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January 11, 1957 - Image 5

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Michigan Daily, 1957-01-11

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INUARY 11, 1957

THE MICBIGAN DAILY

:aAR 11,- 1957 T.lE MTC .1 lGAN ILfLy

PAGE FrIVl

.

'ext

of 'State

of

the

Union'

Message

to

Congress

Following is the text of Presi-
nt, Eisenhower's State of the'
ion message to Congress today:
Io the Congress of the. United
ates:
[ appear before the Congress to-
y to report on the State of the
lion and the relationships of
e Union to the other nations of
e world. I come here, firmly
evinced that at no time in the
tory of the republic have cir-
mstances more emphatically un-s
rscored the need, in all echelons!
.government, for vision and
sdom and resolution.
You meet in a season of stress
at is testing the fitness of polit-,
,l systems and the validity of
litical systems and the validity
political philosophies. Each
ess- stems in part from causes
culiar to itself. But every stressa
a reflection of a universal phe-;
menon.-
:n the world today, the surging
d 'understandable tide of na-.
nalism is marked by wide-
'ead revulsion and revolt against
anny, injustice, inequality and
verty. As individuals, joined inE
common hunger for freedom,
n and women and even children
their spirit against guns andI
iks. On a larger scale, in an.
n more persistent search forI
self-respect of authentic sov-
4gnty and the economic base
which national independencet
ist rest, peoples sever old ties;E
k new .alliances; experiment-.
netimes dangerously - in theirt
iggle to satisfy these human
irations.

in any realistic appraisal, even the
optimistic analyst will realize that
in a prosperous period the princi-
pal threat to efficient functioning
of a free enterprise system is in-
flation. We look back on four years
of prosperous, activities during
which prices, the .cost of living,
have been relatively stable-that
is, inflation has been held in check.
But it is clear that the danger is
always present, particularly if the
government might become profli-
gate in its'expenditures or private
groups might ignore all the pos-
sible results on our economy of un-
wise struggles for immediate gain.
Live Within Means
This- danger requires a firm res-
olution - that the federal govern-
ment shall utilize only a prudent,
share of the nation's resources,
that it shall live within its means,
carefully measuring against -need
alternative proposals for expendi-
tures.
Through the next four years, I
shall continue to insist that the
executive departments and agen-
cies of government search out ad-
ditional ways to save money and
manpower. I urge that the Con-
gress be equally watchful in this
matter.
We pledge the government's
share in guarding the integrity of.
the dollar. But the government's
efforts cannot be the entire cam-
paign against inflation, the thief,
that can rob the individual of the
value of the pension and Social
Security he has earned during his
productive' life. For success, gov-
ernment's efforts must be parall-
eled by the ,attitudes and actions
of individual citizens.
I have often spoken. -of the pur-
pose of this administration to
serve the national interest of 170
million people. The national inter-
est-must take precedence over tem-
porary, advantages which may be
secured by particular groups at
the expense of all the.people.
Asks Responsibility

the well-being of farm families de-
mands that we constantly search
for new ways by which they can
share more fully in our unprece-
dented prosperity. Legislative rec-
ommendations, in the field of agri-
culture are contained in the budg-
et message.
Natural Resources
Our soil, water, mineral, forest,
fish and wildlife resources are
being conserved and improved
more effectively. Their conserva-
tion and development are vital to
the present and future strength of
the nation. But they must not be
the concern of the federal. gov-
ernment alone. State and local, en-
tities and private en t e r p r i s e
should be encouraged 'to partici-
pate in such projects.
I would 'like' to make special,

1) Creation of a bipartisan com-
mission to investigate asserted vi-
olations of civil rights and to make
recommendations;
2) Creation of a civil rights di-
vision in the Department of Jus-
tice in charge of an assistant at-
torney general;
3) Enactment by the Congress
of new laws to aid in the enforce-
ment of voting rights; and
4) Amendment of the laws so
as to permit the federal govern-
ment to seek from the civil courts
preventive relief in civil rights
cases.
I urge that the Congress enact
this legislation.
Essential to the stable economic
growth we seek is a systenr of well-
adapted and efficient financial in-
stitutions. I believe the time has
come to conduct a broad national

