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"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Wil PrevalU"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
TUESDAY, APRIL 16, 1957 NIGHT EDITOR: THOMAS BLUES
An Honor System:
Teaching Values Not Formulae
Most Ambitious Try
ANY HISTORY of motion picture dance must include an extensive
chapter on the contributions of Gene Kelly. More than any other in-
dividual, Mr. Kelly has tried to create a cinema dance, and that means
he has given special attention to the demands of film depth and ex-
pansiveness, and to making dancing more than an interval in a comedy.
Just as Agnes DeMille revolutionized Broadway dancing, so Mr.
Kelly has completely changed the texture and character of Hollywood
dancing. No one who either performs or choreographs screen dance with
any degree of seriousness can avoid the "Kelly tradition." His creation
of the exhuberant lyric hero and his demand for naturalistic expression
have had a profound influence in Hollywood, and if they have become
" URROUNDING STUDENTS with proctors
to watch over them is ineffective as a means
of preventing dishonesty and hopeless as a
means of education," explains a booklet on the
"Honor System" at the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, a co-educational state
institution of about 7,000 students which oper-
ates under the honor system.
Proctored examinations are educationally un-
justifiable. A education should do more than
teach formulae and "rat facts". It should, we
are often told by faculty members, teach basic
values and methods of thought which can be
carried into life after school. Honesty and self-
discipline are clearly important values to any
society and any university teaching these is do-
ing a superior job.
The only way to teach these intangibles is to
give students a chance to practice them. Cer-
tainly this isn't accomplished with proctored
There seems to be little logical or practical
reasons for proctoring examinations, anyway.
Many professors have admitted the ineffective-
ness of proctors in examinations at the Univer-
sity. Cheating does take place. A great many
teachers feel embarrassed and uncomfortable
when they are forced to serve as policemen.
Teachers don't like to walk up and down looking
over students' shoulders (this doesn't put the
student at ease "for an exam, either), and the
result is generally an awkward and unsatisfac-
Of course, some extra tough professors in sev-
eral departments take extra pains to make
sure cheating will not take place. But students
don't quit, and apply even greater ingenuity to
foil their supervisors. At times it seems the
student is involved in a game with the proc-
tor to see just how much he can get away with.
A proctor system encourages this "cops and
robbers" attitude, and does nothing to encour-
age examination or even thought of moral is-
HERE ARE two basic questions the new stu-
dent-faculty committee recommended by
SGC to study honor systems will have to face.
Is it honest to tell on somebody who is cheat-
ing? Would an honor system create 22,000 proc-
tors instead of the few now?
North Carolina says students ought to re-
port others cheating because any university
where cheating, stealing or lying is tolerated is
discredited and so are the students. If a stu-
dent wishes to take pride in his University, and
more practically, if he wants a diploma of real
value he will be encouraged to report cheaters.
.He is also helping to promote honesty.
The question of 22,000 proctors dodges the is-
sue and actually misses the point of an honor
system Proctors are placed in an examination
room to make sure nobody is cheating.
Students are there solely to take an examina-
tion. They wouldn't be required to play the role
of "watch-dog". The important concept here is
that under an honor system the faculty and ad-
ministration assume students are honest-un-
der the present system they assume students
The biggest complaint against an honor sys-
tem on a practical level is that most students
won't report others. Thus the program is vir-
The word "most" is the important word here.
All admit there will be some people who will
report. They might do this because of pride in
the system or university, because they are so
innately honest, or because the exam is marked
on a curve and they don't wish to be harmed
Taking a most pessimistic view of the pro-
gram, assume that only five per cent will turn
cheaters in. Five per cent of 22,000 is 1100,
quite. a sizeable number of people scattered
through-out the system who would report
cheaters. One or two cases reported and treated
stringently will help the program to become ef-
It should be noted here that many students
who won't turn in violators will bring social
pressure to bear on the cheaters and cut cheat-
ing down this way.
Besides teaching honesty and self-discipline,
another educational value of the system is
somewhat more indirect. With the growth of
class size at the University has developed a
greater dependence on long multiple-choice or
other objective type examinations, because they
are easiest to correct.
