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October 30, 1956 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1956-10-30

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Stevenson Proper Leader
For The 'New America'
See Page 4

Y

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Latest Deadline in the State

4aitr1y

CLOUDY,

VOL. LVXII, No. 36 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, OCTOBER 30, 1956

SIX PAGES

Russian Army

Troops Backtrack from Budapest

T

4

w

w

*

18

MILES FROM

SUEZ CANAL:

I

A

REBELLION QUIETS:
Strife rContinues
In Rural Areas
VIENNA (A)-The Hungarian army high command announced yes-
terday that Russian troops have begun to withdraw from Budapest..
The battle of Budapest appeared to be ending, but rebellion still
blazed in the countryside.
Young Rebels
Budapest radio carried an announcement by the army command
saying the defiant young rebels in the capital will surrender their arms
by 9 a.m. today as the Russians carry out their evacuation.
This followed earlier word from Premier Imre Nagy's govern-
ment that the rebels had agreed to turn in their arms and the Russians
would leave within 24 hours.
But the high command announcement said Hungarian troops
were already replacing Russian troops in the industrial section of

DISCUSS 'CLEAN' BOMB:
Profesors View H-Bomb Testing

Cobo, Soapy
State Party
Philosophies
DETROIT W-Michigan's two
candidates for governor agreed
yesterday that contrasting political
philosophies will collide a week
from today when Michigan voters
cast their ballots.
Mayor Albert Cobo of Detroit
and Gov. G. Mennen Williams out-
lined their parties' philosophies at
the outset of a week of concen-
trated campaigning for the vast
Wayne County vote.
Cobo described his Republican
concept as one in which the busi-
ness of government is, as he put
it, conducted openly and the people
"know what the next move will
On the other hand, the Demo-
cratic administration of Gov. Will-
iams, he said, "lives and thrives on
criticism and does not want the
cooperation of the Legislature."
Williams operates on the theory,
Cobo added, that "if everybody has
less you can offer more to more
people," Cobo spoke to some 600
persons at a luncheon meeting of
the Economic Club of Detroit.
Williams, in an address prepared
for a Detroit television broadcast
Monday night, described the "two
different approaches to the prob-
lem of government" this way.
"The difference between Alex-
ander Hamilton who wanted rule
by the rich and well-borne be-
cause he didn't trust the people,
and Thomas Jefferson who trusted
the people and wanted them to run
their own government.".
Rackham Hall
Hosts Quartet
Stanley Quartet will appear at
8:30 p.m. tonight at Rackham Lec-
ture Hall.
The concert which is open to the
public will include Beethoven's
Quartet in F major, Quartet No. 7
by Finney and Mozart's Quintet
in A major.
Stanley Quartet is composed of
Gilbert Ross and Emil Raab, vio-
lins; Robert Courte, viola, and
Oliver Edel, cello.
The quartet will also appear in
a series of concerts in Detroit and
will appear at several colleges and
universities.
French Pianist

4southern Budapest and that the
evacuation of that area would be
completed by dawn.
Russian Evacuation
The high command added that
replacement of Soviet troops by
Hungarians and "unmolested with-
drawal from Budapest" of the
Russians were conditions for addi-
tional evacuation of Russian forces.
"Withdrawal of Soviet troops
will be continued throughout to-
Smorrow in agreement with the
pact' with the rebels," the high
command declared.
Revolutionaries in control of the
countryside urged that the rebels
disregard the agreement in Buda-
pest.
Loyd Comments
In London, Foreign Secretary
Selwyn Lloyd told Parliament the
Russians were pouring more troops
into Hungary.
Western diplomats in London
received reports of severe fighting
in Budapest at noon Monday, with
Soviet attacking. rebel-held bar-
racks with tanks and self-propelled
artillery.
Soviet Foreign Minister Dmitri
Shepilov announced in Moscow
that no Russian troops would leave
Budapest until rebel arms were
surrendered.
Marshall Georgi Zhukov, the
Soviet defense minister, said with-
drawal of troops from all of Hung-
ary could be decided upon only by
common agreement of all Warsaw
Pact members.

