EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1957 NIGHT EDITOR: CAROL PRINS
"Good Work-By The Way, Did You Find Anyone On,
The Roof Garden?"
F 1i ,
A Generation of Expansion:
What Role for the 'U'?
RUSSELL KIRK has known the truth and
preached it so long that he quite naturally
concludes that anyone who disagrees with him
philosophically. is either a windbag or a hypo-
crite. He vacillates, however, on the question of
whether University President Harlan Hatcher
is both or merely the former, suggesting both
as strong possibilities.
But the intemperate attacks on President
Hatcher's integrity, however they may be re-
sented by those who have known and worked
with him, should not be allowed to becloud the
vital issue which Kirk had raised. Kirk is a
reactionary and has long had misgivings about
the workings of our democratic system, yet his
criticisms of democratic education may hold
some meaning even for liberal democrats, Presi-
dent Hatcher included.
It is impossible for an outsider to know the
truth of the oft-repeated rumor Kirk repeats-
an enrollment race between the University and
Michigan State. But one need not assume-
as Kirk does-that a quest for academic pres-
tige is behind the present explosive expansion
in order to debate its merits.
There is a perfectly sound philosophy-which
Kirk refuses to acknowledge-behind general
educational expansion; that a democracy and
a world power cannot long survive without a
widely educated citizenry, and that members of
the coming "war baby" generation have as
much right to anreducation they can absorb as
members of any other. Considering our rapid
technological expansion, perhaps they have an
even greater claim to such an education.
But democracy's demands of and educational
responsibilities to its youth do not end with
mass education. There must be a training for
leading as well as for following, there must be
intensive as well as extensive education. It is
important that much of our educational system
be imbued with the democratic ideal of edu-
cation for the many. But it is well that Kirk
and others with aristocratic leanings remind
us that mediocrity may well be the corollary
of democracy, that mediocrity can be as sub-
versive of democracy as can elitism, that our
enthusiasm for democratic ideals must not lead
us to level our intellectual aristocracy-the one
sort of aristocracy without which a democracy
cannot survive and without which ours would
never have been founded.
T HE QUESTION is whether a University of
40,000 students-President Hatcher's projec-
tion for 1970-is capable of doing more than
providing a cheapened assembly-line education.
This is the sort of question asked every time the
University has proposed expansion, and ad-
ministrators can gleefully belittle present mis-
givings as being nothing more than a rehash of
protests made when the University proposed to
grow beyond 10,000 student's.
But age does not invalidate arguments, and
we would suggest most emphatically that many
of the misgivings of 20 or even 50 years ago
have been amply borne out by the quality of the
educational experience being offered today. The
arguments have not grown stale, just more
Kirk reflects that desperation, and perhaps
it accounts for some of his invective, But in-
vective aside, his criticisms are valid ones, valid
at least for an institution which attempts to
preserve the quality of its service. The problems
of administrative communication with faculty,
interdepartmental and even intradepartmental
communication, and the all-important student-
student and student-faculty communication,
cannot help but deteriorate frighteningly as
institutions, departments, living units and class
rooms mushroom in size.
STADIUM and television education received in
gigantic educational factories is deplorable,
even by present standards; indeed, one might
doubt if it is worthy of the name of education.
But it must come to many campuses if our na-
tion is to give any kind of college training to
the millions who will be demanding it, if only
because the intellectual resources of the older,
smaller generation are not sufficient to meet
the needs of the younger, much larger one.
The tragedy of the situation will not be as
great, however, If this cheapened education
comes only because of the real limits on our
nation's intellectual resources hnd not because
of artificial limits on its economic ones, and if
the most economical use is made of what in-
tellectual resources the older generation can
When a class contains 250 students and the
teacher lectures from an elevated stage, our
educational resources are being most ineffi-
ciently used. Virtually all student-faculty com-
munication has been broken, but real mass
education has not been achieved. You lose
something when you double the size of such a
class, or triple it and use a loudspeaker system,
or put the lectures on film or transmit them by
television or publish them in book form and
eliminate personal delivery altogether. You lose
something, but you lose less than you are able
to gain in numbers of students taught and in
the quality of education you can provide a few
students by releasing more of the professor's
time for small and select classes.
The schools, then, might well consider the
waste of our nation's intellectual resources in-
volved in taking professors away from small or
from gigantic classrooms, where their talents
are being well utilized, and putting them in the
most wasteful situation of all-education on too
great a scale for individual communication and
on too small a scale to completely justify the
loss of such communication.