mention of programs for making inquiry into the nature, perform-
the best uses of water, rapidly be- ance and adequacy of our financial
coming our most precious natural system, both in terms"of its direct
resource, just as it can be, when service to the whole economy and
neglected, a destroyer of tboth life in terms of its. function as the
and wealth. There has been pre- mechanism through which mone--
pared and published a compre- tary and'credit, policy takes effect.
hensiv water report developed by I believe, the Congress should "au-
a cabinet committee and relating thorize the creation of a commis-
to all phases of this particular sion of able and qualified citizens
problem. to undertake this vital inquiry.
In the light of this report, there Out of ,their findings and recom-
are two things I believe we should mendations the Administration
keep constantly inmind. The first would develop and present to the
is that each of our great river Congress any legislative proposals
valleys should be considered as a that might be indicated for the
whole. Piecemeal operations with- purpose of improving our financial
in each lesser drainage area can m'achinery.
be self-defeating or, at the very
least, needlessly expensive. The Domestic Affairs -
second is that the domestic -and In this-message it seems unnec-
industrial demands for water grow cessary that I should repeat- rec-
far more rapidly than does our ommendations involving our do-
population. mestic affairs that have been
The whole matter of making the urged upon the Congress during
best use of each drop 'of water the past four -years, but which in
from. the moment it touches our some instances, did not reach the
soil until it reaches the .oceans, stage of completely satisfactory
for such purposes as irrigation, legislation. <
flood. control, power production,- The Administration will, through
and domestic and Industrial,; uses future messages either directly
clearly demands the closest kind of from me or. from heads of the de-
co-operation and partnership be- partments and agencies, transmit
tween municipalities, states and to the Congress recommendations
the federal government. Through involving, our financial and fiscal
partnership of federal, state and affairs, our military and civil de-
local authorities in these vast fenses; the administration of jus-
projects we can obtain the econ- tice; our agricultural economy;
omy and efficiency of development our domestic and foreign com-
and operation that springs from merce; the urgently needed in-
a lively sense of loc~a re nmiiil_ ,._-." A

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Thought 'Changing.
Particularly in the past year
this tide- has changed the patterr
of attitudes and thinking among
millions. The changes already ac-
pomplished foreshadow a world
traisformed by the spirit of free-
dom. This is no faint and pious
hop. 'The forces now, at work in
the' minds- and hearts of men will
t -be- spent through many years
ii th main, tQday's expressions of
nationalism are, in spirit, echoes
9f our forefathers' struggle for
independence.
y This republic cannot be aloof
to these events heralding a new
epoch in the affairs of mankind,
Our pledged word, our enlight-
ered self-interest, our character
as a-nation commit us to a high
role in world affairs; a role of vig-
- orous leadership, ready strength,
sympathetic understanding.
,' The State of the Union, at the
opening of the 85th Congress, con-
tinues to vindicate the wisdom of
the principles on which this re-
public is founded. Proclaimed in
the Constitution of the nation and
in many of our historic documents,
and founded- in devout religious
qonvictions, these principles enun-
ciate;
A vigilant regard for human lib,
A wise concern for' human wel-
#re.
' A ceaseless effort for human
progress.
Win. New Friends
Fidelity to these principles, in
our relations with other peoples,
has won us new friendships and
has increased our opportunity for
service within the family of nal
tions. The, appeal of these princi-.
,Les is universal, lighting fires in
the souls of men everywhere. We
shall continue to uphold them,
against those who deny them and
in counselling with our friends.
At home, the application of
these principles to the complex
problems of our national life has
brought us to an unprecedented
peak in our economic prosperity
and has exemplified in our way of
1I the enduring human values of
mind and spirit.
Through the past four years
these principles have guided the
'legislative programs submitted by
eihe administration to the Con-
gress. As we attempt to apply them
to. current events, domestic and
foreign, we must take into account
the complex 'entity that is the
United States of America; what
endangers it; what can improve it.
J.S. Economy
The visible structure is our
American economy itself. After
liore-than a century and a half of
constant expansion, it is still rich
in a 'wide variety of natural re-
sources. It is first among nations
in its people's mastery of indus-
trial skills. It is productive beyond
S6r own needs of many foodstuffs
and industrial products. It is re-
garding to all our citizens in op-
portunity to earn and to advance
In- self-realization and in self-ex-
pression. It is fortunate in its-
wealth of educational and cultur-
al and religious centers. It is vig-
arously dynamic in the limitless
initiative and willingness to ven-
ture that characterize free enter-
pihse. It is productive of a widely
shared prosperity.
vOur economy is strong, expand-
ing and fundamentally sound. But

