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April 20, 1957 - Image 6

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1957-04-20

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PAGE SIX

THE MCHIGAN DAILY

SATURDAY, "RIL 20,195?

PAGE SIX THE MICHIGAN DAILY SATURDAY, APRIL 20, 195?

PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENTS:

Animal Lab Provides Subjects

A sudden bark or sharp squeal breaks the silence of a classroom
on the third floor of Mason Hall; a student glances up in surprise
and alecture on color vision is momentarily interrupted.
These inappropriate sounds are emmitted from the menagerie
maintained by the Psychology Department for experimental purposes.
Behind the locked doors of the "animal lab" is home for hundreds
of rats, rabbits and dogs.
A strong odor of disinfectants and animal life greets a visitor as
he opens the door labeled simply-3444. Stacks of cages on movable
carts containing rats and rabbits fill the room.
Rats Explore Maze
As one walks down theacorridor between the small experimental
rooms, three dogs bark for attention from their large wire cages in the
back of the room.
Students in white coats, absorbed in their particular experiment,
are oblivious to this interruption. A rabbit is being operated on in the
experimental surgery room while across the hall, a rat is exploring a
maze.
The majority of the lab workers are undergraduates working on
class projects or individual experiments.
Several Psychology 31 students in the tutorial section are working
on experiments in groups of two. One group is training rats to press
- a lever for food in the classical
"Skinner Box."
They will then shock these
trained rats with electrical charges
to determine the amount of pun-
ishment or shock they are willing
to take at different levels of hun-
ger to get food..

HOME IS A CAGE-These rats spend their entire life in carefully
kept cages in the Mason Hall animal lab except for short periods
of experimentation by Psychology students.

ARCHIBALD
.. barks for attention

PRACTICE TRIALS-Keith Oppenner prepares his rats for an
experiment by orientating them to food boxes and platforms
similir to the conditions in his experiment.

Trains Rats
Volunteer students from regular
Psychology 31 sections are prepar-
ing animals for classroom demon-
strations. Each student trains his
own rat for six or seven hours be-
fore it is ready for its classroom
debut.
A typical classroom demonstra-
tion involves a shock-avoidance
shuttle box. A rat is forced to
jump from one compartment to
another by a shock.
A buzzer is presented simul-
taneously with this shock. When
trained, this rat will respond to
the buzzer alone by jumping.
Operate on Rabbits
Rabbits and dogs are used pri-
marily by graduate students. Most
rabbit experiiients involve opera-
tions.
Dogs are used in a conditioning
experiment where a dog is pre-
sented with a bell and shock to
his foot. He will then respond to
the bell alone by lifting his foot
when conditioned.
These animal experiments are
used by students for testing vari-
ous theories applicable in such
fields as learning and behavior.
DAILY
PHOTO FEATURE
Story by
DIANE FRASER
Photos by
DICK GASKILL