The school which takes the middle ground--
having a first-rate faculty teaching reasonably
large classes in person, as the University may
well be attempting to do, should question how
its policies can be justified in light of the tre-
mendous need to economize the nation's educa-
THE QUESTION is not whether we should
have mass education or quality education.
Our nation cannot sustain itself-or at best
cannot grow-without both. For this reason
Kirk's denunciation of mass education is irrele-
vant: the job of the next generation of educa-
tors cannot be done without greatly lowered
standards in many institutions. Nor can it be
done without strict maintenance of standards
in others. The question which P r e s i d e n t
Hatcher must face-along with the administra-
tors of every other quality institution in the
country-is the role his school is to play in the
nation's educational system.
We would offer no definite answer to the
question. But we would suggest that the Uni-
versity cannot do both: it cannot long main-
tain a dquble standard in any given educational
area, even though the nation as a whole must
We would agree with Kirk's contention that
the University "in many ways, for a long time
has been the most reputable and influential of
state universities." Because the state of Michi-
gan has several institutions devoted to quantity
education, and because quality education has
not altogether disappeared from its campus,
the University might well choose to stop its
breakneck expanding and rather preserve that
quality in the face of all pressures to the con-
The University cannot do so without con-
sciously deciding that it will and fighting long
and hard for its decision. It would not thereby
be shirking its responsibility to our democracy.
Rather, it would be meeting that responsibility
more effectively-in the area where the de-
ficiencies are and will be greatest-and in a
manner worthy of a great institution.
i S ta lL'- ~ 9 ' nE ~Jt4+Otr@4Posv-
Conflict of Oil Interests
By DREW PEARSON
E AGLE-EYED Senator M a t t
Neely of West Virginia spotted
a point which the Administration
doesn't like to have spotted, while
hearing the testimony of Stewart
Coleman, head of the Middle East
Emergency Oil Committee before
the Judiciary Sub-Committee.
Senator Neely accused Coleman
of wearing two hats, of represent-
ing the government and at the
same time representing the oil
companies as a long-time execu-
tive of the Arabian-American Oil
Co., now Vice President of Stan-
dard Oil of New Jersey.
Neely went further. He poked a
finger into the inner financial
sanctum of the Secretary of the
Treasury, where most Senators
fear to probe. Pointing out that
Secretary Humphrey had not sold
his stock in the M. A. Hanna
Company, as Charlie Wilson did
his General Motors stock, Neely
said the Hanna Co. owns 482,256
shares of common stock of Stan-
dard of New Jersey. V alu e:
He also pointed out that the
M. A. Hanna Co. owns 187,500
shares of Seaboard Oil. Value:
Senator Neely wanted to know if
this wasn't a moral conflict of
interest. He also speculated re-
garding the fact that President
Eisenhower spent a vacation on
Humphrey's luxurious Georgia
plantation at the very moment
when the middle east crisis re-
quired vital decisions.
SENATOR NEELY could have
gone further in probing into the
possible effect of oil on American
foreign policy. Here is the roll
call of other personalities who
might be influenced by oil:
George Allen,. close friend and
bridge-playing partner of the
President's, also with him at the
Georgia plantation. Allen has been
chairman of the Yemen Oil De-
Chris Herter, the new Under
Secretary of State,;is indebted to
Standard of New Jersey for his
John Foster Dulles' law firm
represents Standard of New Jer-
Ex-Secretary of State Acheson's
law firm also represented Stan-
dard of New Jersey.
Ex-Under Secretary, Herbert
Hoover, Jr. was an executive of
Union Oil, which is interlocked
with Gulf Oil, which gets its oil
from the Gulf of Persia.
These are all honest men. But
it's hard for even the most honest
public official not to be influenced
by subtle, economic pressures.
OIL MONEY - Largest stock-
holders in Standard of N.J. are
the Rockefellers. The Rockefeller
family contributed $152,604 to the
Republicans in the recent election.
The Mellon family, which owns
Gulf Oil, contributed $100,150; the
Pew family, which owns Sun Oil,
put up $216,800. Other oil men
plunged heavily for Ike. Almost
no oil money went to the Demo-
At the glamorous state dinner
given by Eisenhower to King Saud,
the board chairmen of the major
oil companies interested in the
Near East were present, plus the
heads of the Rockefeller banks
which back them. The guest list
included: Fred Davies, chairman
of Aramco; Ralph Follis, chair-
man of Standard of N.J.; Brew-
ster Jennings, chairman of So-
cony; Augustus Long, chairman
of Texaco; Monroe Rathbone,
President of Standard of N.J.;
Jack McCloy, chairman of the
Chase bank, and William Kletts,
president of Guaranty Trust.