While this kind of test is valuable for get-
ting at certain facets of class work, its educa-
tional value can be questioned. This is espe-
cially true in courses which are designed to
teach people how to think, as well as learn
UNDER AN HONOR system, teachers would
be encouraged to give examinations which
cannot be easily cheated. And in many cases
this is educationally the best type of test. A
large, comprehensive essay question requires a
store of knowledge and the ability to think
through a problem or situation. It is virtually
impossible to cheat on this type.
Finally, under an honor system, one must be
aware of the importance of indoctrination.
Without a careful and thorough program of
early indoctrination, the system could not work.
Several hundred colleges now have honor
systems of some kind. At least six schools com-
parable in size and make-up to the University
are under such a program.
However, the final test of the honor system is
not whether or not it works at another univer-
sity, but rather whether it will work at Michi-
The only way to learn this is to try the pro-
gram-not for just a year but for at least three
years to give the program a chance to get roll-
There will be bugs at the beginning, but any-
thing desirable does not come easily, and they
will have to be worked out. The University has
a particular advantage here, because we can re-
ceive advice from our own engineering college.
WE STRONGLY recommend that the faculty-
student committee soon to be established,
recommend an honor system for a trial period.
There is little that can be lost and with such
a program a great deal can be gained.
: y s'7 tS tE w kS 4'dA ror'f oS'rG .
Senate Apology to Canada?
By DREW PEARSON
cliches through the actions of less-
er artists, they were once fresh and
Mr. Kelly calls "Invitation to the
Dance" the "best work I've ever
done," and the film bears evidence
of having been put together with
the labor of love and devotion. One
suspects, however, that "Invitation
to the Dance" is a compromise be-
tween Mr. Kelly, who wants to cre-
ate his own art, and Mr. Kelly's
bosses, who want to rubberband
piles of money. The picture has
been in production for almost five
years. It was originally filmed in
England and brought to Hollywood
for editing. Then, more than half
of it was discarded, and new danc-
es were added. In its completed
form, "Invitation to the Dance" is
comprised of three ballets, each
slightly more than a half hour in
length, and each commercialized to
"CIRCUS" is the first ballet,
and the most interesting of the
three. It tells of a clown (Mr. Kel-
ly) and a tightrope specialist (Igor
Youskevitch) who are rivals for a
circus girl's love (Claire Sombert).
The opening sequence is in the
style of commedia dell'arte, but the
middle portion is pure vaudeville,
and derives its movements from
Mr. Kelly's baggy-pants routine in
"For Me and My Gal." There is
also a pas de deux by Miss Som-
bert and Mr. Youskevitch; it re-
mains the film's best dancing.
In its mime sections, "Circus"
is too exaggerated for the magni-
fying lens of the camera, and the
entire conception is pastiche-from
Pagliacci to the Palace.
"Ring Around the Rosy" is a
modern ballet in which the char-
acters are all frightfully over-
sexed. A bracelet makes the rounds
of ten lovers, finally returning to
its original owner. When it con-
centrates on satire, "Ring Around
the Rosy" is a delightful comment
on contemporary social mores.
Irving Davies is a perfect crooner
and Belita makes a very witty
Tamara Tounanovna, who plays
the "Girl on the Steps," joins Mr.
Kelly for a duet that takes the art
of jazzy, erotic dancing to a point
of decadence from which it will
have difficulty in advancing. Miss
Toumanovna's precise leg exten-
sions and her blowzy appearance
But the story line in "Ring
Around the Rosy" is too cluttered,
and very often individual sequenc-
es are wasted in an excess of self-
* * *
"SINBAD the Sailor," the final
ballet, is a horrible nightmare of
technicolor-toothpaste quality. It
is an expansion of two dances Mr.
Kelly did in "Anchors Away." The
first is a tap routine with a wiste
ful child (David Kasday) and the
second is another tap routine with
animated cartoons. Tap dancing
can go just so far as an art form
and more than twenty minutes of
clicking shatter the small success
SENATOR Tom Hennings of Mis-
souri has drafted a resolution
of Senatorial apology to Canada
for making public the secret secur-
ity data which brought about the.
suicide of Herbert Norman, Cana-
dian Ambassador to Egypt.