U' Foreign
Counselor
Relates Job
By JANICE RAHM
SinceB1938 Robert Klinger has
attended more than 750 Thursday
afternoon teas at the International
Center.
Klinger attended the firrt tea
in September, 1938, when the Cen-
ter opened. He was preparing his
doctorate in international law and
working for the Center part-time
Now Klinger is counselor at the
Center and only misses teas on
vacation or out of town on Center
business.
Center Has Expanded
When the Center began, Klinger
said, the three full-time staff
members were afraid the facilities
would not be used by the approxi-
mately 250 international students
who were at the University.-
Their fears did not become fact,
however. The Center has expanded
with the University and 19 full
and part-time staff members assist
over 1300 foreign students.
Klinger has never found the
weekly teas boring since there are
always new people attending. He
reported the tea still tastes good,
but after the first ten years even
good cookies begin to taste like
sawdust.
Klinger's job is counseling all
engineering students and Canadi-
ans, no matter what their field of
concentration.
He also handles difficult immi-
gration problems which are re-
ferred to him by other staff mem-
bers.
Having a masters degree in im-
migration law from American Uni-
versity in Washington, D.C., Kling-
er is well qualified to give expert
assistance to students with immi-
gration problems.
Legal Problems
Students come for counseling in
all kinds of problems. He ex-
plained. About one-third are legal
problems involving such things as
social security and income taxes as
well as immigration matters.
Another one-third of the prob-
lems are personal, mostly concern-
ing finances and romance. These
take a lot more time to help solve
than legal matters, Klinger com-
mented.
"My chief work," Klinger said,
"is to make myself available to
students whatever their problems.
I sometimes counsel children of
former students."
Klinger is a part-time student
as well as a full-time counselor. He
is currently taking six hours of
work on a doctorate degree in
guidance and counseling.
Klinger played in dance orch-
estras during college and is mar-
ried to a former University music
student, so jazz, classical music
and folk songs of other lands play
an important part in their life.
The couple has three children,
Paul, 14 years old, Fay, 10 years
old, and Stephen, four years old.
Klinger has worked his way up
as a scout leader as Paul became
a memberof various units.
"I figure I have about 20 years
of scouting ahead of me," said
Klinger. "By the time Paul is no
longer a boy scout, Stephen will
be old enough to join the cub
scouts."
Other hobbies include stamp and
coin collecting and gem cutting.
Their home resembles an interna-
tional museum with objects from
all over the world.
Windsor, Ontario, is the only
foreign place that Klinger has
visited in person, but he feels that
he receives a trip around the world

every few months through inter-
national students.
"If you can't travel," he com-
mented, "counseling foreign stu-
dents has much the same effect."
Local Council
To Tour City
City Council members will tour
Ann Arbor today by bus inspecting
city properties, municipal facilities,
and areas where various types of
projects and developments are
planned or foreseen.
The group, which will meet at
1 p.m. today at City Hall, will be
accompanied by City Administra-
tor Guy C. Larcom, Jr., and other
city officials.
Included in the trip will be the
North Campus area, where council
members will inspect sites for
Parke, Davis & Co. and Bendix
Aviation Corp. developments.
The group will also visit areas
where sidewalk projects are being
considered for school construction.
Also on the schedule for inspec-
tion will be various park areas and
municipal golf courses.
M _

Old Lightships To Remain Despite Radar

By The Associated Press
For 125 years, lightships have
marked perilous waters along the
United States coasts.
Their number has declined by
almost 50 per cent in the past
quarter century. Only 25 are still
in service, as shown on the accom-
panying prop, and there may be
more permanent retirements.
Nevertheless, Navy and Coast
Guard officials say, lightships -
though expensive to operate and
maintain - will continue to be
needed in certain spots.
Still Needed
Why doesn't radar put them out
of business?
"The Andrea Doria-Stockholm
collision should answer that," a
Navy expert on lightships said.
"Both had radar, and they
crashed."
As the map shows, the East
Coast has by far the greatest num-
ber of light vessels-19. One does
duty in Lake Huron off the Michi-

gan coast, and five are placed off
the West Coast.
The gradual decline in number
of lightships was made possible,
Coast Guard officials say. by engi-
neering developments that brought
some suitable replacements. This
includes the construction of light-
houses in comparatively deep.
water, and the development of
large buoys fitted with bright
lights, sound and radiobeacon sig-
nals.
Distinctive Features
Such navigational aids, however,
are not praticable at all the danger
points now watched by lightships.
The vessels have highly distinc-
tive features to avoid the possi-
bility of mistaken identity. They
are fitted, of course, with powerful
lights. They have high bows, lan-
tern galleries at the mastheads
and special coloring.
The hull is usually painted red,
with the name of the station in