Many of these were also GOP
Next day the presidents of the
same companies were invited to
dine with Secretary Dulles and
King Saud. The chairman of the
boards rated a White House dinner
with Ike, the presidents a dinner
*, * *
VICE .PRESIDENT Nixon is
giving the Secret Service the heeby
jeebies in Africa. The men en-
trusted with guarding the lives of
the President and Vice President
shun publicity, but they do one of
the most effective jobs in or out
of the nation's capital.
In the old days they didn't
have to worry much about the
Vice-President, didn't even have.
to assign anyone to protect him.
He led a quiet life, oscillating be-
tween his of ice in the Senate and
his home in Washington. Charlie
Dawes slept every afternoon and
Charlie Curtis played poker every
night. Vice President Nixon, on
the other hand, has been traipsing
all over the world.
Prior to his African junket, the
Secret Service sent men to look
over the terrain in the various
countries Nixon was to visit. Or-
dinarily they wouldn't do this,
but because of Ike's age and past
health, extra precautions a r e
taken. They found the African
security situation almost hopeless,
on top of which Nixon has insisted
on jumping out of his car and
mingling with the crowds.
However, Nixon is the man who
has helped sell the Eisenhower
Administration on the idea of
backing the Asian-African bloc.
He has argued that Western
Europe was bankrupt, decadent,
that our future lay with the un-
developed countries of Africa and
This is one reason-in addition
to oil-why the Eisenhower ad-
ministration was long so firm
about backing the Arabs against
The present trip therefore is
carrying out Nixon's own policy,
so the State Department let him
have his way.
The British, incidentally,
weren't too happyabout his going
to the Gold Coast. He outranks the
British envoy, the Duchess of
Kent, and may take the play
away from the fact that it is
Britain, not the United States,
which is giving them their inde-
Note-Democrats claim t h e
Nixon junket is smart politics. His
reception in Africa, they point out,
should help him win Negro votes.
(Copyright 1957 by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
Freedom or License?
To the Editor:
IN YOUR EDITORIAL March 3
you knocked Panhel for sug-
gesting censorship of SGC news
I re-read the Panhel "demands."
One reason given for the request
was that "students" should be
able to select the truth for them-
selves." With the only source of
information concerning SGC
meetings being the Daily (except
attending the meeting), it is im-
perative that the reports be as un-
biased as possible. This is difficult
at best when the editor himself has
a vote in the issues.
In defining "Censorship", Pan-
hel asked that "SGC s h o u l d
approve..." They didn't say limit.
Apparently, what they are seeking
is a more objective type of news
In your editorial you quoted
part of the first amendment con-
cerning Freedom of the Press.
Granted it has made our country
as great as it is, but there are
I believe it was Milton who
wrote: "None can love freedom
heartily but good men; the rest
love not freedom, but licence."
I think the Daily is confusing
Licence of the Press with Freedom
of the Press.
--Kenn Hildebrand, '57
To Kirk and Elsman...
To the Editor:
lOU BOTH are on the same
side of a fence which together
you have erected!
Michigan State University and
the University of Michigan do
share in a rivalry - but let's not
misinterpret the sporting rivalry
of the Legislative floor, or as that
of the Office of the Registrar!
Although the Legislative battles
do seem to run hot surely we, as
students should be the first to re-
cognize that academic rivalry has
little basis for fact. A glance at
the offerings of the two great cam-
puses shows that duplication oc-
curs only in the more basic areas
The defined purposes of the
Board of Agriculture and of the
Board of Regents result in major
contributions to the state and na-
tion in widely diversified fields!
In this respect the two great
schools are allied: each shall con-
tribute exceedingly well in their
And size? Perhaps the univer-
sities will redouble themselves. So
what? We must recognize the con-
stantly improving efforts toward
"education for all" being offered
on the local level.
Observe the Junior Colleges,
Lectures, Adult Education classes,
Extension Clubs, Extension and
Correspondence Courses, besides
the number of smaller colleges
and universities, public and pri-
vate, throughout the state. These
too contribute toward "education
Of course each institution does
not contribute the same body of
information nor offer the same
facilities. Each citizen has the
right to expand his knowledge in
the direction he chooses.
If educational institutions push
back thresholds of knowledge em-
bracing wider fields they do so in
the name of the people they serve.