Such an apology was what the
Canadian government has wanted,
since it regards the Senate, not the
State Department, as responsible
for breaking confidence. However,
there's little likelihood that the
Senate would pass such a resolu-
tion unless drastically watered
About 90 of the 96 Senators
might favor such an apology pri-
vately, but publicly few are likely
to back it-for an interesting and
significant reason. The reason goes
to the heart of why the Senate
Internal Security Subcommittee
has been allowed to operate al-
most at will.
Chairman of the Internal Secur-
ity Subcommittee is big, balding
cigar-smoking Jim Eastland of
Mississippi, Democrat. Eastland is
also Chairman of the Senate Judi-
ciary Committee and, as such, in-
uences private bills.
* * *
THESE ARE the bills for pen-
sion, immigration permits, citizen-
ship, damages, etc., which every
senate must squeeze through Con-
gress in order to get re-elected.
They constitute the great bulk of
every session's legislation. And
since Jim Eastland sits as Czar
over the Judiciary Committee, he
can block them or speed them.
So only a few Senators want to
antagonize Jim Eastland by push-
ing an apology to Canada which
would reflect on him.
That's also why few want to
interfere with the way Eastland
runs the Internal Security Sub-
committee. Though Eastland is a
Democrat, the Committee is run by
Republicans. Eastland himself is
consulted by the Eisenhower Ad-
ministration on job appointments
in Mississippi. He has more power
with Republicans than most Dem-
ocrats, undouotedly more power
than he ever had with a Demo-
Workng, with him as virtual c -
chairman of Internal Security is
Sen. Bill Jenner of Indiana, Re-
publican. They have appointed as
counsel not a CEnocrat, but .
New York Reputiican, Rob .rt
Morris, the man ;who publisbea
the security data on Ambasa.dor
MORRIS is given c mplete frce-
dom to do dlmcst anything ie
pleases. He has even had govern-
inent ,tenographers type Repul Mi-
can speeches on gcvErnment t ne
to be delivered at Lincoln Doy
Dinners blasting Democrats under
whom he serves. His associate
counsel is William Rusher, another
arch-Republican, and the clerical
staff includes Roy Garcia and
Eleanor Melaney, also Republicans.
This is unusual. When the Demo-
crats control Congress they usually
insist that personnel be Democrat.
Other senators have tried to cur-
tail the Internal Security Subcom-
mittee without success, Early this
year, the Rules Committee voted
to cut its funds. Eastland and
Republican friends quickly over-
rode this on the Senate floor, and
the full amount, $289,291.45, was
voted, with an additional proviso
that a minority (Republican)
counsel be added. This meant that
an additional Republican, Rusher,
was added, since Morris, a Repub-
lican, is appointed by Democratic
The Democrats do have one staff
lawyer on the Subcommittee, Ju-
lian Sourwine, who resigned last
year to run for the Senate in
Nevada. After being swamped by
Sen. Alan Bible, Sourwine came
back to Washington looking for a
meal ticket and was welcomed to
the bosom of the committee.
Both Morris and Sourwine know
that they can always get 100 per
cent support from a majority of
the Senators on their committee
through the Republicrat team of
Jenner and Eastland. Supporting
them are Butler (Md.), Hruska
(Nebr.), Republicans; and usually
McClellan (Ark.), and Ervin (N.
C.), Democrats. Watkins of Utah,
Republican, and Neely of West
Virginia, Democrat, have opposed
them, but are overridden.
(Copyright 1957 by Beli Syndicate, Inc.)
"Sinbad the Sailor" might have
achieved. Moreover, the process
photography is technically very
"Invitation to the Dance" is the
most important dance picture
since "Seven Brides for Seven
Brothers," but it is not an apothe-
osis of Mr. Kelly; instead it is a
summary of Hollywood dancing to
There have been times in the
past when Mr. Kelly's imagination
seemed grooved (as in "Briga-
doon") but it is difficult to attrib-
ute every weakness in "Invitation
to the Dance to him; he may have
been forced to preserve familiar
forms and motifs.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
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of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Notices should be sent in
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Notices for Sunday Daily due at 2:00
TUESDAY, APRIL 16, 1957
VOL. LXVI, NO. 135
The following persons have been se-
lected as ushers for the 1957 May Fes-
tival: Reed Andrew, Bruce Arnold, El-
len Austin, Laird H. Barber, Margery
Ann Brooks, Kathy Brown, Sally J.