In' this regard Iurge leaders in
business and in labor to think well
on. their responsibility to the
American people. With'all elements
of our. society, they owe the na-
tion a vigilant guard against, the
inflationary tendencies that are
always at work in a dynamic econ-
omy operating at today's high
levels. They can powerfully help
counter act or accentuate such
tendencies by their -wage and price
policies.
Business in Its pricing policies
should avoid unnecessary price
increases especially at a time like
the present when demand in so
many areas presses hard on short
supplies. A reasonable profit is es-
sential to the new investments
that provide, more jobs in an ex-
panding economy. But business
leaders must, in the national in-
terest,. studiously avoid those price
rises that are possible only because
of vital or unusual needs of the
whole nation.
If our economy is to remain
healthy, increases in- wages and
other labor benefits negotiated
by labor and management must
be reasonably related to improve-.
ments in productivity. Such in-
creases are beneficial,' for they.
provide wage earners with great-,
er purchasing power. Except where
necessary to correct obvious in-
justices, wage increases that out-
run productivity, however, are an
inflationary factor. They make for
, higher prices for the public gen.
erally and ..impose- a particular.
hardship on those whose welfare
depends, on the purchasing power
of retirement income and savings..
Wage negotiations (should also
take cognizance of the right of-the
public generally to share in the
benefits of improvements in tech-'
-nology.
Freedom has been defined as
the opportunity for self-discipline.
This definition has a special ap-
plication to the areas of' wage and
price policy in a free economy.
Should we persistently fail to dis-
cipline ourselves, eventually there
will be increasing pressure on gov-;
ernment to redress the failure. By1
that process freedom will step by
step disappear. No subject on the
domestic scene should more, at-,
tract the concern of the friends of
American working men and womena
and of free business enterprise
than the forces that threaten a
steady depreciation of the valueE
of our money.
Agriculture Sector
Concerning developments in an-
other vital sector of our economy
--agriculture-I am gratified that
the long slide in farm income has
been halted and that further im-
provement is. in prospect. This is
heartening progress. Three tools
that we have developed-improved
surplus disposal, improved price
support laws, and the soil bank-
are working to reduce price-de-
pressing government stocks of
farm products. Our concern for

i

ity..
Until such partnership is es-
tablished on a proper and logical
basis of sharing authority, 're-
sponsibility and costs, our coun-
try will never haveboth the fully
productive use of water that it so
obviously needs and protection,
against disastrous flood.
If we fail in this, all the many
tasks' that need to be done. in
America could be accomplished
only at an excessive cost, by the
growth of a stifling bureaucracy,
and eventually with a dangerous
degree of centralized control over
our national life.
Aid to Schools
In all domestic matters, I believe
that, the people of the United
States will expect of us effective
action to remedy past failure in
meeting critical needs.
High priority should be given
the school construction bill., This
will benefit children of -all races
throughout the country-and chil-
dren of all races need schools now.
A program designed to meet
emergency needs for more class-
rooms should be enacted without
delay. I am hopeful that this pro-
gram can be enacted on its own
merits, uncomplicated by provi-
sions dealing with the complex
problems of integration. I urge the,
people in all sectiqns of the coun-
try, to approach these problems
with calm and reason, with mutual
understanding and good will, and
in the American tradition of deep
respect for the orderly processes. of
law and justice.
Civil Rights Progress
I should say here that we have
much reason to be proud of the
progress our people are making in
mutualsunderstanding - the chief
buttress of human and civil rights.
Steadily we are moving. closer to
the goal of fair and equal treat-
ment of citizens without regard to
race or color. But unhappily much
remains to be done.
Last year the Administration
recommended to the Congress a
four-point program to reinforce
civil rights. That program includ-
ed:

crease in our postal rates; the de-
velopment of our natural re-.
sources;- our labor laws, including
our labor-management relations
legislation, and vital aspects of
the health, education and welfare
'of our people. There will be special
recommendations dealing with
such subjects as atomic energy,
the furtherance of public works,
the continued efforts to eliminate
government competition with the
businesses of tax-payinig citizens.
A number of legislative recom-
mendations will be mentioned,
specifically in my forthcoming
budget message, which will reach
you within the week. That message
will also recommend such sums as
are needed to implement the pro-
posed action-.
Security Threat
The existence of a strongly
armed imperialistic dictatorship-
poses,- a continuing threat to the
free world's and thus to our na-
tion's security and peace; There
are certain truths to be remem-
bered here.
First, America alone and isolat-
ed cannot .assure even its own se-
curity. We must be joined by the
capability and resolution of na-
tions that have proved themselves
dependable defenders of freedom.
Isolation .from them invites war.
Our security is also enhanced by
the immeasurable interest- that
joins us with all peoples who be-
lieve- that peace with justice must
be preserved, 'that wars of aggres-
sion are crimes against humanity.
Another truth is that our survi-
val in today's world requires mod-
ern strength. Our nation has made
great strides in assuring a modern
defense, so armed in new weapons,
so deployed, so equipped, that to-
day our security force is the most
powerful in our peace-time history.
It can punish heavily any enemy
who undertakes to attack us. It is
a major deterrent to war.
New Weapons
By our research and develop-
ment more efficient weapons -
some of amazing capabilities-are
being constantly created. These
vital efforts we shall continue.