The size of the embrace is a nat-
As for comparing the univer-
sity to a factory - this is tire-
some. Really there isn't much in
common. Granted that Bertrand
Russell may have some truth in
pointing out that we may find
anology in whatever we observe
as we wish.
But as persons familiar with
education don't you believe that
the university has some merit re-
cognizable as unique in its own
Remember, it deals not in pro-
ducts, but with people; providing
a climate agreeable to learning.
-Daniel Lirones, Grad.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication for which the
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be sent
in TYPEWRITTEN form to Room
3553 Administration Building, before
2 p.m. the day preceding publication.
Notices for Sunday Daily due at 2:00
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1957
VOL. LXVII, NO. 108
Regents' Meeting: The March meet-
ing of the Regents will be held Fri..
March 22, instead of March 15, as was
previously announced in the Daily Of-
ficial Bulletin. Communications for
consideration at this meeting must be
in the President's hands not later than,
Summer Housing Applications for
graduate and undergraduate women's
housing will be accepted from women
now registered on campus beginning
at noon, wed., March 6, at the Office
of the Dean of Women on the first
floor of the new student activite
building. Applications will be accepted
for residence halls and supplementary
Martha Cook Building applications
for residence are due March 15. Those
who already have application blanks
are requested to bring them in imme-
diately. Those who desire to make ap-
plication may do so by calling NO
2-3225 any week-day between 8:00 a.m.-
4:00 p.m. for an appointment.
Agenda, Student Government Coun-
cil, Council Room, 7:30 p.m., March 6,
Minutes of previous meeting.
Officers' reports: President.
Treasurer, Student Activities Build-
ing, Name Joseph Aldrich Bursley.
Housing Study Committee.
Student Speakers' Bureau.
Activities Calendar Study Committee.
Student Activities Committee: Recog-
nition, Alpha P1 Mu.
Constitutional revision, Young Re-
Education and Social Welfare: Health
Old Business: IFC-IHC Rushing Pro-
Lecture Study Committee.
Members and constituents time.
The Regular Wednesday film for this
week, March 6, will be, "One Nation
Indivisible, Part II of the Constitution
Series," dealing with the slavery que.-
tion.'12:30 p.m. in the Audio-visual
Education Center Auditorium, 4051 Ad-
I.S.A. presents "America: From Poetry
to Jazz" (A Series on Cultural Dynam-
ics) Lecture No, 2, Wed., March d,
"Short Story and Novel," Dr. David
Weimer, Dept of English.
Campus Conference on Religion.
Capt. Roy R. Marken will lecture at
3:00 in Rackham Amphitheatre on the
subject "Moral Leadership". Dr. Paul
Holner, University of Minnesota, De-
partment of Philosophy, will lecture
at 4:15 p.m. in Auditorium "A" Angell
Hall on the subject, "Can we be both
Intelligent and Religious?"
Additional Ushers are needed for al
five performances of Cavallera Rusti-
cana and The Fair. Phone Lydia Men-
delssohn Theatre Box Office: NO 8-6300.
Cavallera Rusticana and The Fair
will be presented by the Department of
Speech and the School of Music at 8
p.m. tonight in the Lydia Mendelssohn
Theatre. Tickets are on sale at the Ly-
dia Medelssohn Box Office 10 a.m.-8
Concentrates in Psychology inter-
ested in entering the Senior Honors
Course for the year 1957-58 should con-
tact Professor R. W. Heyns in Room
1012 Angell Hall before March 25, 1957.
Interdepartmental Seminar on Ap.-
plied Meteorology: Engineering. Thurs.,
March 7, 4 p.m., Room 307 West Engi-
neering Bldg. Mr. Eugene W. Bierly will
speak on "The Influence of Meteor-
ology on Reactor Safety Problems: Fall-
out" - Chairman: Professor Henry J.
402 Interdisciplinary Seminar on the
Applications of Mathematics to Social
Science. Room 3401, Mason Hall, Thurs.,
March 7, 3:15-4:45 p.m. Don Royal on
"Dimensions of Facial Expression of
Seminar of Mathematical Statistief
Will meet with Applied Mathematics
Seminar on Thurs., March 7 and 14,
D. A. Darling will speak on "Brownian
Motion and the Birichlet Problem."
Refreshments at 3:30 in Room 274 W.
Eng. Bldg. Meeting at 4:00 in Room 246
W. Eng. Bldg.
Research Seminar of the Mental
Health Research Institute. Dr. Seymour
L. Lustman, Yale University will speak
on "The Autonomic Nervous System
and Children's Psychiatric Hospital,
German Departmental Make-up Ex-
aminations Wed., March 6, 7:30 p.m.,
109 Tappan Hall. All candidates must
register with the departmental secre-
tary, 108 Tappan Hall, by Wed. noon,
Organic Chemistry Seminar. 7:30 p.m.