Brown, Nancy Brmeau, Elaine Burr,
Robert W. Carr, J. Cohn, Maria Cohn,
Mrs. H. Cole, Robert Cole, Donald Cos-
grove, Phyllis Criswell, Shirley David,
Marion Duerks, Erma Donner, Daniel
Docks, Doris Esch, Irving Ennis, Mar-
guerite Erickson, Laurice Ferris, Em-
erson 0. Funk, Irene V. Funk, Joseph
Faris, Carolyn Fisher, Barbara Fox,
Evelyn Fink, Barbara Fry, Judy Good-
ing, Elain Glover, Irma Glauberman,
Jane Geiger, Shirley Gosling, Hannah
Gruenewald, Janet Gardnr, Richard J.
Giannone, Roger Greenberg. Ibrahan
Hazimah, Carole Hogle, Dan Hulden,
Lois Hulden, Robert Hill, Margareb
Jones, Shirley David Jobin, Carl D.
Johnson, Daniel Bruce Jackson, Pierre
Janin, Constance Kami, Charles Kel-
ler, Carole Kleppinger, Nick Karzen,
Mike Lain, Nancy Lellup, Wesley E.
Loos, Mary Ann Moore, Patricia Mc-
Veigh, Lois A. Morse, David Mills, Jack
Morris, Carole McAlpin, Barbara Mey-
er, Jon C. Maxwell, Barbara Mattisn,
Margaret McCarthy, J. David Marks,
Jane Marks, C. David Martenson, Gor-
don Meinhard, Paul Mundinger, Diet-
lind Ni.xdorf, Marian Oaks, Patricia J.
Ray, Ellen Reitz, Edward W. Rothe,
Dennis Roy, Richard Buffalo, Sally
Shadd, Charlotte Scott, Barbara Smith,
Ethel Sieg, Lil Silverberg; Charlotte
S c h w i m m e r, Ted Smith, Marilyn
Shields, Martha Ann Saxton, Helen
Sarbey, Priscilla Stockwell, Lois Slad-
ky, Alex Sarko, Julian P. Steinon, Gus-
tave Stahl, John Sheilds, Francis Stein-
on, Fred Shippy, Patrick Smith, Tilly
Tillotson, Kit Yin Tieng, Ray Tni,
Joan Volz, Douglas B. Vielmetti, Pros-
ser Watts, Sandra Wilson, Sue Welton,
Phoebe Wolfe, Jana Woodrun, Hans
Herman Wagner, Thomas Welton, Lynn
Maria Zimmerman, Richard Zusi, Maur-
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All usher tickets not picked up by
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night of the first concert, as in the
Hopwood Awards: All manuscripts
must be in the Hopwood Room by 4:30
p.m., Wed., April 17. Transcripts of
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istration and Records to the Hopwood
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Residence Hall Scholarship: Women
students wishing to apply for a Resi-
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Qualifications will be considered on the
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Vic Heyliger Departs
AN ERA in intercollegiate hockey is over.
With the announcement that Vic Heyliger
has given up coaching for private business, the
winningest coach in the sport is now gone.
Much credit could be thrown Heyliger's way,
but his record speaks for itself. His teams have
left a mark upon which many, long in the fu-
ture, may reflect-"I remember the good old
days when Heyliger was coaching. . . Michigan
never .missed an NCAA play-off-won six in
ten straight years . . . now there was a great
According to those on the inside, Heyliger is
not an exceptional teacher. He does, however,
have the ability to draw top talent by his sound
reputation. For many amateur hockey players,
especially from Canada, playing for Heyliger
and studying at Michigan was a strong incent-
ive. Much of the University's hockey recruit-
ing has been by word of mouth among players
themselves. This, in itself, is a credit to the
HEYLIGER also has the knack for bringing
his players together into a working unit. He
knew, almost instinctively, how to get his teams
into a winning psychological state. His squads
almost always seemed to be able to come back
strong after a bad season start, a bad game, or
a bad period of play.