Yet we must not delude ourselves
that safety necessarily increases
as expenditures for military re-
search or forces in being go up.
Indeed, beyond a wise and reas-
onable level, whih is always
changing and is under constant
study, money spent on arms may
be money wasted on sterile metal
or inflated costs, thereby weak-
ening the very security and
strength we seek.
National security requires far
more than military power. Eco-
nomic and moral factors play in-
dispensable roles. Any program
that endangers our economy could
defeat us. Any weakening of our
national will and resolution, any
diminution of the vigor and in-
itiative of our individual citizens,
would strike a blow at the heart
of our defenses.
The finest military establish-
ment we can produce must work
closely in co-operation with -the
forces of our friends. Our sys-
tem of regional pacts, developed
within the charter of the United
Nations, serves to increase both
our own security and the security
of other nations.
Alliances Strong
This system is still a recent in-
troduction on the world scene. Its
problems are many and difficult,
because it insists on equality
among its members and brings into
association some nations tradition-
ally divided. Repeatedly in recent
months, the collapse of these reg-
ional alliances has been predicted.
The strains upon them have been
at times indeed severe. Despite
these strains our regional alliances
have proved durable and strong,
and dire predictions of their dis-
integration have proved completely
false.
With other free nations, we
should vigorously prosecute meas-
ures that will promote mutual
strength, prosperity and welfare
within the free world. Strength
is essentially a product of eo-
nomnic health andsocial well-be-
ing. Consequently, even as we con-
tinue our programs of military a-
sistance, we must emphasize aid
to our friends in building more
productive economies and in better
satisfying the natural demands of
their people for progress. Thereby
we shall move a long way toward
a peaceful world.
A sound and safeguarded agree-
ment for open skies, unarmed
aerial sentinels, and reduced arm-
ament woud provide a valuable
contribution toward a durable
peace in the years ahead. And we
have been persistent in our effort.
to reach such an agreement. We
are prepared to make further pro-
posals in the United Nations. We
are willing to enter any reliable
agreement which would reverse
the trend toward ever more dev-
astating nuclear weapons; recip-
rocally provide against the poss-
ibility of surprise attack; mutually
control the outer space missilemand
satellite development; and make
feasible a lower, level of arma-
ment 'and armed forces and an
'easier burden of military expendi-
tures. Our continuing niegotiations
in this field are a major part of
our quest for a confident peace
in- this atomic age.
Foreign Trade
This quest requires as well a
constructive attitude among all
the nations of the free world to-
ward expansion of trade and in-
vestment; that can give all of us
opportunity to work'out economic
betterment,
Aji essential st'ep in this field is
the provision of an administrative
agency to insure the orderly and
proper operation of existing ar-
rangements under which multi-
lateral trade is now carried on.
To that end I urge congressional
authorization for United States
membership in the proposed or-

ganization for trade co-operation,
an action which will speed remov-
al of discrimination against our
export trade.
We welcome the efforts of a
number of our European friends
to achieve an integrated commu-
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nity to develop a common market.
We likewise welcome .their co-op-
erative effort in the field of atomic
energy.
To demonstrate once again our
unalterable purpose to make of
the atom a peaceful servant of.
humanity, I shortly shall ask the
Congress to authorize full United
States participation in the inter-
national atomic energy agency.
World events have magnified
both the responsibilities and the
opportunities of the United States
Information Agency. Just as, in
recent months, the voice of com-
munism has become more shaken
and confused, the voice of truth
must be more clearly heard. To
enable our information agency to
cope with these new responsibili-
ties and opportunities, I am ask-
ing the Congress to increase ap-
preciably the appropriations for
this program and -for legislation
establishing a career service for
the agency's overseas foreign ser-
vice officers.
The, recent historic events in
Hungary demand that all free na-
tions share to the exent of their
capabilities in the responsibility
of granting asylum to victims of
Communist persecution. I request
the Congress promptly to enact
legslation to regularize the status
in the United States of I-ungarian
refugees brought here as parolees.
I shall shortly recommend to the
Congress by special message the
changes in our immigration laws
that I deem necessary in the light
of our world responsibilities.
The cost of, peace is something
we must face boldly, fearlessly.-
Beyond money, it involves changes
in attitudes, the renunciation of
old prejudices, even, the sacrifice
of some seeming self-interest.
Only five days ago I expressed
to you the grave concern of your
government over the threat of So-
viet aggression in the Middle East.
I asked for congressional authori-
zation to help counter this threat.
I say again that this matter is of
vital and immediate importance
to " the nation's and the free
world's security and peace. By our
proposed programs in the Middle
East, we hope to assist in estab-
lishing a climate in which con-
structive and long-term solutions
to basic problems of the area may
be sought.
From time to time, there will
be presented to the Congress re-
quests for other legislation in the
broad field of international affairs.
All requests will reflect the stead-
fast purpose of this Administra-
tion to pursue peace, based on jus-
tice. Although in some cases de-
tails will be new, the underlying