March 7, Room 1300 Chemistry Build-
ing. Miss Patricia A. McVeigh will
speak on "Phosphinemethylenes"; Mr.
Roger D. Westland will speak on "New
serine and Diazooxonorleucine".
Tumor Inhibitory Antibiotics. Aza-
Botanical Seminar. Dr. Alexander H.
Smith, curator of fungi in Univ. Herb-
arium, will speak on "Collecting Ma-
terials for a Manual of the Fleshy Hy-
menomycetes of Western United
Independence for Ghana
OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL American con-
gratulations are to be offered to the citizens
of the African Gold Coast today on the attain-
ment of independence from British colonial
Ghana, as the new nation will be called, has
experienced a long struggle toward indepen-
dence since 1844 when it was first proclaimed a
People of the country have worked to over-
come the obstacles of illiteracy and economic
backwardness which would hinder their at-
tempts to build a strong, democratic state. Mass
education techniques have been put into prac-
tice and a swing toward literacy has been
RICHARD SNYDER, Editor
RICHARD HALLORANALEE MARKS
Editorial Director City Editor
Furthermore, the rich deposits of gold and
bauxite, and the abundant tropical forests of
mahogany are being used to form a strong
economic base for the nation.
GHANA PRIME MINISTER Kwame Nkhumah
has expressed his determination that the
new nation will follow "a democratic way of
life" in its internal government, modeled after
the British system and externally in its policies
toward the United States and Russia.
The United States and the free world should.
work to increase this new nation's friendship.
Positive action has already been taken by the
United States in offers of technical aid, the
ceremonial act of raising the American con-
sulate to embassy status and the good will tour
of Vice President Richard M. Nixon. The U.S.
must follow through on this first step toward
retaining the friendship of the African nation.
Africa today is a continent of tremendous
potential in mineral deposits and natural re-
sources and a source of one of the largest
stores of unrealized labor potential in the world.
It is also an area of racial tension and unrest,
all of which make for a future testing ground
Gold Coast Ends British Colonial Era
(Editor's Note: The following ar-
ticle was written by a citizen of
Ghana now studying at the Univer-
sity under the sponsorship of his
By K. 0. A. MENSAH
EXACTLY 113 years ago Britain
signed a bond with the chief of
the Gold Coast to trade with and
protect the coutnry; exactly 13
years ago a celebration was given
in commemoration of this bond-
thiscelebration although con-
ducted amid joy, served as one of
the biggest sources of inspiration
for the political leaders of the
Gold Coast; and today-the 6th of
March, 1957-we bring before the
whole world what we reap from
the seeds our political leaders
sowed some years back-Indepen-
This independence brings with it
several changes. A new constitu-
tion which was passed by the Gold
Coast Government-which I must
say consists of Gold Coasters only;
a status as a member of the family
of nations; great responsibility to
the whole world and a change of
the name Gold Coast to Ghana.
ALMOST everybody knows or
has an idea what the responsibili-
ties of a nation are to other na-
tions, but the change of name, I
must say, very few people know
about so I quote here from our
Prime Minister, Dr. Kwame Nkru-
mah to tell about this name
"The name Ghana is rooted
deeply in ancient African history,
and from the Southern fringes of
the Sahara Desert in the North to
the Bights of Benin and Biafra in
Thus the Ghana Empire was
known to have covered what is
now the greater part of West Af-
rica-namely, from Nigeria in the
East to Senegambia in the West.
While it existed, the Ghana Em-
pire carried on extensive commer-
cial relations with the outside
world, extending as far as Spain
It is reported that Egyptians,
Europeans and Asiatic students at-
tended the great and famous uni-
versities and other institutions of
higher learning that-flourished in
Ghana during the medieval period
tolrn irlnhilosinnv. mathmics.'
NOT ONLY does the indepen-
dence bring with it various chan-
ges, but also joy, anxiety. These
two we do share with all the world
(needless to say that the United
States probably shares a greater
part since it is about the only
country that has really grown to
understand what freedom means).
We, of Ghana do rejoice with
some pride in our hearts and it is
a pride we will always cherish. We
are proud in being the first African
nation to come out of British
Colonialism to an independent
status and we are also proud that
this independence, although it in-
volved years of waiting, was
achieved with a remarkable peace-
Ghana, I am sure, today be-