
the intermediate range missile -
the Army's Jupiter an4 the Air
* * *
"A.C. SPARKPLUG Division of
General Motors has the inertial
guidance responsibilityfor Thor.
The development of the Jupiter
guidance system is done by ABMA
(Army Ballistic Missile Agency)
at Huntsville. Production of guid-
ance components is by the Ford
Instrument Division of Sperry-
"The Army radio-guidance sys-
tem developed by JP (Jet Propul-
sion Laboratory of Army) is also
superior to that being developed
by the Bell Telephone Labora-
tories for Thor."
There follows some technical
information which I have cen-
sored for fear it might aid a po-
"Discontinuance of the Army
missile" continues the secret
memo, "will result in the concen-
tration of the following programs
in the Bell-Douglas combination
--Nike I, Nike B, Nike II, IRBM
(Intermediate Range Ballistic
Missile of 1500 miles), and ICBM
(Inter-Continental Ballistic Mis-
sile of 5000 miles range). This is
too much missile .oncentration in
* * *
ance of the Army IRBM would re-
sult in an even greater concentra-
tion of development in southern
California. This concentration is
already the source of considerable
worry from a defense standpoint.
The southeastern United States,
on the other hand, is strategically
a sound location of a missile pro-
"It should be noted that the.
aircraft industry and particularly
the Douglas Aircraft Company
openly oppose the development of
any missile by a government agen-
cy. High officials of the Douglas
company have stated that Douglas
is paying particular attention to
the possibilities of killing off the
operation at Huntsville, Ala.
"It is expected that the Wilson
memorandum (which killed the
Army's missile work) has been
heavily influenced by lobbying by
this company and by the Bell
Telephone Company. It is noted
that both competing missiles to
this combination, I.E., Jupiter
and Talon, are jeopardized by the
(Copyright 1957 by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
"a typical automotive worker and
world how America lives" to ap-
pear in the film entitled "The
Pursuit of Happiness."
The worker, Joe Sikorski, is a
utilityman at the Ford Dearborn
engine plant. He was selected be-
cause, according to News writer
Zan Harrison, "he's both healthy-
looking and handsome and be-
cause his wife, his three children
and his house are nice-looking,
HIS NAME in the movie-well,
what could be more "ham-and-
eggsish" than "Bill Johnson."
His dream is to buy a motel. (no
one is satisfied just to "stay-put"
in the United States). Of course,
the film probably won't mention
that in America there are about
10,000 business failures each year.
"Bill Johnson" will appear in
the film together with a "typical"
junior executive of a shoe fac-
tory, and a Vermont farmer. If
this movie is designed to bring
peoples of foreign lands to a more
favorable view of our country, the
article in the News indicates that
it might not be too successful.
One frequent criticism of our
overseas propaganda has been
that it pictures the United States
as an over-glorified castle with
bathtubs popping out of everyI
doorway and pretty awnings
adorning every porch.
This type of approach, as the
advertising executives on Madison
Avenue would gladly tell you,
simply won't "sell."
* * *
IRONICALLY, another writer
for the same paper, foreign ana-
lyst Russell Barnes, reports that
there exists an intense jealousy
on the part of foreigners towards
the United States,
How can we overcome this jea-
lousy, how can the richly-endowed
maiden avoid estranging her less-
attractive and less-fortunate sis-
ters in the sorority of nations?
Our influence abroad would not
be depreciated one bit if we were
to engage in more open self-criti-
cism of the contemporary situa-
tion in America. We would be re-
vealing no secrets because the
communist pressrin Europe, Asia
and Africa is giving full coverage
of our problems-especially in the
area of race relations.
We should be willing to present
ourselves as a nation earnestly
trying to ovecome these prob-
lems, not evading them.
The problems of slums, proper
educational facilities and segre-
gation are ones with which we
as a nation are concerned. There
are, to be sure, many different ap-
proaches to the solution of these
problems but there is no benefit to'
be gained by hiding the disparity
in our opinions.
These are the workings of a
democracy and it would be a sign
of unfortunate times if each prob-
lem had only one possible simple
WE ARE NOT going to make
any friends by providing illusions
about our national character. To
suggest that middle-class vertical
mobility-as in the case of mythi-
cal "Bill Johnson-is our normal
mode of behaviour, is to distort
new conceptions that the Ameri-
can working-man has of himself.
With powerful labor unions-
notably in the auto industry-pro-
viding strong guarantees of vo-
cational and economic security,
and the gradual increase in mono-
polization in most areas of busi-
ness, the dream of buying a motel
is a less-than-likely possibility for
a utilityman at Ford's.