By PETER ECKSTEIN
EDITOR'S NOTE: This article, the
second in a series of faculty com-
ments on current election issues,
discusses the proposal to end testing
of hydrogen bombs.)
There is some agreement among
faculty members questioned on
the arguments advanced for and
against proposals to end hydro-
gen bomb tests.
The suggestion by Adlai Steven-
son meets mixed degrees of favor
from the standpoints of foreign
policy and health, though profes-
sors take both sides in discussing
its effect on national defense.
President Dwight D. Eisenhow-
er has said an end to hydrogen
tests would jeopardize the Ameri-
can lead in hydrogen weapons de-
velopment, while Stevenson has
said both sides' ability to destroy
the other have made further tests
unnecessary.
"Clean" Weapons
One Administration contention
has been that anticipated break-
throughs in the development of
"clean" hydrogen bombs - of less
danger to civilian populations and
more suitable for use in military
action - might be prevented by
discontinuation of the tests.
Prof. Henry Gomberg of the
nuclear engineering department,
assistant director of the Phoenix
atomic energy project, explained
that the radioactive fallout can
be restricted by exploding a hy-
drogen (or fusion) bomb away
from the ground where it would
Scroll Takes
Six Members
Traditional strains of "Out of
the night comes the sound of
voices" were heard in sorority
houses all over campus last night
as Scroll honorary society tapped
six new members.
Chosen for the affiliated senior
women's honorary on the basis of
leadership and scholarship were
Alicia Tarrant, Nancy Blumberg
Meredith Hardy, Betty Doman, Jan
Winklehaus, and Jan McAsee.

otherwise pick up and radiate dust Stevenson suggested such dis-
particles. tant detection methods as a sub-
Of itself, he added, a hydrogen
reactonf,"adoenotyproduenthstitution for internal inspection,
fissionproductsowhichdare the which the Administration insists
fisson roduts hicharetheis essential.
major source of radioactivity," al-
though it$ atomic (or fission) Both Sides
bomb detonator may cause some. Prof. Efimenco added that what
If there is no contact with the bans on weapons a nuclear agree-
ground, the main effects of a fu- ment might impose would be
sion explosion are tremendous equally detrimental to the nuclear
heat and a pressure wave, but development of both sides,
relatively little radioactivity. Another breakthrough the Ad-
"Whether we have developed ministration anticipates would be
'clean bombs' to the point where prevented by a moratorium on
the military people are satisfied, I tests would be in the field of de-
just wouldn't know. But if you fenses against the bomb.
want to know whether you have Without suggesting along what
developed a particular type of new lines a defense against nuclear
bomb, you have to test it." warfare might be developed, Prof.
Prof. N. Marbury Efimenco of Gomberg said it was "not unreas-
the political science department onable" to want to test defenses
commented that a ban on nuclear under "simulated conditions."
weapons would necessarily be con- T
fined to those that spread radio- The effects of nuclear tests on
active particles, the only ones the health and genetic makeup
which could be adequately de- of the world have also been de-
tected by air sampling. See EFFECTS, Page 6
World News Roundup
Wyszynski Out . .
WARSAW,, Poland W)-Hundreds of Roman Catholics gave a
cheering and singing welcome to Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski yesterday
in his first public appearance since his release from three years of
house arrest.
The crowd finally hushed after the 55-year-old primate of Poland
stepped out on the balcony above the main entrance to his palace and
told them:
"I thank you for your prayers. Now, when we are sure that we
have won, let us work for peace in our country because peace is
the guarantee of our freedom."
Adtai Middle East Comment...
BOSTON (P)-Adlai Stevenson said yesterday the developments
in the Israeli-Egyptian conflict show that President Dwight D.
Eisenhower's reports of "good news" from the area "have been
tragically less than the truth."
In a speech in Mechanics Hall, Stevenson said it was hard
"to speak about today's ominous and confusing developments in the
Middle East."
"The government in Washington has been telling us that all is
well in the world, that there is peace, that there is-as the President
announced only a few days ago-'good news' from the Middle East."