A member of the spirited school of coaching,
Heyliger will also be remembered as a friend of
many and a colorful personality-the man (be-
cause of doctors orders) with the ever-unlit
cigar, the multicolor sports caps, and the en-
ergetic "hello" for practically everyone.
Heyliger's successor will have to try on a
Cinderella pair of shoes to match the standards
of recent years. We can only wish him luck in
his difficult task, while at the same time bid a
thankful farewell to his predecessor.
As a coach and as a person,Vic Heyliger will
be noticeably missed at Michigan.
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Public Life Less Dramatic in Rome Today
By WALTER LIPPMANN
RETURNING to Rome, where I
have not been for over three
years, I have been struck by how
much less dramatic and moment-
ous is the atmosphere of public
Always before this there has
been great anxiety in which it
was felt that Italy was one of the
main- theaters of the cold war.
The times have changed. Though
there is in fact a parliamentary
crisis which may have important
consequences, there is nothing like
the tension of the post-war years.
The overall reason for this
change is, I suppose, that Italy,
like the rest of Europe, has out-
lived the post-war period, and
with it the memories, the fears,
the preoccupations of the genera-
tion which participated in the
war. But there are also more spe-
cific reasons why the moral at-
mosphere has changed so much.
One is, most obviously, the im-
pressive success of the Italian re-
construction and revival. Italy
has been greatly assisted by Amer-
ican foreign aid.
But what the Italians are do-
ing themselves is theireason why
the foreign aid, which after all
has been only marginal, had been
so successfully used. I do not be-
lieve there is any country in which
there is a greater buoyancy and
such confidence in dealing with
of the left. But they have gone far
to destroy it as a instrument of
Soviet foreign policy.
This is manifested in the rift,
which is not however a divorce,
between the Communists under
Togliatti and the fellow traveling
Socialists under Nenni. The rift
is not so wide but that the left
Socialists and the Communists
are stillcooperating in local Ital-
ian affairs. But it is wide enough
so that in the field of high policy
including foreign affairs, Nenni
and Togliatti no longer form a
* I have been told by those who
ought to know that the Nenni So-
cialists are not likely to divorce
the Togliatti Communists, and
then to remarry the right-wing
Socialists led by Saragat who are
now part of the government coa-
One man, who has been in the
midst of it all, told me that Nenni
would never break wholly with the
Communists because he is too old
for the battle and is afraid to face
the vengeance of the Communists.
THERE IS a parliamentary cri-
sis- which will have to be resolved
after the deputies return in May
from their Easter holidays. The
present government is a coalition,
of which the predominant and
central parthis made up' of the
coalition is to stand together or is
to fall apart.
If the existing coalition falls
apart, the chances are that no
government can be formed which
has a majority in the Parliament.
In that event, presumably, the
Christian Democrats, being the
largest of the minorities, would
form a government, and would
then carry on precariously, lean-
ing now to the right and now to
The worst of this might be, it
is said, to draw the issue sharply
between the Christian Democrats
and the Communists.
The result might be to squeeze
out the smaller individual parties
of the right and of the left which,
whatever else one may think of
them, do so much to keep the is-
sues conveniently blunted and
blurred, and thus within moder-
1957 New York Herald Tribune
LITTLE MAN ON CAMPUS
by Dick Bibler
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
WESTERN diplomats in their negotiations
with the Russians have always entertained
the idea that if agreement could be reached in
some fields, however small, it would contribute
to the confidence needed for settlements of
That is the attitude now being taken by the
West in the London disarmament talks.
Stress is being placed on the possibility of
The conventional arms reductions being dis-
cussed are not meaningful as they pertain to
the possibility of later disarmament agreements
covering nuclear weapon.
Russia, Britain and the United States-all of
the nations which are switching from conven-
tional to nuclear arms-are under heavy eco-
nomic pressure to hold down their military
ALL HAVE been cutting their armed forces
as to size and stepping them up as to fire-
../ E CS T A K Y ' .