USIA should not be afraid of
revealing the "real" American,
with his conflicts and his in-
creasingly modest ambitions, to
other nations of the world.
It is conceivable that a lot of
people might get to like us some
By The Associated Press
THE UNITED STATES Weather
Bureau's newly developed "hur-
ricane beacons" will be given their
first tryouts as storm forecasting
tools in the hurricane season
opening officially June 17.
The Beacons are balloons equip-
ped with radio transmitters which
will be dropped from high-flying
airplanes into the calm central
"eyes" of hurricanes.
If all goes as expected, the bal-
loons will travel along with the
hurricanes, staying within the eyes
and transmitting radio signals
which can be used by receiving
stations to pinpoint locations of
"There is no reason why it
should not work if it will stay in
the center of the storm," said
Chief Storm Foreetr Gordon
his wife . . . (chosen) to show the
To the Editor:
EMERGED the other night
from the Campus Theatre after
seeing La Strada, very sad and
very much moved by this magnifi-
Yet when I tried to explain the
story, the psychology, the artistry
of it, I found my words inade-
quate. Turning to The Daily, I
read James E. Irby's commentary
This is probably the most artis-
tic, sensitive, and compelling re-
view The Daily has ever carried.
My compliments to the author.
He did a beautiful job of choosing
just the right words to most ade-
quately convey the film's many
I am now referring my inquir-
ing friends to his review.
-Carole Rose, '60
Observer . .
To the Editor:
AM A TREE, standing on the
corner of Oakland and Church.
My bark is torn and shredded, my
trunk sometimes spattered with
he fluid of human life.
I stand on this corner as an
observer of human negligence and
carelessness. Thrice since Septem-
ber I have heard the squeal of
brakes and the crumpling of
metal. Twice I have heard the
crowd say, as they watched the
tow trucks take away the re-
mains, "Stop signs should replace
those yield-right-of-way signs."
Saturday, after the ambulance
took away the third victim, I
heard a policeman say, "This is a
bad corner-I'm going to take
some pictures of it."
-Bob Steller, '59NR
To the Editor
IN REFERENCE to the letter of
Ken Appel (May 9) regarding
the neglected status of recreational
tennis facilities at the University
I add, "Amen!"
It would appear that besides in-
creasing and improving the physi-
cal facilities of the intramural
courts, much more efficient (and
realistic) utilization could be made
of the Palmer Field Courts if a
limit of one hour were placed on
the playing time rather than con-
tinuing the archaic practice of
maintaining these courts as separ-
ate facilities for women.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Mihi-
gan Daily assumes no editorial re-
sponsibility. Notices should be sent
in TYPEWRITTEN form to Room
3519 Administration Building, be-
f ore 2 p.m. the da preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday,
WEDNESDAY, MAY 15, 1957
VOL. LXVII, NO. 160
Agenda, Student Government Coun
cl, May 15, 1957, Council Room, 8 p.m.
minutes of the previous meeting.
Officers' reports: President, Bureau of
Appointments, Regulations Booklet.
Executive ice-President, Student
Activities Bldg. Committee, motion.
International Center Committee-ap-
Admin. vice-President, Petitioning.
Reports: Congress Coordinator, Eugene
Increasing Enrollment Committee.
Student Activities Scholarship.
Committee Reports: National and In-
ternational, Connie Hill.
South East Asia Delegation.
Free University of Berlin, Doris Esch.
Student Activities Committee.
U of M Folklore Society.
Michigan Square Dancers.
Old Business, Intercollegiate Athletics,
Members and constituents time.
Attention LSA Students: A poll of
Student Opinion of Courses and Teach.
ing will be conducted through ques-
tionnaires to be distributed to students
in the College of Literature, Science
and the Arts on Tues. and Wed., May
14 and 15. In order that students and
faculty may read the questionnaire be-
forehand, the questions are listed be-
1. what Is your judgment as to the
value of this course in your education?
Please point out both its contributions
and its deficiencies.
2. Irrespective of your answer to ques-
COMPARISON OF RISKS:
Nuclear Testing-A Moral Question
Students and Freedom
T HE FREE WORLD can hail the dramatic
overthrow of President Gustav Rojas Pin-
alla's regime in Colombia last week if for no
other reason than that students spearheaded
the revolt. But it is equally gratifying that the
people-business men, bankers, workers-rose
in defiance of the military, and forced the
army-backed dictatorship to resign.
Unfortunately, peace and democratic practice
does not return to a country easily after a
dictatorship-particularly in South America.