Arms ...
Crowds of men estimated by
observers to be between 35 and
250, dressed as Arabs with tow-
els around their heads and at-
tired in bathrobes visited fra-
ternity houses in the Wash-
tenaw- Hill Street area last
night.
A group of about 35 men
would walk into abhouse, it was
reported, shouting "We want
recruits" and "Guns for thej
Arabs," and in many cases 50
men would walk out.
When the number reached
maximum, Assistant Dean of
Men Bill Cross and University
Officer Harold Swoverland ar-
rived to disperse the crowd.
Dean of Men Walter B. Rea
arrived on the scene shortly
after the crowd had dispersed.
He called the event an "ill-
conceived type of idea" and
compared it to a "panty raid."

Israeli Raid
Strategically
Senseless'
Faculty Members
Comment on Attack
By MARY ANN THOMAS
Daily Feature Editor
Actual seriousness of Israel's in-
vasion of Egypt depends upon
whether Israeli intentions are oc-
cupation of the land or merely
punishment for border raids, two
University faculty members agreed
yesterday.
. "Whether this action can be de-
fined as aggression is a good ques-
tion," Richard Mitchell of the his-
tory department observed, "but
Israeli officials report that they
have attacked and 'occupied' Egyp-
tian territory."
Prof. N. Marbury Efimenco of
the political sciencedepartment
pointed out that Israel's action
"doesn't make sense strategically.
Amazement and Surprise
Both men expressed amazement
and surprise at the invasion. The
question of Israel's motives behind
the attack is a major considera-
tion.
Mitchell surmised that the attack
resulted from a decision to break
the stalemate along the frontiers,
but "the big surprise is that the
invasion is directed against Egypt."
He doubted that it was an at-
tempt to occupy the Suez but pos-
tulated that Israel might wish to
control the Sinai Peninsula or to
outflank Egyptian troops up on
the Gaza Strip.
"But it will be a terrific strain
to occupy this barren land," he
commented, "but I can't see how
Israel hopes to do this by occupy-
ing the Suez."
Terming the invasion "serious
business," Prof. Elimenco said it
indicates that this is a case of
turning the balance of power in
the Middle East.
9 Timing
The attack was timed, he ob-
served ,"to take advantage of the
present split between Iraq and
Egypt, unrest in Jordan, Egypt's
preoccupation over the Suez and
the United States' preoccupation
with its national elections."
Prof. Efimenco added that with
the American elections so near, the
United States is in a "very em-
barrassing" position. "Israel could
claim that this was only a probing
or punitive move and thus save