One Million Dollars Necessary
To Assure State Water Supply

SWIFTSURE; C N A
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UMATILLA REEF 1
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BLUNTSEONANTUCKET
................................... ..... _... ...............C ROSS RIP
BARNEGAT
A0OVERFALLS
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DIAMOND SHOALS
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white letters as huge as space
permits. The vessels' superstruc--
ture is painted gleaming white
the masts, stacks, and lantern
galleries buff.
First Established in 1820
The first lightship established
in U.S. waters saw duty at Craney
Island, in the Elizabeth River near
Norfolk, Va. It was placed in serv-
ice in 1820. Three years later, a
lightship first tested an open sea.
station - as distinguished from
sheltered waters-off Sandy Hook
in the main channel leading to
New York.
The oldest station in point of
continuous operation is Cross Rip
in Nantucket Sound, Massachu-
setts. The point was first, marked
in 1828 and still has a lightship.
Next is the Sandy Hook station,
dating from 1823. But this station
was vacant between 1828 and 1839,
and in 1908 the position of the
ship was shifted and the name
changed to Ambrose.
The Nantucket station, 200 miles
east of New York, is on the heavily
traveled transatlantic route be-
tween that port and Europe, and
considered one of the most impor-
tant lightship stations in the'
world.
Built fortheir unique purpose,
lightships are the whitest of white
elephants once they are replaced
or retired. Many even lack power
and have to be towed to their sta-
tion. Attempts to convert them for
any other nautical function are
impracticable.
F1Organization
F Notices
(Continued from Page 4)
Roger Williams Fellowship, Easter
Sunrise Service on the Diag, April 21,
6:30 a.m. Breakfast following at the
Congregational Church.
University of Michigan Folk, Dancers,
a program of basic couple and line
dances, April 22, 7:30-10:00, Lane Hall.
Michigan Christian Fellowship, April
21, 4:00 p.m., Lane Hall. Speaker:
Charles E. Hummel, "In What Sense
is Christ Living?"
Graduate Outing Club, hike and sup-
per, April 21, 2:00 p.m., Rackham.

REFRIGERATED BOX-A fully conditioned animal will learn to
press a lever for a blast of heat from a lamp for relief from the
cold in this heat-controlled box.

A BREAK IN LEARNING
... even a rat enjoys a visitor

More than a million dollars will
have to be spent by government
and industry within the next 10
years to guarantee adequate water
supplies in Michigan.
This "conservative" estimate is
the result of a study, "Water Re-
sources and Plant Location in
Michigan."
The study, made by the business
administration school is one of a
series of four.
The study group consists of
business executives and University
faculty members.
Prof. Olin W. Blackett of the
business statistics at the Univer-
sity wrote the study on water re-
sources.
According to Prof. Blackett,
Michigan's water supply potential,
including the state's rivers and
Great Lakes, is unmatched by any
other state.
However, to satisfy demands of
future industrial and population
increase, considerable development
of water resources will be neces-
sary.
Although the most plentiful
sources of water are the Great
Lakes, the cost of using Lake water
is higher than developing more
limited sources such as under-
ground waters and rivers. How-
ever, the Great Lakes will probably
be the only available alternative
if great quantities of water - 100
million gallons daily - are needed.
Blackett points out that Detroit
communities have been unable to
utilize Lake water satisfactorily.
He explained that this difficulty
must be resolved before resource
development can proceed.
A study carried on by the Metro-
politan Area Regional Planning
Commission stated that "It is clear
that the existing water systems
cannot handle their projected
1955-80 population growth. .. .
Many places in the six-county area
have already reached the point
where growth and development of

water-using industry is seriously
limited."
"Thus," the study continues,
"the growth of both population
and its economic base is endanger-
ed by the present inadequate water
services and the prospect of great-
er future demands."
A similar situation would be re-
vealed by study of other parts of
the state Blackett indicates. He
states that failure to develop
Michigan water potential can de-
terr industrial growth.
Engineers Petition
For Class Boards
Petitions for membership on the
boards of the freshman and soph-
omore classes of the engineering
school may be picked up in Rm.
2046 East Engineering Bldg.
The petitions require 50 signa-
tures,.and are due at 5 p.m. Tues-
day. Elections will be held April
29 and 30. There are nine positions'
open on each board.

A-MAZE-MENT-Many trials are required before this rat will
MOTHER RAT ... a new learn the correct turns to master this puzzle and reach the goal
generation of subjects arrives of food or water set at the end of the maze.

CONFUSION-Over the side
is often the easiest way out

There's always a sale
at BOB MARSHALL'S

I

UNION

PHOTO CONTEST
Categories:
SPORTS, HOMETOWN, TRAVEL & CAMPUS

"BREAKFAST IN BEDLAM"

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