purpose and objectives will
main the same.
Free World Unity

All proposals made by the Ad-
ministration in this field are based
on the free world's unity. This
unity may not be immediately ob-.
vious unless we examine link by
link the chain of relationships that
bind us to every area and to every
nation. In spirit the free world
is one because its peoples uphold
the right of independent existence
for all nations. I have already al-
luded to their economic interde-
pendence. But their interdepend-
ence extends also into the field of
security.
First of all, no reasonable man
will question the absolute need
for our American neighbors to be
prosperous and secure. Their se-
curity and prosperity are inex-
tricably bound to our own. And
we are, of course, already joined
with these neighbors by historic
pledges.
Again, no reasonable man will
deny that the freedom and pros-
perity and security of Western
Europe are vital to our own pros-
perity and security. If the insti-
tutions, the skills, the manpower
of, its peoples were to fall under
the domination of an aggressive
imperialism, the violent change
in the, balance of world power
and in the pattern of world com-
merce could not be fully compen-
sated for by any American meas-
ures, military or economic.
But these people, whose eco-
nomic strength is largely depend-
ent on free and uninterrupted
movement of oil from the Middle
East, cannot prosper - indeed,
their economies would be severely
impaired - should that area be
controlled by an enemy and the
movement of oil be subject to its
decisions.
Next, to the eastward, are Asi-
atic and. Far Eastern peoples,
recently returned to independent
control of their own affairs or
now emerging into sovereign
s t a t e h o o d. Their potential
strength -constitutes new assur-
ance for stability and peace in the
world-if they can retain their in-
dependence. Should they lose, free-
dom and be dominated by an \ag-
gressor, the world-wide effects
would imperil the security of the
free world.
In short, the world has so
shrunk that all free nations are
our neighbors. Without co-opera-
tive neighbors, the United States
cannot maintain its own security
and welfai'e, because:
First, America's vital interests

re-I

are world-wide, embracing both
hemispheres and every continent.
Second, we have community of
interest with every nation in the
free world.
Third, interdependence .of inter-
ests requires a decent respect f6r
.the rights and the peace of all
peoples.
These principles motivate our
actions within the United Nations.
There, before all the world, by our
loyalty to them, by our practice
of them, let us strive to set a
standard to which all who seek
justice and who hunger for peace
can rally.'
Conclusion
May we at home, here at the
seat of government, in all the
cities and towns and farmlands of
America, support these principles
in a personal effort of dedication.
Thereby each of us can help es-
tablish a secure world order in
which opportunity for freedom
and justice will be more wide-
spread, and in which the resourc-
es now dissipated, on the arma-
maments of war can be released
for the life and growth of all hu-
manity.
When our forefathers prepared
the immortal document that pro-
claimed our independience, they
asserted that every individual Is
endowed by his Creator with cer-
tain inalienable rights. As we gaze
back through history to that date,
it is clear that our nation has
striven to live up to this declara-
tion, applying it to nations as
well as to individuals.
Today we- proudly assert that
the government of the United
States is still committed to this
concept, both in its -activities at
home and abroad.
The purpose is divine; the im-
plementation is human.
Our country and its govern-
ment have made mistakes -
human mistakes. They have been
of the head - not of the heart.
And it is still true that the great
concept of the dignity of all men,
alike, created in the image of thee
Almighty, has been the compass
by which we have tried and are.
trying to 'steer our course.
So. long as we continue by its
guidance, there will be true prog-
ress in human affairs, both among
ourselves and among those with.
whom, we deal.
To achieve a more perfect fi-
delity to it, I submit, is a worthy
ambition as we meet together in
these first days of this, the first(
session of the 85th Congress.
Dwight D. Eisenhower.i

- Dwight D. Eisenhower ~

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