Security Council
Convenes Today
Ike Declares U.S. Will Stand Behind
Pledge To Aid Aggression Victims
JERUSALEM (P)-Israeli forces yesterday made a big lunge across
Egypt's Sinai Desert and today were reported advancing only 18
miles short of the Suez Canal.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower said yesterday he is taking
to the United Nations this morning the Israeli military penetration
into Egypt.
Convene Congress?
At the same time, in a statement issued after an extraordinary
night conference at the White House, President Eisenhower said the
question of whether or not to call a special session of Congress "will be
decided in the light of the unfolding situation."
President Eisenhower said "we shall honor our pledge" to assis
the victim of any aggression in the Middle East.
This pledge is contained in the U.S.-British-French declaration
of May 25, 195U.
Restrictions
It was learned that the United States is considering asking the
council to vote severe economic and diplomatic restrictions agains
Israel, provided for in Chapter 7 of the U.N. Charter.
The Navy reported yesterday its powerful 6th Fleet is oper-
ating in the eastern Mediterranean, within attack plane range of
the Israeli-Egypt border.
No Clash Yet
All available indications were that no armed clash had occurred
yet between Israel and Egypt in the barren peninsula.
Egyptian army headquarters in Cairo, apparently stunned by the
audacity of the blow, acknowledged that Egypt had been invaded.
Cairo's big U.S.-built international airport was closed suddenly
to commercial planes. It can handle the jet planes of Egypt's air force.
Citizens Stranded
U.S. women and children, trying to flee ahead of a major war
scare, were stranded by the airport closedown yesterday morning.
The scare spread around the world.
Cairo's government-backed newspaper Al Gumhurriya banneredt
"Israel Begins War." Other Cairo newspapers carried similar head-
lines.
Both Al Gumhurriya and army headquarters insisted the Is-
raelis struck at a relatively unimportant point.
No Troops There
The newspaper said no Egyptian troops were stationed there. The
army said the point "is a barren desert region where there is only
one frontier check post."
Hurried high level conferences were called in Washington,
London and Paris.
Britain early today was reported ready to force Israeli troops out
of Egypt if their thrust is proved to be an all-out invasion designed
to seize some of Egypt's territory.
24 Hour Mobilization '
An authoritative government source said the Eden government
is in a position to strike at Israel, or any aggressor in the Middle
East, within 24 hours with air, land and sea forces now assembled in
the eastern Mediterranean.
In other developments, ambassadors of Israel and Egypt called
at the State Department to talk separately with U.S. officials.
Ambassador Abba Eban of Israel said he did not know of the
reported Israeli drive until after he ended his conference with an
assistant secretary.
Little Acknowledged
Egyptian Ambassador Ahmed Hussein, who was given a report
on what was known here, said he had received no official word from
his government.
Ambassadors Ali Amini of Iran, Haydar Gork of Turkey, and Iraq
Counselor Hashim Khalil called on Dulles with Ambassador Ali of
Pakistan.
These four countries are signatories, with Britain, of the Baghdad
Pact, which was devised as an anti-Communist grouping of nations
along Russia's southern border in the Middle East.
George Comments
George, talking to reporters at the Capitol, was asked what Con-
gress could do, if the President called it back into session, and replied:
"I do not know precisely, but if the United Nations found an ag-
gression and called on us for an action, some kind would have to be
taken.
Whether this would be some severe sanctions or military action
I would not hazard a guess."
Arabs Ready
In Damascus, Syrian Defense Minister Abdul Rasid Raslan said
Egypt, Jordan and Syria had taken all necessary measures to meet
any emergency arising from Israel's mobilization.
He talked to newsmen before reports arrived of the Israeli attack.
Jordan army headquarters in Amman said the frontier with Is-

PROGRAM LARGEST IN COUNTRY:
Reactor To Aid Nuclear Study

By VERNON NAHRGANG
University's growing Nuclear Engineering program will gain added
laboratory and research facilities when the Ford Nuclear Reactor is
dedicated Nov. 16.
The reactor, according to Prof. Henry J. Gomberg, assistant di-
rector of the Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project, will be available
for use by the 73 students enrolled in the program.
Although the Nuclear Engineering program began only three years
ago, with four students enrolled in 1953, it has since grown to assume
the distinction of being the largest program of its kind in a University
in this country,
Phoenix Project o
"There is no doubt," Prof. Gomberg explained, "that the existence
and development of the program was stimulated to an important de-
gree by the Phoenix Project, which has given the necessary incentive
as well as the facilities."
The program, he explained, is separate from the Phoenix Project,
and is allowed to use the reactor through the courtesy of the project.
Slightly more than one-third of the program's membership is
made up of foreign students, young men who plan to start and de-
velop similar programs or projects in their own countries.
"There is a tremendous amount of material," Prof. Gomberg said,
"quite important, quite practical, that is no longer classified. We teach
only material in the unclassified area, both for United States and
foreign students.
"There are certain government research projects on campus," he

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