In Argentina, the residue of Peronism plus a
ruined economy have prevented the military
leaders, who took over after Juan Peron was
tossed out in late 1955, from holding promised
Haiti, Chile, Nicaragua and Honduras among
others also have been experiencing political
disturbances recently. While these countries are
seemingly not concerned with Colombia, any
South American uprising has a way of being
felt over the entire continent. For Colombia,
which is now ruled by a military junta headed
!" 1 ..e! ..f i r . e . . i i. I. 71 e
by General Rojas' most ardent supporter, the
trouble is not over and may become worse.
NEVERTHELESS, the courage of Colombia's
people, especially the students, in resisting
the dictatorship is commendable. It may also
be noted that students were a moving force in
Argentina, have resisted dramatically Cuba's
military dictatorship, and were an integral
part of the Hungarian revolt last year.
It would be inadequate to explain their action
on a high moral plateau and at the same time
disregard important considerations such as
shortages of food and clothing. But it may be
said these students are searching for something
better in a realm that transcends the base
needs of the average man.
These students are ones who do not live
satisfied, contented and unobservant of that
which goes on about them, who cannot be lulled
into apathy by their environment, who find a
satisfaction - by suffering, if necessary - in
search of national freedom, and who do notj
accept something because it appears unavoid-
(Editor's Note: Henry H. Bauer,
PhD, is a Fulbright scholar from Aus-
tralia and a research associate in the"
chemistry department. He is present-
ly doing research under a grant to the
University by the Atomic Energy
By HENRY H. BAUER
DISCUSSIONS AND arguments
as to the pros and cons of test-
ing nuclear weapons continue,
with conflicting statements from
different but equally authoritative
sources. It is important to real-
ize why no agreement can appar-
ently be reached between persons
who are equally well-informed.
The answer resides in the fact
that the conflicting statements,
which appear to be objective, sci-
entific and factual, are in reality
no more than expressions of per-
sonal opinion rationalized into ap-
parent objectivity by the ase of
facts and figures which are ir-
relevant to, and draw attention
away from, the real issue . and
point of disagreement, which is
nothing but a moral question.
THE FOCAL POINT of the ar-
guments is the question whether
demands of national defense out-
weigh possible risks in other di-
rections. These are the two points
to be considered, then:
1) Whether testing of the wea-
pons is, for the purposes of na-
tional defense, necessary.
If one takes the view that the
function of nuclear weapons is to
act as a deterrent to war, that
nuclear warfare, all life on earth
will-more slowly but just as
surely-be wiped out by the af-
ter-effects of the explosions.
In other words, the weapons
are now powerful enough to act
as a complete deterrent.
If one thinks not only in terms
of massive retaliation, but also
of the use of so-called tactical
nuclear weapons in hypothetical
wars of limited scale, one can on-
ly conclude that whether or not
tests are needed to develop such
tactical weapons can be answered
only by the authorities concerned,
since adequate information is not
available to the public.
2) Whether there are any con-
siderations, other than of na-
tional defense, concerned in the
question of testing nuclear wea-
pons. Quite clearly, there are.
Such tests have tnree broad ef-
The immediate explosive de-
struction; the immediate or al-
most immediate fallout of radio-
active material; the long-term
OUR GENERALLY accepted at-
titude on the first effect is that
in time of peace we should not
normally cause loss of human life,
and consequently the tests must
be made in uninhabited areas.
The other two effects are the
ones on which it has not been
possible, at first sight, to find
agreement. One should realize,
however, that this lack of agree-
that we have no way of measur-
ing this risk in terms of absolute
magnitudes; we can only com-
pare it with other risks.
Now, when one compares two
risks, which do not deal with the
same danger, and which cannot
be expressed in mathematical or
statistical terms, the conclusion
reached-which risk is the great-
er-is arrived at not on factual
ground but by making value
This is the case in the present
situation; it is not a dispute on
matters of fact, but on matters
of morality. These are the risks:
1) By discontinuing tests of
nuclear weapons, we do not less-
en the deterrent effect of the
bombs as means of massive re-
taliation. We risk losing wars of
limited scale through lack of up-
to-date tactical nuclear weapons.
2) By continuing tests of nu-
clear weapons, we risk killing hu-
man beings in some localities
through the unpredictable distri-
bution of the immediate fallout.
We risk killing human beings ev-
erywhere in the world by the ef-
fects of the long-term fallout. We
risk causing hereditary defects in
future generations by increasing
the rate of genetic mutation, all
over the world, but particularly in
* * * *
IT IS CLEAR that these risks
can never be compared on an ob-
jective basis: it depends on what
one thinks is more important.